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Source
Harv Bus Rev. 2003 Feb;81(2):80-7, 125
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2003
Author
Sydney Rosen
Jonathon Simon
Jeffrey R Vincent
William MacLeod
Matthew Fox
Donald M Thea
Author Affiliation
Boston University School of Public Health's Center for International Health, USA.
Source
Harv Bus Rev. 2003 Feb;81(2):80-7, 125
Date
Feb-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome - economics - epidemiology - prevention & control
Adult
Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active - economics
Botswana - epidemiology
Commerce - economics
Cost Savings
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Developing Countries - economics
Employer Health Costs
Employment
HIV Infections - drug therapy - economics - epidemiology
Humans
Internationality
Investments - economics
Middle Aged
Occupational Health Services - economics
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
South Africa - epidemiology
Abstract
If your company operates in a developing country, AIDS is your business. While Africa has received the most attention, AIDS is also spreading swiftly in other parts of the world. Russia and Ukraine had the fastest-growing epidemics last year, and many experts believe China and India will suffer the next tidal wave of infection. Why should executives be concerned about AIDS? Because it is destroying the twin rationales of globalization strategy-cheap labor and fast-growing markets--in countries where people are heavily affected by the epidemic. Fortunately, investments in programs that prevent infection and provide treatment for employees who have HIV/AIDS are profitable for many businesses--that is, they lead to savings that outweigh the programs' costs. Due to the long latency period between HIV infection and the onset of AIDS symptoms, a company is not likely to see any of the costs of HIV/AIDS until five to ten years after an employee is infected. But executives can calculate the present value of epidemic-related costs by using the discount rate to weigh each cost according to its expected timing. That allows companies to think about expenses on HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment programs as investments rather than merely as costs. The authors found that the annual cost of AIDS to six corporations in South Africa and Botswana ranged from 0.4% to 5.9% of the wage bill. All six companies would have earned positive returns on their investments if they had provided employees with free treatment for HIV/AIDS in the form of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), according to the mathematical model the authors used. The annual reduction in the AIDS "tax" would have been as much as 40.4%. The authors' conclusion? Fighting AIDS not only helps those infected; it also makes good business sense.
PubMed ID
12577655 View in PubMed
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The average cost of measles cases and adverse events following vaccination in industrialised countries.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature188487
Source
BMC Public Health. 2002 Sep 19;2:22
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-19-2002
Author
Hélène Carabin
W John Edmunds
Ulla Kou
Susan van den Hof
Van Hung Nguyen
Author Affiliation
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College Faculty of Medicine, London, UK. helene-carabin@ouhsc.edu
Source
BMC Public Health. 2002 Sep 19;2:22
Date
Sep-19-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada - epidemiology
Cost of Illness
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Decision Trees
Developed Countries - economics
Great Britain - epidemiology
Health Care Costs - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Immunization Programs - economics
Mass Vaccination - adverse effects - economics
Measles - economics - epidemiology - prevention & control
Measles Vaccine - adverse effects - economics
Models, Econometric
Netherlands - epidemiology
Abstract
Even though the annual incidence rate of measles has dramatically decreased in industrialised countries since the implementation of universal immunisation programmes, cases continue to occur in countries where endemic measles transmission has been interrupted and in countries where adequate levels of immunisation coverage have not been maintained. The objective of this study is to develop a model to estimate the average cost per measles case and per adverse event following measles immunisation using the Netherlands (NL), the United Kingdom (UK) and Canada as examples.
Parameter estimates were based on a review of the published literature. A decision tree was built to represent the complications associated with measles cases and adverse events following immunisation. Monte-Carlo Simulation techniques were used to account for uncertainty.
From the perspective of society, we estimated the average cost per measles case to be US$276, US$307 and US$254 for the NL, the UK and Canada, respectively, and the average cost of adverse events following immunisation per vaccinee to be US$1.43, US$1.93 and US$1.51 for the NL, UK and Canada, respectively.
These average cost estimates could be combined with incidence estimates and costs of immunisation programmes to provide estimates of the cost of measles to industrialised countries. Such estimates could be used as a basis to estimate the potential economic gains of global measles eradication.
Notes
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PubMed ID
12241559 View in PubMed
Less detail

The changing contribution of smoking to educational differences in life expectancy: indirect estimates for Finnish men and women from 1971 to 2010.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature118497
Source
J Epidemiol Community Health. 2013 Mar;67(3):219-24
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2013
Author
Pekka Martikainen
Jessica Y Ho
Samuel Preston
Irma T Elo
Author Affiliation
Population Research Unit, Department of Social Research University of Helsinki, PO Box 18, Helsinki FIN-00014, Finland. pekka.martikainen@helsinki.fi
Source
J Epidemiol Community Health. 2013 Mar;67(3):219-24
Date
Mar-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Developed Countries - economics
Developing Countries - economics
Educational Status
Female
Finland
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Life expectancy
Male
Middle Aged
Mortality - trends
Prevalence
Sex Distribution
Smoking - epidemiology - mortality
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
We estimated the contribution of smoking to educational differences in mortality and life expectancy between 1971 and 2010 in Finland.
