OBJECTIVE: To compare subtotal abdominal hysterectomy (SH) and total abdominal hysterectomy (TH) regarding influence on postoperative psychological wellbeing and surgical outcome measurements. DESIGN: A prospective, open, randomised multicentre trial. SETTING: Seven hospitals and one private clinic in the south-east of Sweden. POPULATION: Two-hundred women scheduled for abdominal hysterectomy for benign conditions were enrolled in the study; 179 women completed the study (94 SH and 85 TH). METHODS: Four different psychometric tests were used to measure general wellbeing, depression and anxiety preoperatively, and at 6 and 12 months postoperatively. Statistical analysis of variance and covariance were used. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Effects of operating method on psychological wellbeing postoperatively. Analysis of demographic, clinical and surgical data, including peri- and postoperative complications and complaints at follow up. RESULTS: No significant differences were observed between the two groups in any of the psychometric tests. Both surgical methods were associated with a significantly higher degree of psychological wellbeing at 6 and 12 months postoperatively, compared with preoperatively. No significant differences were found in the clinical measures including complications. A substantial number of women experienced persistent cyclic vaginal bleedings after SH. Neither minor or major postoperative complications, nor serum concentration of sex hormones, were associated with general psychological wellbeing 12 months after the operation. CONCLUSIONS: General psychological wellbeing is equally improved after both SH and TH within 12 months of the operation, and does not seem to be associated with the occurrence of peroperative complications or serum concentration of sex hormones.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine if there were any long-lasting elevated anxiety levels in women attending colposcopy after an abnormal cervical smear. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, MalmÃ??Ã?Â¶ University Hospital, Sweden. POPULATION: One hundred consecutive women were invited to participate when referred for colposcopy. METHODS: Women in the study group completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale-self-rate (MADRS-S) and had a psychosocial interview prior to colposcopy at their two follow-up visits. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: State anxiety levels and depression scores at first visit, 6 months and 2 years. RESULTS: At follow up, levels of state anxiety and the depression scores of the women studied had decreased and were comparable to those of Swedish normative data. Two variables from the MADRS-S, 'ability to focus on different activities' and 'emotional involvement with others and in activities' were the most prominent for women with moderate to severe depression. At the 2-year visit, 30% of the women still had a fear of cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Referral for colposcopy after an abnormal cervical smear does not seem to result in long-lasting anxiety and depression. However, a subgroup of women, with the initially highest depression scores, still had at 2-year state anxiety levels and depression scores significantly higher than normal. Almost one-third of the women still had a fear of cancer in spite of lower 2-year state anxiety levels.
To predict acute psychological distress in pregnant women following detection of a fetal structural anomaly by ultrasonography, and to relate these findings to a comparison group.
A prospective, observational study.
Tertiary referral centre for fetal medicine.
One hundred and eighty pregnant women with a fetal structural anomaly detected by ultrasound (study group) and 111 with normal ultrasound findings (comparison group) were included within a week following sonographic examination after gestational age 12 weeks (inclusion period: May 2006 to February 2009).
Social dysfunction and health perception were assessed by the corresponding subscales of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). Psychological distress was assessed using the Impact of Events Scale (IES-22), Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the anxiety and depression subscales of the GHQ-28. Fetal anomalies were classified according to severity and diagnostic or prognostic ambiguity at the time of assessment.
Social dysfunction, health perception and psychological distress (intrusion, avoidance, arousal, anxiety, depression).
The least severe anomalies with no diagnostic or prognostic ambiguity induced the lowest levels of IES intrusive distress (P = 0.025). Women included after 22 weeks of gestation (24%) reported significantly higher GHQ distress than women included earlier in pregnancy (P = 0.003). The study group had significantly higher levels of psychosocial distress than the comparison group on all psychometric endpoints.
Psychological distress was predicted by gestational age at the time of assessment, severity of the fetal anomaly, and ambiguity concerning diagnosis or prognosis.
OBJECTIVES: The main aims of the study were to investigate changes in anxiety and depression over time in subjects attending genetic counseling (GC) for hereditary cancer, and secondly, to identify psychological, social, and medical variables associated with the course and outcome of anxiety and depression. METHODS: Of 275 eligible individuals, 221 consented to participate, 214 returned the baseline questionnaire, and were included in a prospective multi-center study. Questionnaires were mailed to the subjects before and after the GC. RESULTS: The mean values for anxiety and depression were quite low at all assessments. Mixed linear analyzes revealed that both anxiety and depression declined over time. Higher age, GC-related self-efficacy, and social support were associated with lower levels of anxiety. More social support, satisfaction with GC, self-rated physical function, and GC-related self-efficacy were associated with lower levels of depression. The effects of social support on both anxiety and depression had a significant interaction with time. CONCLUSION: The results support the buffer theory, which proposes that social support acts as a buffer, protecting people from the potentially pathogenic influence of stressful life events, such as GC. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Subjects with less social support and less GC-related self-efficacy seem to be more vulnerable to anxiety and depression and should be offered extra attention by counselors.
To examine the longitudinal association of dual and single (vision and hearing) sensory loss on symptoms of depression and anxiety in older adults.
Two thousand eight hundred ninety adults aged 60 years or over who participated in the longitudinal population-based Tromsø Study, Norway, were included. The impact of objective vision loss, self-report hearing loss, or dual sensory loss on symptoms of depression and anxiety, as assessed by the Hopkins Symptom Checklist 10, was examined at baseline and 6-year follow-up using linear mixed models.
