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An ethological description of depression.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature46711
Source
Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1988 Sep;78(3):320-30
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1988
Author
J. Pedersen
J T Schelde
E. Hannibal
K. Behnke
B M Nielsen
M. Hertz
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychiatry, Frederiksberg Hospital, Denmark.
Source
Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1988 Sep;78(3):320-30
Date
Sep-1988
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Denmark
Depressive Disorder - psychology - therapy
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Hospitals, Psychiatric
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Nonverbal Communication
Psychological Tests
Psychometrics
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Social Environment
Abstract
During the last 20 years ethological psychiatric research has developed a working method for the systematic and quantitative recording and analysis of the nonverbal behaviour of psychiatric patients in their actual hospital environment. In this study this method was used to follow changes in the behaviour pattern of 5 depressed, hospitalized patients during their entire hospital stay. Parallel to ethological recording, patients were rated according to Hamilton twice a week. The patients who were most depressed at admission showed the greatest behavioural changes; the changes were most conspicuous in the behavioural elements representing social contact and communication. One patient who obviously developed a new depression during the observation period without this being recognized by the Hamilton rating or the clinical control, seemed to have been better described by the behaviour recording. This study shows that ethological psychiatric methods are very suitable for obtaining a better basis for the observations of the staff in the ward environment.
PubMed ID
3195354 View in PubMed
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The association of treatment of depressive episodes and work productivity.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature128978
Source
Can J Psychiatry. 2011 Dec;56(12):743-50
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2011
Author
Carolyn S Dewa
Angus H Thompson
Phillip Jacobs
Author Affiliation
Centre for Research on Employment and Workplace Health, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario. carolyn_dewa@camh.net
Source
Can J Psychiatry. 2011 Dec;56(12):743-50
Date
Dec-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Alberta
Cost of Illness
Depressive Disorder - psychology - therapy
Efficiency - physiology
Employment - manpower - psychology
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
Questionnaires
Severity of Illness Index
Abstract
About one-third of the annual $51 billion cost of mental illnesses is related to productivity losses. However, few studies have examined the association of treatment and productivity. The purpose of our research is to examine the association of depression and its treatment and work productivity.
Our analyses used data from 2737 adults aged between 18 and 65 years who participated in a large-scale community survey of employed and recently employed people in Alberta. Using the World Health Organization's Health and Work Performance Questionnaire, a productivity variable was created to capture high productivity (above the 75th percentile). We used regression methods to examine the association of mental disorders and their treatment and productivity, controlling for demographic factors and job characteristics.
In the sample, about 8.5% experienced a depressive episode in the past year. The regression results indicated that people who had a severe depressive episode were significantly less likely to be highly productive. Compared with people who had a moderate or severe depressive episode who did not have treatment, those who did have treatment were significantly more likely to be highly productive. However, about one-half of workers with a moderate or severe depressive episode did not receive treatment.
Our results corroborate those in the literature that indicate mental disorders are significantly associated with decreased work productivity. In addition, these findings indicate that treatment for these disorders is significantly associated with productivity. Our results also highlight the low proportion of workers with a mental disorder who receive treatment.
PubMed ID
22152643 View in PubMed
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Does type of first contact in depressive and bipolar disorders predict subsequent hospitalisation and risk of suicide?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature45756
Source
J Affect Disord. 2004 Nov 15;83(1):65-71
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-15-2004
Author
Lars Vedel Kessing
Povl Munk-Jørgensen
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital of Copenhagen, Rigshospitalet, Blegdamsvej 9, DK 2100 Copenhagen Ø, Denmark. lars.kessing@rh.dk
Source
J Affect Disord. 2004 Nov 15;83(1):65-71
Date
Nov-15-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Bipolar Disorder - psychology - therapy
Depressive Disorder - psychology - therapy
Female
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Inpatients
Male
Middle Aged
Outpatients
Physician-Patient Relations
Prognosis
Referral and Consultation
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Suicide - psychology
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Only a few studies have investigated how the type of first contact is associated with the risk of subsequent hospitalisation and the risk of committing suicide for patients with depressive or bipolar disorders. METHOD: All outpatients (patients in psychiatric ambulatories and community psychiatry centres) and in-patients (patients admitted during daytime or overnight to a psychiatric hospital) with a diagnosis of depressive or bipolar disorder at first contact ever in a period from 1995 to 1999 in Denmark were identified from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register (DPCRR). The risk of subsequent hospitalisation and the risk of suicide were compared according to type of first contact. RESULTS: The risk of subsequent hospitalisation was significantly increased for patients who were admitted to inpatient facilities during first contact compared to patients with outpatient treatment as their first contact. Patients with depressive disorder who were admitted also had increased risk of committing suicide eventually. LIMITATIONS: The diagnoses are clinician based. CONCLUSIONS: Patients referred to inpatient treatment have a poorer long-term prognosis than patients treated as outpatients.
