OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to analyze treatments and outcome in depressed patients. METHOD: Patients with recurrent depressive disorder (n = 289), recruited for a prophylaxis study, were followed up in hospital settings for 6 months with diagnostic and depression ratings at baseline and monthly depression ratings. Data on psychotropic drugs were retrieved from hospital case records. Independent associations between baseline, treatment and outcome variables were examined by logistic regression models. RESULTS: Depressive symptoms subsided gradually. After 6 months, 21% had dropped out, 43% were rated as remitted (HAM-D-17 15). Patients once remitted rarely relapsed (
Divorce is associated with an increased probability of a depressive episode, but the causation of events remains unclear. Adaptive models of depression propose that depression is a social strategy in part, whereas non-adaptive models tend to propose a diathesis-stress mechanism. We compare an adaptive evolutionary model of depression to three alternative non-adaptive models with respect to their ability to explain the temporal pattern of depression around the time of divorce. Register-based data (304,112 individuals drawn from a random sample of 11% of Finnish people) on antidepressant purchases is used as a proxy for depression. This proxy affords an unprecedented temporal resolution (a 3-monthly prevalence estimates over 10 years) without any bias from non-compliance, and it can be linked with underlying episodes via a statistical model. The evolutionary-adaptation model (all time periods with risk of divorce are depressogenic) was the best quantitative description of the data. The non-adaptive stress-relief model (period before divorce is depressogenic and period afterwards is not) provided the second best quantitative description of the data. The peak-stress model (periods before and after divorce can be depressogenic) fit the data less well, and the stress-induction model (period following divorce is depressogenic and the preceding period is not) did not fit the data at all. The evolutionary model was the most detailed mechanistic description of the divorce-depression link among the models, and the best fit in terms of predicted curvature; thus, it offers most rigorous hypotheses for further study. The stress-relief model also fit very well and was the best model in a sensitivity analysis, encouraging development of more mechanistic models for that hypothesis.
Cites: Am J Psychiatry. 2007 Oct;164(10):1521-9; quiz 162217898343
Adverse experiences during licensed treatment with the antidepressant serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitor zimeldine in Sweden are presented. Data were obtained from a written inquiry of 694 patients and 67 reports to the Medical Products Agency. The spectrum of adverse symptoms was in agreement with those reported in previous studies on zimeldine. The most frequent adverse experiences were headache, nausea, myalgia, signs of liver function disturbance, arthralgia, neurological symptoms, fever and insomnia. No new case of the Guillain-Barré syndrome was found. The estimated frequency of the zimeldine-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (HSS), comprising fever, myalgia and/or arthralgia and signs of liver function disturbance, ranged from 1.4% to 13% in the inquiry and from 0.63% to 3.4% in the report part of the study. Adverse experiences usually had a considerably higher incidence during the first 6 weeks of zimeldine treatment than thereafter. This is in agreement with the clinical experience that most of the adverse reactions occur early during zimeldine treatment. However, a number of adverse experiences did occur with a later onset. This may justify a prolongation of the compulsory 4 weeks' testing of liver function that is required during licensed treatment. There were significantly fewer patients who developed fever among the patients who had experienced previous zimeldine treatment than among those who had not. Otherwise there was no statistically significant difference in frequency of adverse symptoms between these two groups. Consequently zimeldine treatment per se does not seem to predispose to development of an HSS or other types of adverse reactions during subsequent therapy.
The purpose of the present study is to explore the relation between use of antidepressants and level of alcohol consumption among depressed and nondepressed men and women.
Random-digit dialling and computer-assisted telephone interviewing were used to survey a sample of 14,063 Canadian residents, aged 18-76 years. The survey included measures of quantity and frequency of drinking, the World Health Organization's Composite International Diagnostic Interview measure of depression, and a question as to whether respondents had used antidepressants during the past year.
Overall, depressed respondents drank more alcohol than did nondepressed respondents. This was not true, however, for depressed men who used antidepressants; they consumed a mean of 414 drinks during the preceding year, versus 579 drinks for depressed men who did not use antidepressants and 436 for nondepressed men. For women, the positive relation between depression and heavier alcohol consumption held true regardless of their use of antidepressants: 264 drinks during the preceding year for depressed women who used antidepressants; 235, for depressed women who did not use antidepressants; and 179, for nondepressed women.
Results of this cross-sectional study are consistent with a possible beneficial effect of antidepressant use upon drinking by depressed men. Further research is needed, however, to assess whether this finding results from drug effects or some other factor, and to ascertain why the effect was found among men but not women.
Cites: Addiction. 2002 May;97(5):583-9412033659
Cites: Alcohol Res Health. 2001;25(2):126-3511584551
This retrospective analysis of electrocardiographic (ECG) data investigated the cardiovascular effects of paroxetine 10-50 mg/day in pediatric patients (7-18 years of age). Data were collected from three 8- to 10-week, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trials of paroxetine in pediatric patients with major depressive disorder or obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Electrocardiograms (ECGs) were retrospectively retrieved from 63 study sites in the United States and Canada. Only patients with at least one screening and one on-treatment ECG were included. ECGs were analyzed for heart rate, QT interval corrected using Bazett's formula (QTcB) and Fridericia's formula (QTcF), at screening and while being treated. PR, R-R, and QRS intervals and the maximum change in QTcB and QTcF from screening to endpoint were determined. Clinically significant thresholds were defined a priori.
A total of 1,451 ECGs from 449 patients receiving placebo (n = 207), paroxetine (n = 200), or imipramine (n = 42) were analyzed. Treatment with paroxetine did not significantly increase QTcB or QTcF or any ECG parameters compared with placebo. Treatment with imipramine significantly increased heart rate and QTcB, R-R, and QRS intervals compared with either paroxetine or placebo.