Eight prospective datasets with baseline in 1970, 1975, 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995, 2000 and 2005 and each linked to a 5-year mortality follow-up were used. We calculated life expectancy at age 50 years with and without smoking-attributable mortality by education and gender. Estimates of smoking-attributable mortality were based on an indirect method that used lung cancer mortality as a proxy for the impact of smoking on mortality from all other causes.
Smoking-attributable deaths constituted about 27% of all male deaths above age 50 years in the early 1970s and 17% in the period 2006-2010; these figures were 1% and 4% among women, respectively. The life expectancy differential between men with basic versus high education increased from 3.4 to 4.7 years between 1971-1975 and 2006-2010. In the absence of smoking, these differences would have been 1.5 and 3.4 years, 1.9 years (55%) and 1.3 years (29%) less than those observed. Among women, educational differentials in life expectancy between the most and least educated increased from 2.5 to 3.0 years. This widening was nearly entirely accounted for by the increasing impact of smoking. Among women the contribution of smoking to educational differences had increased from being negligible in 1971-1975 to 16% in 2006-2010.
Among men, the increase in educational differences in mortality in the past decades was driven by factors other than smoking. However, smoking continues to have a major influence on educational differences in mortality among men and its contribution is increasing among women.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23201620 View in PubMed
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Comparison of Site of Death, Health Care Utilization, and Hospital Expenditures for Patients Dying With Cancer in 7 Developed Countries.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature269713
Source
JAMA. 2016 Jan 19;315(3):272-83
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-19-2016
Author
Justin E Bekelman
Scott D Halpern
Carl Rudolf Blankart
Julie P Bynum
Joachim Cohen
Robert Fowler
Stein Kaasa
Lukas Kwietniewski
Hans Olav Melberg
Bregje Onwuteaka-Philipsen
Mariska Oosterveld-Vlug
Andrew Pring
Jonas Schreyögg
Connie M Ulrich
Julia Verne
Hannah Wunsch
Ezekiel J Emanuel
Source
JAMA. 2016 Jan 19;315(3):272-83
Date
Jan-19-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Distribution
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Attitude to Death
Belgium
Canada
Developed Countries - economics - statistics & numerical data
Emergency Service, Hospital - economics - utilization
England
Female
Germany - epidemiology
Health Care Costs
Hospital Charges
Hospital Mortality
Hospitalization - economics - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Intensive Care Units - economics - utilization
Lung Neoplasms - economics - mortality - nursing
Male
Neoplasms - drug therapy - economics - mortality - nursing
Netherlands
Norway
Patient Preference
Retrospective Studies
Sex Distribution
Terminal Care - economics - utilization
Time Factors
United States - epidemiology
Abstract
Differences in utilization and costs of end-of-life care among developed countries are of considerable policy interest.
To compare site of death, health care utilization, and hospital expenditures in 7 countries: Belgium, Canada, England, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, and the United States.
Retrospective cohort study using administrative and registry data from 2010. Participants were decedents older than 65 years who died with cancer. Secondary analyses included decedents of any age, decedents older than 65 years with lung cancer, and decedents older than 65 years in the United States and Germany from 2012.
Deaths in acute care hospitals, 3 inpatient measures (hospitalizations in acute care hospitals, admissions to intensive care units, and emergency department visits), 1 outpatient measure (chemotherapy episodes), and hospital expenditures paid by insurers (commercial or governmental) during the 180-day and 30-day periods before death. Expenditures were derived from country-specific methods for costing inpatient services.
The United States (cohort of decedents aged >65 years, N?=?211,816) and the Netherlands (N?=?7216) had the lowest proportion of decedents die in acute care hospitals (22.2.% and 29.4%, respectively). A higher proportion of decedents died in acute care hospitals in Belgium (N?=?21,054; 51.2%), Canada (N?=?20,818; 52.1%), England (N?=?97,099; 41.7%), Germany (N?=?24,434; 38.3%), and Norway (N?=?6636; 44.7%). In the last 180 days of life, 40.3% of US decedents had an intensive care unit admission compared with less than 18% in other reporting nations. In the last 180 days of life, mean per capita hospital expenditures were higher in Canada (US $21,840), Norway (US $19,783), and the United States (US $18,500), intermediate in Germany (US $16,221) and Belgium (US $15,699), and lower in the Netherlands (US $10,936) and England (US $9342). Secondary analyses showed similar results.