PubMed ID
15546647 View in PubMed
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Drop-out and mood improvement: a randomised controlled trial with light exposure and physical exercise [ISRCTN36478292].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature45784
Source
BMC Psychiatry. 2004 Aug 11;4:22
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-11-2004
Author
Sami Leppämäki
Jari Haukka
Jouko Lönnqvist
Timo Partonen
Author Affiliation
Department of Mental Health and Alcohol Research, Unit for Epidemiology and Genetics of Mental Health, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland. sami.leppamaki@ktl.fi
Source
BMC Psychiatry. 2004 Aug 11;4:22
Date
Aug-11-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Combined Modality Therapy
Comparative Study
Depressive Disorder - psychology - therapy
Exercise
Female
Humans
Male
Patient Dropouts
Phototherapy
Relaxation Techniques
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Seasonal Affective Disorder - psychology - therapy
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Combining bright light exposure and physical exercise may be an effective way of relieving depressive symptoms. However, relatively little is known about individual factors predicting either a good response or treatment failure. We explored background variables possibly explaining the individual variation in treatment response or failure in a randomised trial. METHODS: Participants were volunteers of working-age, free from prior mental disorders and recruited via occupational health centres. The intervention was a randomised 8-week trial with three groups: aerobics in bright light, aerobics in normal room lighting, and relaxation/stretching in bright light. Good response was defined as a 50% decrease in the symptom score on either the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) or 8-item scale of atypical symptoms. Background variables for the analysis included sex, age, body-mass index, general health habits, seasonal pattern, and sleep disturbances. RESULTS: Complete data were received from 98 subjects (11 men, 87 women). Of them, 42 (5 men, 37 women) were classified as responders on the HDRS. Overall, light had a significant effect on the number of responders, as assessed with the HDRS (X2 =.02). The number needed to treat (NNT) for light was 3.8. CONCLUSIONS: We investigated the effect of bright light and exercise on depressive symptoms. Problems with sleep, especially initial insomnia, may predict a good response to treatment using combined light and exercise. Bright light exposure and physical exercise, even in combination, seem to be well tolerated and effective on depressive symptoms.
PubMed ID
15306031 View in PubMed
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Effectiveness of short-term and long-term psychotherapy on work ability and functional capacity--a randomized clinical trial on depressive and anxiety disorders.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature161532
Source
J Affect Disord. 2008 Apr;107(1-3):95-106
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2008
Author
Paul Knekt
Olavi Lindfors
Maarit A Laaksonen
Raimo Raitasalo
Peija Haaramo
Aila Järvikoski
Author Affiliation
Social Insurance Institution, Helsinki, Finland. paul.knekt@ktl.fi
Source
J Affect Disord. 2008 Apr;107(1-3):95-106
Date
Apr-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Ambulatory Care
Anxiety Disorders - psychology - therapy
Depressive Disorder - psychology - therapy
Employment - statistics & numerical data
Female
Finland
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
Patient Dropouts
Psychotherapy - methods
Psychotherapy, Brief - methods
Self-Evaluation Programs
Sick Leave - statistics & numerical data
Social Adjustment
Treatment Outcome
Work - physiology - psychology
Work Capacity Evaluation
Abstract
Insufficient evidence exists about the effect of different therapies on work ability for patients with psychiatric disorders. The present study compares improvements in work ability in two short-term therapies and one long-term therapy.
In the Helsinki Psychotherapy Study, 326 outpatients with depressive or anxiety disorder were randomly assigned to long-term and short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy, and solution-focused therapy. The patients were followed for 3 years from the start of treatment. Primary outcome measures were the Work Ability Index (WAI), the Work-subscale (SAS-Work) of the Social Adjustment Scale (SAS-SR), Perceived Psychological Functioning Scale, the prevalence of patients employed or studying, and the number of sick-leave days.
Work ability was statistically significantly improved according to WAI (15%), SAS-Work (17%), and Perceived Psychological Functioning Scale (21%) during the 3-year follow-up. No differences in the work ability scores were found between two short-term therapies. The short-term therapies showed 4-11% more improved work ability scores than long-term therapy at the 7 month follow-up point. During the second year of follow-up, no significant differences were found between therapies. After 3 years of follow-up, long-term therapy was more effective than the short-term therapies with 5-12% more improved scores. No differences in the prevalence of individuals employed or studying or in the number of sick-leave days were found between therapies during follow-up.
Short-term therapies give benefits more quickly than long-term therapy on work ability but in the long run long-term therapy is more effective than short-term therapies. More research is needed to confirm these findings.