Data from this retrospective study indicate that paroxetine (10-50 mg/day) is unlikely to be associated with significant ECG changes in medically healthy pediatric patients.
Nowadays it is considered that protein kinase Akt1 could be involved in pathogenesis of affective disorders. We have examined whether AKT1 gene polymorphisms are associated with antidepressant treatment response.
The study included 106 Caucasian patients with depressive disorders from Siberia and 103 healthy control donors. The frequencies of single nucleotide polymorphisms rs1130214 and rs3730358 of AKT1 gene were examined.
A comparison of genotypic or allelic frequencies between the groups of healthy donors and depressive patients showed no statistically significant difference. No association between the polymorphisms under study and the scores according to Hamilton Depression Rating Scale 17 was found. However, an association between treatment response assessed by the Clinical Global Impression - Improvement scale and rs1130214 polymorphism was observed.
AKT1 gene polymorphism rs1130214 is associated with antidepressant treatment response in patients with depressive disorders.
The Swedish Diagnosis and Therapy Survey was used to analyse the prescribing of antidepressants from 1991 to 1996. There were considerable differences in doses prescribed depending on diagnosis. Adequate dosage is an important factor in antidepressant treatment, and this study showed that tricyclic antidepressants are often prescribed at lower than recommended doses for the treatment of depression. Significantly higher doses were prescribed in continued treatment, as opposed to in new treatment, indicating dose titration when using tricyclic antidepressants and the most common selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in depression. The findings from the present study suggest that the optimal dosage for some of the new antidepressants in clinical practice has not yet been determined and that costs of treatment in a natural setting might be considerably higher than costs calculated from dose recommendations.
OBJECTIVE: The use of antidepressants (ADs) has escalated and prompted considerable debate. Many depressed patients go unrecognised or under-treated and the area of indication of the new ADs is widening. The aim of this study was to analyse (i). the variation in general practitioners' prescribing of ADs by comparing with prescribing of other drug groups and (ii). whether the general prescribing behaviour, practice activity and demography are associated with the AD prescribing. METHODS: Analysis of AD prescribing patterns among 174 general practices (93.5%) in the County of Funen, Denmark. Age- and sex-standardised 1-year incidences and prevalences of AD prescribing for patients listed were calculated using individual prescription data from Odense University Pharmacoepidemiologic Database. Data about health services and practice demography were obtained from the Health Insurance Register. The variation in AD 1-year prevalence was compared with other drug groups by a variation index (90%/10% percentile). Univariate linear regression analysis was used to examine associations between practice characteristics and prescribing. RESULTS: The 1-year prevalence of AD prescribing varied sixfold, no more than the prevalence of five other drug groups. Practices with high yearly: general prescribing prevalence, mean number of drugs per medicated patient, number of surgery consultations/100 patients and counsellings/100 surgery consultations showed the highest yearly prevalence of AD prescribing. Single-handed practices had higher AD prescribing rates than partnerships. The relative use of selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors and other new ADs showed only little variation (10% and 90% percentiles as close as 66-86%), but practices with high 1-year prevalence and incidence most often chose the new ADs. CONCLUSION: Analysis of inter-practice variation showed no extraordinary quality problems with regard to AD prescribing, but does not exclude that there might be problems. The general prescribing pattern of the general practitioners seems essential to their attitude to AD prescribing. The relationship between counselling and prescribing was a feature specific to ADs and deserves further investigation. Quality indicators are needed to understand differences in AD prescribing, and studies based on prescription data have to be supplemented with individual clinical data.
Recent reports suggest that adverse effects on sexual function occur in up to 50% of patients who are treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants. Previously cited low rates were more likely a function of underreporting than underoccurrence. There is less evidence about rates of dysfunction with serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) and reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A (RIMA) antidepressants. The purpose of this report is to evaluate disturbances in sexual drive/desire and arousal/orgasm in 107 patients who met criteria for major depressive disorder and received treatment with either moclobemide, paroxetine, sertraline, or venlafaxine.
All consenting eligible patients who met DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder completed the Sexual Functioning Questionnaire, version 1 (SFQ) and were assessed using the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) prior to and after 8 or 14 weeks of antidepressant therapy. Analyses were carried out to examine the effect of gender, drug type, pretreatment level of sexual dysfunction, and drug response on reported sexual dysfunction.
Compared with women, men experienced a significantly greater level of drug-related impairment in drive/desire (p
OBJECTIVE: To explore a possible temporal association between changes in antidepressant sales and suicide rates in different age groups. METHODS: A time series analysis using a two-slope model to compare suicide rates in Sweden before and after introduction of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, SSRIs. RESULTS: Antidepressant sales increased between 1977-1979 and 1995-1997 in men from 4.2 defined daily doses per 1000 inhabitants and day (DDD/t.i.d) to 21.8 and in women from 8.8 to 42.4. Antidepressant sales were twice as high in the elderly as in the 25-44-year-olds and eight times that in the 15-24-year-olds. During the same time period suicide rates decreased in men from 48.2 to 33.3 per 10(5) inhabitants/year and in women from 20.3 to 13.4. There was significant change in the slope in suicide rates after the introduction of the SSRI, for both men and women, which corresponds to approximately 348 fewer suicides during 1990-1997. Half of these 'saved lives' occurred among young adults. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate a statistically significant change in slope in suicide rates in men and women that coincided with the introduction of the SSRI antidepressants in Sweden. This change preceded the exponential increase in antidepressant sales.