Among patients older than 65 years who died with cancer in 7 developed countries in 2010, end-of-life care was more hospital-centric in Belgium, Canada, England, Germany, and Norway than in the Netherlands or the United States. Hospital expenditures near the end of life were higher in the United States, Norway, and Canada, intermediate in Germany and Belgium, and lower in the Netherlands and England. However, intensive care unit admissions were more than twice as common in the United States as in other countries.
PubMed ID
26784775 View in PubMed
Less detail

The cost of health professionals' brain drain in Kenya.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature81422
Source
BMC Health Serv Res. 2006;6:89
Publication Type
Article
Date
2006
Author
Kirigia Joses Muthuri
Gbary Akpa Raphael
Muthuri Lenity Kainyu
Nyoni Jennifer
Seddoh Anthony
Author Affiliation
World Health Organization, Regional Office for Africa, Brazzaville, Congo. kirigiaj@afro.who.int
Source
BMC Health Serv Res. 2006;6:89
Date
2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Child
Costs and Cost Analysis - statistics & numerical data
Developing Countries - economics
Emigration and Immigration - statistics & numerical data
Europe
Great Britain
Health Manpower - economics - statistics & numerical data
Health Services Research
Humans
Kenya - ethnology
Middle Aged
Models, Econometric
Nurses - economics - supply & distribution
Physicians - economics - supply & distribution
Schools - economics
Schools, Medical - economics
Schools, Nursing - economics
Training Support - economics - statistics & numerical data
United States
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Past attempts to estimate the cost of migration were limited to education costs only and did not include the lost returns from investment. The objectives of this study were: (i) to estimate the financial cost of emigration of Kenyan doctors to the United Kingdom (UK) and the United States of America (USA); (ii) to estimate the financial cost of emigration of nurses to seven OECD countries (Canada, Denmark, Finland, Ireland, Portugal, UK, USA); and (iii) to describe other losses from brain drain. METHODS: The costs of primary, secondary, medical and nursing schools were estimated in 2005. The cost information used in this study was obtained from one non-profit primary and secondary school and one public university in Kenya. The cost estimates represent unsubsidized cost. The loss incurred by Kenya through emigration was obtained by compounding the cost of educating a medical doctor and a nurse over the period between the average age of emigration (30 years) and the age of retirement (62 years) in recipient countries. RESULTS: The total cost of educating a single medical doctor from primary school to university is 65,997 US dollars; and for every doctor who emigrates, a country loses about 517,931 US dollars worth of returns from investment. The total cost of educating one nurse from primary school to college of health sciences is 43,180 US dollars; and for every nurse that emigrates, a country loses about 338,868 US dollars worth of returns from investment. CONCLUSION: Developed countries continue to deprive Kenya of millions of dollars worth of investments embodied in her human resources for health. If the current trend of poaching of scarce human resources for health (and other professionals) from Kenya is not curtailed, the chances of achieving the Millennium Development Goals would remain bleak. Such continued plunder of investments embodied in human resources contributes to further underdevelopment of Kenya and to keeping a majority of her people in the vicious circle of ill-health and poverty. Therefore, both developed and developing countries need to urgently develop and implement strategies for addressing the health human resource crisis.
PubMed ID
16846492 View in PubMed
Less detail

Critical public health ethics and Canada's role in global health.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature170425
Source
Can J Public Health. 2006 Jan-Feb;97(1):32-4
Publication Type
Article
Author
Stephanie A Nixon
Author Affiliation
University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. stephanie.nixon@utoronto.ca
Source
Can J Public Health. 2006 Jan-Feb;97(1):32-4
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Developed Countries
Developing Countries - economics
HIV Infections - prevention & control
Health Policy
Humans
International Cooperation
Public Health - ethics
Social Justice
Social Values
World Health
Abstract
This commentary introduces critical public health ethics as an innovative lens for considering Canada's role in global health. Arising from the relatively young field of public health ethics, this analytic perspective sheds light on questions regarding public health policy, research and practice that often remain shaded from view because of traditional ways of thinking about public health. The advantage of a critical public health ethics lens is illustrated through the example of Canada's role in scaling up access to HIV treatments in developing countries.