Notes
Comment In: Evid Based Ment Health. 2008 Nov;11(4):10918952958
PubMed ID
17804079 View in PubMed
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The effects of centralised and specialised intervention in the early course of severe unipolar depressive disorder: a randomised clinical trial.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature125903
Source
PLoS One. 2012;7(3):e32950
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Hanne Vibe Hansen
Ellen Margrethe Christensen
Henrik Dam
Christian Gluud
Jørn Wetterslev
Lars Vedel Kessing
Author Affiliation
Mood Disorder Clinic, Psychiatric Centre Copenhagen, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Source
PLoS One. 2012;7(3):e32950
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Antidepressive Agents - administration & dosage
Denmark
Depressive Disorder - psychology - therapy
Female
Hospitalization
Humans
Middle Aged
Patient compliance
Registries
Severity of Illness Index
Time Factors
Abstract
Little is known on whether centralised and specialised combined pharmacological and psychological intervention in the early phase of severe unipolar depression improve prognosis. The aim of the present study was to assess the benefits and harms of centralised and specialised secondary care intervention in the early course of severe unipolar depression.
A randomised multicentre trial with central randomisation and blinding in relation to the primary outcome comparing a centralised and specialised outpatient intervention program with standard decentralised psychiatric treatment. The interventions were offered at discharge from first, second, or third hospitalisation due to a single depressive episode or recurrent depressive disorder. The primary outcome was time to readmission to psychiatric hospital. The data on re-hospitalisation was obtained from the Danish Psychiatric Central Register. The secondary and tertiary outcomes were severity of depressive symptoms according to the Major Depression Inventory, adherence to medical treatment, and satisfaction with treatment according to the total score on the Verona Service Satisfaction Scale-Affective Disorder (VSSS-A). These outcomes were assessed using questionnaires one year after discharge from hospital.
A total of 268 patients with unipolar depression were included. There was no significant difference in the time to readmission (unadjusted hazard ratio 0.89, 95% confidence interval 0.60 to 1.32; log rank: ?(2)?=?0.3, d.f.?=?1, p?=?0.6); severity of depressive symptoms (mood disorder clinic: median 21.6, quartiles 9.7-31.2 versus standard treatment: median 20.2, quartiles 10.0-29.8; p?=?0.7); or the prevalence of patients in antidepressant treatment (73.9% versus 80.0%, p?=?0.2). Centralised and specialised secondary care intervention resulted in significantly higher satisfaction with treatment (131 (SD 31.8) versus 107 (SD 25.6); p
Notes
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PubMed ID
22442673 View in PubMed
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The effects of playing music on mental health outcomes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature309202
Source
Sci Rep. 2019 08 30; 9(1):12606
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
08-30-2019
Author
Laura W Wesseldijk
Fredrik Ullén
Miriam A Mosing
Author Affiliation
Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Solnavägen 9, SE-171 77, Stockholm, Sweden. laura.wesseldijk@ki.se.
Source
Sci Rep. 2019 08 30; 9(1):12606
Date
08-30-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adult
Anxiety Disorders - psychology - therapy
Depressive Disorder - psychology - therapy
Diseases in Twins
Female
Humans
Male
Mental Disorders - epidemiology - psychology - therapy
Mental health
Music - psychology
Music Therapy - methods
Outcome Assessment, Health Care
Risk factors
Schizophrenia - pathology - therapy
Schizophrenic Psychology
Survival Analysis
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
The association between active musical engagement (as leisure activity or professionally) and mental health is still unclear, with earlier studies reporting contrasting findings. Here we tested whether musical engagement predicts (1) a diagnosis of depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, bipolar or stress-related disorders based on nationwide patient registers or (2) self-reported depressive, burnout and schizotypal symptoms in 10,776 Swedish twins. Information was available on the years individuals played an instrument, including their start and stop date if applicable, and their level of achievement. Survival analyses were used to test the effect of musical engagement on the incidence of psychiatric disorders. Regression analyses were applied for self-reported psychiatric symptoms. Additionally, we conducted co-twin control analyses to further explore the association while controlling for genetic and shared environmental confounding. Results showed that overall individuals playing a musical instrument (independent of their musical achievement) may have a somewhat increased risk for mental health problems, though only significant for self-reported mental health measures. When controlling for familial liability associations diminished, suggesting that the association is likely not due to a causal negative effect of playing music, but rather to shared underlying environmental or genetic factors influencing both musicianship and mental health problems.
PubMed ID
31471550 View in PubMed
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Effects of treatment and alternative care on length of stay on a general hospital psychiatric unit--results of an audit.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature221749
Source
Can J Psychiatry. 1993 Feb;38(1):39-45
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1993
Author
F M Mai
J Y Gosselin
L. Varan
L. Bourgon
J R Navarro
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychiatry, Ottawa General Hospital, Ontario.
