OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to analyze treatments and outcome in depressed patients. METHOD: Patients with recurrent depressive disorder (n = 289), recruited for a prophylaxis study, were followed up in hospital settings for 6 months with diagnostic and depression ratings at baseline and monthly depression ratings. Data on psychotropic drugs were retrieved from hospital case records. Independent associations between baseline, treatment and outcome variables were examined by logistic regression models. RESULTS: Depressive symptoms subsided gradually. After 6 months, 21% had dropped out, 43% were rated as remitted (HAM-D-17 15). Patients once remitted rarely relapsed (
Divorce is associated with an increased probability of a depressive episode, but the causation of events remains unclear. Adaptive models of depression propose that depression is a social strategy in part, whereas non-adaptive models tend to propose a diathesis-stress mechanism. We compare an adaptive evolutionary model of depression to three alternative non-adaptive models with respect to their ability to explain the temporal pattern of depression around the time of divorce. Register-based data (304,112 individuals drawn from a random sample of 11% of Finnish people) on antidepressant purchases is used as a proxy for depression. This proxy affords an unprecedented temporal resolution (a 3-monthly prevalence estimates over 10 years) without any bias from non-compliance, and it can be linked with underlying episodes via a statistical model. The evolutionary-adaptation model (all time periods with risk of divorce are depressogenic) was the best quantitative description of the data. The non-adaptive stress-relief model (period before divorce is depressogenic and period afterwards is not) provided the second best quantitative description of the data. The peak-stress model (periods before and after divorce can be depressogenic) fit the data less well, and the stress-induction model (period following divorce is depressogenic and the preceding period is not) did not fit the data at all. The evolutionary model was the most detailed mechanistic description of the divorce-depression link among the models, and the best fit in terms of predicted curvature; thus, it offers most rigorous hypotheses for further study. The stress-relief model also fit very well and was the best model in a sensitivity analysis, encouraging development of more mechanistic models for that hypothesis.
Cites: Am J Psychiatry. 2007 Oct;164(10):1521-9; quiz 162217898343
Adverse experiences during licensed treatment with the antidepressant serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitor zimeldine in Sweden are presented. Data were obtained from a written inquiry of 694 patients and 67 reports to the Medical Products Agency. The spectrum of adverse symptoms was in agreement with those reported in previous studies on zimeldine. The most frequent adverse experiences were headache, nausea, myalgia, signs of liver function disturbance, arthralgia, neurological symptoms, fever and insomnia. No new case of the Guillain-Barré syndrome was found. The estimated frequency of the zimeldine-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (HSS), comprising fever, myalgia and/or arthralgia and signs of liver function disturbance, ranged from 1.4% to 13% in the inquiry and from 0.63% to 3.4% in the report part of the study. Adverse experiences usually had a considerably higher incidence during the first 6 weeks of zimeldine treatment than thereafter. This is in agreement with the clinical experience that most of the adverse reactions occur early during zimeldine treatment. However, a number of adverse experiences did occur with a later onset. This may justify a prolongation of the compulsory 4 weeks' testing of liver function that is required during licensed treatment. There were significantly fewer patients who developed fever among the patients who had experienced previous zimeldine treatment than among those who had not. Otherwise there was no statistically significant difference in frequency of adverse symptoms between these two groups. Consequently zimeldine treatment per se does not seem to predispose to development of an HSS or other types of adverse reactions during subsequent therapy.
Recent reports suggest that adverse effects on sexual function occur in up to 50% of patients who are treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants. Previously cited low rates were more likely a function of underreporting than underoccurrence. There is less evidence about rates of dysfunction with serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) and reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A (RIMA) antidepressants. The purpose of this report is to evaluate disturbances in sexual drive/desire and arousal/orgasm in 107 patients who met criteria for major depressive disorder and received treatment with either moclobemide, paroxetine, sertraline, or venlafaxine.
All consenting eligible patients who met DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder completed the Sexual Functioning Questionnaire, version 1 (SFQ) and were assessed using the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) prior to and after 8 or 14 weeks of antidepressant therapy. Analyses were carried out to examine the effect of gender, drug type, pretreatment level of sexual dysfunction, and drug response on reported sexual dysfunction.
Compared with women, men experienced a significantly greater level of drug-related impairment in drive/desire (p
Although depression is common among incurable cancer patients, the prescription prevalence of antidepressants (ADs) to these patients is largely unknown. Aims were to examine the prescription prevalence of ADs in the last year of life in a 2-year national cancer death cohort and to examine its associations with sociodemographic and medical variables.
Nationwide, 20,627 cancer deaths in adults were identified by combining the Norwegian Central Population and Cancer Registries. Individual prescriptions of ADs in the 12 months prior to death were identified in the Norwegian Prescription Database. The study population consisted of 17,753 patients who died from cancer in 2005 and 2006, after excluding patients assumed to be hospitalized whose prescriptions were not registered in the Norwegian Prescription Database.