PubMed ID
16512324 View in PubMed
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Development assistance for health: donor commitment as a critical success factor.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature128878
Source
Can J Public Health. 2011 Nov-Dec;102(6):421-3
Publication Type
Article
Author
Franklin White
Author Affiliation
Pacific Health & Development Sciences Inc, Halifax, NS. fwhite.pacificsci@shaw.ca
Source
Can J Public Health. 2011 Nov-Dec;102(6):421-3
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Developed Countries - economics - statistics & numerical data
Developing Countries - economics - statistics & numerical data
Financial Support
Humans
International Cooperation
Private Sector - economics
Public Health - economics - statistics & numerical data
Public Sector - economics
Abstract
In 1970, led by Canada, the world's richest nations pledged 0.7% of their gross national income (GNI) to official development assistance (ODA). Although this pledge has been renewed several times, with the exception of only five countries, ODA allocations have lagged chronically behind this commitment. Put more bluntly, our rhetoric outpaces our actions. For example, spending only 0.3% GNI on development, Canada performs at about 40% of its pledge. The good news is that development assistance for health has improved over the past two decades, mostly due to private development assistance (PDA) and favourable shifts within bilateral and multilateral funding, but clearly more must be done to enhance this effort. Actions in support of the Millennium Development Goals and the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness should make a difference, subject to monitoring and evaluation, and Canada's Muskoka Initiative also is a step in the right direction. However, while success in meeting international development and global health goals depends on donor and recipient nations working as partners through such mechanisms, the relevance of the developed world as a force for global health will be measured in part by how well its governments keep their development commitments.
PubMed ID
22164550 View in PubMed
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Economic crises: some thoughts on why, when and where they (might) matter for health--a tale of three countries.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature128308
Source
Soc Sci Med. 2012 Mar;74(5):643-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2012
Author
George A Kaplan
Author Affiliation
Center for Social Epidemiology and Population Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA. gkaplan@umich.edu
Source
Soc Sci Med. 2012 Mar;74(5):643-6
Date
Mar-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Developed Countries - economics
Economic Recession
Educational Status
Great Britain
Health Services Accessibility
Health status
Health Status Disparities
Humans
Income - statistics & numerical data
Residence Characteristics
Sweden
Unemployment - statistics & numerical data
United States
Abstract
Economic crises can have important effects on a wide variety of determinants of individual and population health, and these effects may be played out over the life course. However, social and economic policies have the potential to mitigate at least some of the potential negative health effects of economic crises, and the substantial variation in these policies across countries suggests that the impact of economic crises may vary between countries. We know much less about this than we need to. Only with expanded efforts to provide a true accounting of the health costs of economic crises, and of the ways in which social and economic policies can reduce these costs, can we prepare ourselves to protect population health when the next economic crises happen, which they surely will.
PubMed ID
22209592 View in PubMed
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Establishing haemophilia care in developing countries: using data to overcome the barrier of pessimism.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature198720
Source
Haemophilia. 2000 May;6(3):131-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2000
Author
B L Evatt
L. Robillard
Author Affiliation
Hematologic Diseases Branch, Division of AIDS, STD, and TB Laboratory Research, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
Source
Haemophilia. 2000 May;6(3):131-4
Date
May-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Data Collection
Delivery of Health Care - economics - organization & administration - standards
Developing Countries - economics
Hemophilia A - economics - therapy
Humans
International Agencies
Practice Guidelines as Topic
PubMed ID
10792469 View in PubMed
Less detail

Exploring Variation in Glycemic Control Across and Within Eight High-Income Countries: A Cross-sectional Analysis of 64,666 Children and Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294660
Source
Diabetes Care. 2018 06; 41(6):1180-1187
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
06-2018
Author
Dimitrios Charalampopoulos
Julia M Hermann
Jannet Svensson
Torild Skrivarhaug
David M Maahs
Karin Akesson
Justin T Warner
Reinhard W Holl
Niels H Birkebæk
Ann K Drivvoll
Kellee M Miller
Ann-Marie Svensson
Terence Stephenson
Sabine E Hofer
Siri Fredheim
Siv J Kummernes
Nicole Foster
Lena Hanberger
Rakesh Amin
Birgit Rami-Merhar
Anders Johansen
Knut Dahl-Jørgensen
Mark Clements
Ragnar Hanas
Author Affiliation
UCL Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health, University College London, London, U.K. d.charalampopoulos@ucl.ac.uk.
Source
Diabetes Care. 2018 06; 41(6):1180-1187
Date
06-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adolescent
Austria - epidemiology
Blood Glucose - metabolism
Child
Cross-Sectional Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Developed Countries - economics - statistics & numerical data
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 - blood - economics - epidemiology
England - epidemiology
Female
Germany - epidemiology
Glycated Hemoglobin A - analysis - metabolism
Humans
Income - statistics & numerical data
Male
Minority Groups - statistics & numerical data
Norway - epidemiology
Sweden - epidemiology
Wales - epidemiology
Abstract
International studies on childhood type 1 diabetes (T1D) have focused on whole-country mean HbA1c levels, thereby concealing potential variations within countries. We aimed to explore the variations in HbA1c across and within eight high-income countries to best inform international benchmarking and policy recommendations.
Data were collected between 2013 and 2014 from 64,666 children with T1D who were
Notes
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PubMed ID
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