Hearing loss had a cross-sectional relationship with increased depression (b = 0.1750, SE = 0.07, P = .02) and anxiety symptoms (b = 0.1765, SE = 0.08, P = .03); however, these relationships were not significant at the 6-year follow-up. Both vision loss only and dual sensory loss predicted increased depression scores at follow-up (b = 0.0220, SE = 0.01, P = .03; and b = 0.0413, SE = 0.02, P = .01, respectively). Adjustment for social isolation did not attenuate the main depression results.
Dual sensory loss resulted in increased depression symptomatology over time and posed an additional long-term risk to depression severity beyond having a single sensory loss only. Only hearing loss is associated with anxiety symptoms. Older adults with vision, hearing, and dual sensory loss have different mental health profiles. Therefore, management and intervention should be tailored to the type of sensory loss.
The aim of this study was to investigate any possible association between depressed mood in the elderly and two candidate SNPs in the serotonin system: one in the 5-HTR2A gene promotor (-1438 G/A) and one in the 5-HT transporter gene (-925 C/A). DNA from a population-based Swedish twin sample (N = 1,592; mean age = 73) was genotyped using Pryosequencing trade mark. An association was found between the 5-HTR2A gene promotor polymorphism and depressed mood (OR: 1.5, CI: 1.1-2.1) for the A/A genotype in the total sample. When the sample was analyzed by gender, a significant association (OR: 2.4, CI: 1.4-4.4) was found for males and the A/A genotype, but not for females. The 5-HT transporter gene was not associated with depressed mood in this elderly population. These results suggest that there might be different genetic mechanisms for males and females contributing to the development of depressed mood in the elderly.
Center for Brain Repair and Rehabilitation, Institute for Neuroscience and Physiology and Department of Primary Health Care, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
Studies suggest a role for cardiovascular fitness in the prevention of affective disorders.
To determine whether cardiovascular fitness at age 18 is associated with future risk of serious affective illness.
Population-based Swedish cohort study of male conscripts (n = 1 117 292) born in 1950-1987 with no history of mental illness who were followed for 3-40 years. Data on cardiovascular fitness at conscription were linked with national hospital registers to calculate future risk of depression (requiring in-patient care) and bipolar disorder.
In fully adjusted models low cardiovascular fitness was associated with increased risk for serious depression (hazard ratios (HR) = 1.96, 95%, CI 1.71-2.23). No such association could be shown for bipolar disorder (HR = 1.11, 95% CI 0.84-1.47).
Lower cardiovascular fitness at age 18 was associated with increased risk of serious depression in adulthood. These results strengthen the theory of a cardiovascular contribution to the aetiology of depression.
Cognitive/behavioral and environmental variables are significant predictors of patient adjustment in chronic pain. Using a biopsychosocial template and selecting several pain-relevant constructs from physical, cognitive/behavioral, and environmental predictors, outcomes of pain and disability in chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) were explored. Men (n = 253) from a North American multi-institutional NIH-funded Chronic Prostatitis Cohort Study in 6 US and 1 Canadian centers participated in a survey examining pain and disability. Measures included demographics, urinary symptoms, depression, pain, disability, catastrophizing, control over pain, pain-contingent rest, social support, and solicitous responses from a significant other. Regressions showed that urinary symptoms (beta = .20), depression (beta = .24), and helplessness catastrophizing (beta = .29) predicted overall pain. Further, affective pain was predicted by depression (beta = .39) and helplessness catastrophizing (beta = .44), whereas sensory pain was predicted by urinary symptoms (beta = .25) and helplessness catastrophizing (beta = .37). With regard to disability, urinary symptoms (beta = .17), pain (beta = .21), and pain-contingent rest (beta = .33) were the predictors. These results suggest cognitive/behavioral variables (ie, catastrophizing, pain-contingent rest) may have significant impact on patient adjustment in CP/CPPS. Findings support the need for greater research of such pain-related variables in CP/CPPS.
This article explores predictors of patient adjustment in chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS). Cognitive/behavioral variables of catastrophizing and pain-contingent rest respectively predicted greater pain and disability. Catastrophic helplessness was a prominent pain predictor. These findings inform clinicians and researchers on several new variables in CP/CPPS outcomes and suggest future research.
Factors associated with low self-esteem in non-depressive subjects increase the individual's vulnerability to depression (causal risk factors), and factors correlated to low self-esteem in depressive subjects make the current disorder more severe (pathoplastic risk factors). Using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Depression Scale we intended to explore correlates of low self-esteem in non-depressive and depressive subjects in a random sample of 1643 individuals attending community health centres in Central Finland. According to our study, self-esteem in non-depressive men was affected mainly by poor socioeconomic situation; in depressive men particularly low self-esteem was associated with negative family factors. Low self-esteem in non-depressive women was correlated to poor socioeconomic situation, poor health, and negative family factors. In depressive women self-esteem was affected by poor physical and poor mental health. Taking into consideration causal and pathoplastic risk factors, general practitioners can improve recognition of depression. By paying attention to pathoplastic factors, it is possible to improve detection of more severe forms of depression.
This contribution strives to familiarize Western readers with the theoretical concept of suicidal behavior which was developed at the Department of Suicidology of Moscow Psychiatric Research Institute and has been in use there for the last two decades. In describing this approach the paper concentrates on what differentiates it from traditional Western management without making value judgments about either approach. Such an account of the concept and its development will hopefully afford the reader an opportunity to arrive at his or her own conclusions regarding its clinical value.