Physical activity promotes health and prevents disease. When patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) undertake exercise, the itch often gets worse due to sweating, and this may reduce their engagement in physical exercise. The aim of this study was to determine the level of physical exercise in patients with AD compared with a control group from a normal population. Our hypothesis was that patients with AD have a lower level of physical exercise due to their skin disease. A total of 110 patients with AD and 196 subjects from a normal population, age range 20-34 years, answered a questionnaire. Eleven patients with AD underwent an in-depth interview. The patients with AD had the same level of physical exercise and attitude to physical exercise as the normal population. Therefore, our hypothesis could not be confirmed. In conclusion, the skin symptoms of AD do not appear to be an obstacle to moderate physical exercise.
Dental personnel manually handle products that contain monomers. Several studies have documented adverse health effects after exposure to such products. Gloves made of vinyl or latex are easily penetrated by monomers. Ordinary glasses, or visors, do not protect against vapour from polymer products. Dental face masks filter out about 40% of respirable particles. To survey the prevalence of asthma, atopic dermatitis, conjunctivitis, hay fever/rhinitis, and hand eczema among dental personnel, a questionnaire was distributed to all dental teams in Northern Sweden. Referents were researchers, teachers, and secretaries from the same geographical area. The response rate was 76% for dental teams, and 66% for referents. The results show a significantly higher prevalence of conjunctivitis, and atopic dermatitis among dentists, both male and female. Hypersensitivity to dental materials was reported by significantly more dental personnel than by referents.
Although contact allergy among children was previously considered to be rare, data from the past decade have shown that it is common among children and that the prevalence may be increasing.
To describe the demographics of all children referred for patch testing in Denmark during 2003-2011, to examine the frequency and relevance of positive patch test reactions, and to assess the most common allergens.
A retrospective analysis of the patch test data from the Danish National Database of Contact Allergy was performed.
Of 2594 children and adolescents aged 1-17?years, 25.1% had one or more positive patch test reactions. The associated relevance was 66.4%. The most common sensitizers were metals, fragrances, and hair dyes. The frequency of positive patch test reactions and allergic contact dermatitis was significantly higher among girls.
Allergic contact dermatitis in children is a significant clinical problem. Contact allergy should always be considered when children with recalcitrant eczema are encountered, and special attention should be paid to girls. Patch testing is important, and children may be tested with the same patch test concentrations as adults.
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate the role of measles vaccination and measles infection in the development of allergic disease and atopic sensitization. METHODS: A total of 14 893 children were included from the cross-sectional, multicenter Prevention of Allergy-Risk Factors for Sensitization in Children Related to Farming and Anthroposophic Lifestyle study, conducted in 5 European countries (Austria, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, and Switzerland). The children were between 5 and 13 years of age and represented farm children, Steiner-school children, and 2 reference groups. Children attending Steiner schools often have an anthroposophic (holistic) lifestyle in which some immunizations are avoided or postponed. Parental questionnaires provided information on exposure and lifestyle factors as well as symptoms and diagnoses in the children. A sample of the children was invited for additional tests, and 4049 children provided a blood sample for immunoglobulin E analyses. Only children with complete information on measles vaccination and infection were included in the analyses (84%). RESULTS: In the whole group of children, atopic sensitization was inversely associated with measles infection, and a similar tendency was seen for measles vaccination. To reduce risks of disease-related modification of exposure, children who reported symptoms of wheezing and/or eczema debuting during first year of life were excluded from some analyses. After this exclusion, inverse associations were observed between measles infection and "any allergic symptom" and "any diagnosis of allergy by a physician." However, no associations were found between measles vaccination and allergic disease. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that measles infection may protect against allergic disease in children.
Cross-sectional surveys of Norwegian populations indicate that 14-17 per cent of the children below the age of 15 years have had an allergic disease. The corresponding figure in adults is 37 per cent. Among children allergic diseases tend to be more frequent in boys than in girls. In adults there is no significant sex-difference regarding the prevalences of hay fever and obstructive lung disease, while eczema and urticaria are more frequent in women than in men. There is an association of smoking, occupational airborne exposure and degree of industrialization to the prevalences of allergic diseases. There are indications of an increase in occurrence of allergic diseases. The need for standardized operative definitions of these diseases is emphasized.