Source
Can J Psychiatry. 1993 Feb;38(1):39-45
Date
Feb-1993
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Chronic Disease
Combined Modality Therapy
Community Mental Health Services
Depressive Disorder - psychology - therapy
Female
Health Services Misuse
Hospitalization
Hospitals, General
Humans
Male
Medical Audit
Mental Disorders - psychology - therapy
Middle Aged
Mood Disorders - psychology - therapy
Ontario
Personality Disorders - psychology - therapy
Psychiatric Department, Hospital
Psychotic Disorders - psychology - therapy
Quality Assurance, Health Care
Abstract
Quality controls are becoming an important part of our health care system. A medical audit is one way of evaluating quality of care, and this paper describes the results of an audit conducted to investigate the reasons for a prolonged stay on a psychiatric inpatient unit. The results showed a decrease in the mean length of stay over a five year period, although the figure remained substantially above provincial norms. A review of the hospital charts of a random sample of one in six patients whose hospital stay exceeded 30 days was carried out. It revealed that in 50.0% of cases the reasons were "medically acceptable," in 10.3% the reasons were "medically unacceptable" and in 39.7% the reasons were "social and administrative" and beyond the control of the treating psychiatrist. The implication of these results are discussed.
PubMed ID
8448719 View in PubMed
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Electroconvulsive therapy in the Nordic countries, 1977-1987.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature46637
Source
Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1991 Nov;84(5):428-34
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-1991
Author
L S Strömgren
Author Affiliation
Aarhus University, Department of Psychiatry, Denmark.
Source
Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1991 Nov;84(5):428-34
Date
Nov-1991
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Attitude of Health Personnel
Cross-Sectional Studies
Depressive Disorder - psychology - therapy
Electroconvulsive Therapy - methods - trends
Humans
Mental Disorders - psychology - therapy
Psychotic Disorders - psychology - therapy
Scandinavia
Schizophrenia - therapy
Schizophrenic Psychology
Abstract
In 1977 a questionnaire was sent to all psychiatric departments in the Nordic countries: Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Finland and Iceland, concerning indications for electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and the use of unilateral and bilateral treatment, respectively. The inquiry was repeated in 1987 and the answers compared with those obtained in 1977. In addition, the answers from Denmark were compared with previously performed inquiries. The use of exclusively unilateral treatment (U) and of both unilateral and bilateral treatment (UB) has increased in most of the countries and exclusively bilateral treatment (B) has decreased drastically. In Denmark the situation has not changed for ECT in endogenous depression and acute delirium, and the use in reactive psychosis, mania and schizophrenia decreased somewhat during the 1970s and then again stabilized or increased during the 1980s. Nearly all departments in the Nordic countries used ECT in endogenous depression in 1977 and were still doing it in 1987. In mania, about 50% of all departments have found ECT indicated occasionally or exceptionally both in 1977 and 1987. Manic-depressive mixed states have been regarded as an indication in somewhat more than two thirds of departments, increasing during the period. The use of ECT in schizophrenia has been rare and somewhat decreasing, but still about half of the departments apply it once in a while. In reactive psychosis the use of ECT decreased slightly, but in 1987 it was still in use for this indication in about 50% of all departments. In acute delirium there has been an overall increase in the use of ECT.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
PubMed ID
1776495 View in PubMed
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Feasibility of Attachment Based Family Therapy for depressed clinic-referred Norwegian adolescents.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature121190
Source
Clin Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2013 Jul;18(3):334-50
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2013
Author
Pravin Israel
Guy S Diamond
Author Affiliation
Department of Research and Development, Akershus University Hospital, Lorenskog, Norway. pravin@ahus.no
Source
Clin Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2013 Jul;18(3):334-50
Date
Jul-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Depressive Disorder - psychology - therapy
Family Therapy - methods
Feasibility Studies
Female
Humans
Male
Norway
Object Attachment
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
Several studies have earned Attachment Based Family Therapy (ABFT) the designation of a promising empirically supported treatment for adolescents with depression. This study evaluated the feasibility of importing ABFT into a hospital-based outpatient clinic in Norway. This article documents the challenges of initiating and conducting research in a real world clinical setting and training staff therapists. It also reports on outcomes of a pilot randomized clinical trial. Implementation barriers rapidly emerged in relation to hospital administration, infrastructure development, and therapists. Despite these barriers, 20 clinic-referred adolescents were randomly assigned to ABFT (n= 11) or to Treatment as Usual (TAU) (n= 9). Adolescents in ABFT showed significantly better symptom reduction compared to adolescents in TAU with an effect size of 1.08. While preliminary, this study suggests that Norwegian clinical staff therapists could be engaged in learning and delivering ABFT, and in producing promising treatment results. The importance of institutional support for dissemination research is highlighted.
PubMed ID
22930777 View in PubMed
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28 records – page 1 of 3.