Twenty-two percent (N = 3836) had at least one prescription of ADs in their last year of life (men 19%/women 25%), compared with 6% in the general population (men 4%/women 8%). Patients who died within 1 year from diagnosis had lower prescription prevalence (20%) than patients with longer disease duration (23%) (p
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland; Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Insurance Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Social workers have an elevated risk for mental disorders, but little is known about their antidepressant treatment.
To examine any and long-term antidepressant treatment among social workers in Finland, Sweden and Denmark.
We linked records from drug prescription registers to three prospective cohorts: the Finnish Public Sector study, years 2006-2011, and nation-wide cohorts in Sweden and Denmark, years 2006-2014, including a total of 1.5 million employees in (1) social work, (2) other social and health care professions, (3) education and (4) office work. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios for any and long-term (>6 months) antidepressant treatment among social workers compared to the three reference occupational groups and carried out meta-analyses.
During follow-up, 25% of social workers had any prescriptions for antidepressants (19-24% reference occupations) and 20% for long-term treatment (14-19% reference occupations). The pooled effects for any and long-term treatment showed that probabilities were 10% higher in social workers compared to other health and social care professionals and 30% higher compared to education and non-human service professionals. Probabilities for any treatment in the three countries were relatively similar, but for long-term treatment social workers in Finland had a greater risk compared with other human service professions.
There were differences between the cohorts in the availability of data. Specific diagnoses for the antidepressant treatment were not known neither adherence to treatment.
Social workers have a higher risk for any and long-term antidepressant treatment than other human and non-human service professionals.
The use of monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) in the province of Saskatchewan was compared for two years, 1978 and 1986, using the Saskatchewan Prescription Drug Plan data base. The percentage of the adult population receiving an MAOI decreased from 0.17% in 1978 to 0.07% in 1986. The use of both tricyclic antidepressants and the new generation antidepressants increased during the same period. Physicians appear to have selectively avoided using MAOIs for the elderly. Physicians who are not psychiatrists showed the greatest reduction in their use of the MAOIs. The data indicate an increasing reluctance to prescribe the MAOIs despite the recent resurgence of interest in these agents and the positive literature concerning their safety and efficacy.
This study explored how eight pregnant women diagnosed with depression managed the decision whether or not to take antidepressants during pregnancy. In total, 11 interviews were conducted and analysed by means of constructivist grounded theory. The major category constructed was Balancing risk, with two minor categories: Assessing depression and antidepressants and Evaluating the impact of significant others. The participants tried to make the safest decision, taking all aspects of their life into consideration. They described successful decision-making in the context of managing social norms that surround pregnancy, in a way that was acceptable to themselves, their significant others and healthcare professionals.
Brofaromine is a new, reversible, and selective type-A monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) that also has serotonin reuptake inhibitory properties. Its dual pharmacologic effects offer promise in the treatment of a wide spectrum of depressed patients while producing less severe anticholinergic side effects in comparison with standard drugs. A multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled study including 220 patients was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy and safety of brofaromine in major depression. This study of a fixed-dose design and 6 weeks' duration found that brofaromine was significantly better than placebo on the Overall Evaluation of Efficacy, Beck self-rating scale, HAM-D Bech subscale, HAM-D total 14 items (minus the three sleep items), HAM-D depressed mood item and retardation factor, and worse than placebo on the insomnia items of HAM-D. Significantly more patients on placebo than on brofaromine did not complete the trial due to lack of efficacy. In comparative controlled studies (n = 899), brofaromine was found to be at least as efficacious as tricyclic antidepressants (imipramine) and standard MAOIs (tranylcypromine and phenelzine). Reductions of at least 50% in the HAM-D total score were seen in 58-66% of patients treated with either brofaromine or imipramine (n = 609). Brofaromine also was found to be of comparable efficacy to tranylcypromine in two clinical trials (n = 132), one of which included patients considered to have a treatment-resistant depression (n = 39). In another double-blind study that compared brofaromine (150 mg/day) to phenelzine (45 mg/day) (n = 158), there was no difference between brofaromine and phenelzine.
Two dose levels of citalopram, 10-30 mg and 20-60 mg, were compared with imipramine, 50-150 mg, in depressed patients treated in general practice. This was a multicentre study carried out in Denmark, Sweden, Norway, and Finland. The duration of treatment was 6 weeks with an optional continuation phase of a further 16 weeks. The patients were assessed by means of the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD), Clinical Global Impressions (CGI), and a visual analogue self-rating scale for depression. Observed and spontaneously reported adverse events were recorded. A total of 472 patients were entered into the study and 400 patients completed the 6 week trial period. A total of 297 patients completed the optional 22 week double-blind period. A clear reduction of the HAMD total scores was seen in all three treatment groups with no significant differences between groups. A reduction of the HAMD anxiety factor and sleep factor scores was also seen with no significant differences between treatments. The imipramine-treated patients showed a higher frequency of adverse events, especially the anticholinergic type, than citalopram-treated patients. Most patients entered into the continuation phase remained well.