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of allergic rhinitis and atopy in adolescents and whether air pollution in their schools contributed to allergic sensitization. METHODS: Analyses were performed in 1992-1994 on 511 18-year-old students at four schools and on the indoor air and floor dust of their classrooms. The students underwent skin-prick tests (SPTs) and a nasal lavage and answered a computer-based questionnaire containing questions on allergy and nasal symptoms. RESULTS: Atopy, defined as at least one positive SPT response, was found among 37% of the students, with no difference between students of the four schools, regardless of whether the data were adjusted for gender, hereditary disposition to allergy, and smoking habits. The number of students who had positive SPT and reported nasal symptoms when exposed to possible allergens, which were found among 35%, did not differ between the schools. No correlation was found between the prevalence of atopic individuals and the levels of different indoor air pollutants in the schools. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of allergic rhinitis among adolescents is very high and suggests that it is, at least at the time of our study and in comparison with other studies, still increasing. Our results indicate that the indoor air and floor dust at the schools of the students do not contribute to allergic sensitization.
A survey of summer eczema was conducted on 391 Icelandic horses in Norway. The study showed a prevalence of summer eczema of 17.6 per cent in the horses investigated. Icelandic horses born in Norway where shown to be less affected with summer eczema than imported horses, 8.2 per cent and 26.9 per cent respectively (P less than 0.001). There was no difference in the prevalence of summer eczema relative to gender or colour of the horse. The number of horses affected with summer eczema rose with increasing age and the number of years which had elapsed since importation. On average, Icelandic horses born in Norway developed summer eczema at the age of 5.3 years. The onset of disease for imported horses was, on average, 4.1 years after importation. The study also revealed that a significantly greater number of horses imported from Iceland to Norway during the period October to April, which has a minimal or low activity of insects (32.3 per cent), had developed summer eczema, compared with horses imported during the period May to September, when insects are more active (16.7 per cent), (P = 0.044). Horses with summer eczema were shown to be significantly more affected by respiratory disease than non-affected horses (P = 0.0086). The most common sites and clinical signs of summer eczema are also described.
Comment In: Equine Vet J. 1991 Jul;23(4):239-401915220
Prevention of allergic diseases depends on early identification of clinical markers preceding such disorders. This study describes the natural course of sensitization as measured by skin prick test (SPT) and specific immunoglobulin E (S-IgE) and analyses the association between early sensitization patterns and subsequent allergic disease at 6 yr of age. In an ongoing population-based birth cohort study of 562 children, follow-up visits were performed at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, 36, and 72 months. Visits included an interview, physical examination, SPTs, and S-IgE measurements for 12 food and inhalant allergens. The frequency of S-IgE sensitization to > or = 1 inhalant allergen was constant from 0 to 6 months (9-10%), decreased at 12-18 months before increasing from 36 months onwards. S-IgE sensitization to at least one food allergen remained constant from 0 to 6 yr. SPT sensitization to food and inhalant allergens appeared from 3 and 12 months, respectively. Early food sensitization (S-IgE) between 3 and 18 months was found to be significantly (p
Low grade inflammation is associated with many noncommunicable diseases. The association between skin diseases in general and systemic inflammation has not previously been studied at the population level. A whole-body investigation on 1,930 adults belonging to Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 was performed and high sensitive C-reactive protein (CRP) level was measured as a marker of low grade inflammation in order to determine the association between low grade inflammation and skin diseases in an unselected adult population. After adjustment for confounding factors the following skin disorders were associated with low grade inflammation in multinomial logistic regression analysis: atopic eczema (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.2-3.9), onychomycosis (OR 2.0, 1.2-3.2) and rosacea (OR 1.7, 1.1-2.5). After additionally adjusting for body mass index and systemic diseases, the risks for atopic eczema (OR 2.4, 1.3-4.6) and onychomycosis (OR 1.9, 1.1-3.1) remained statistically significant. In conclusion, low grade inflammation is present in several skin diseases.