Even though the association between alexithymia and somatization seems plausible according to several studies with selected populations, it has not been verified in carefully controlled and nationally representative population studies. We conducted such a study to find out whether alexithymia is associated with somatization at population level.
This study was a part of the Finnish Health 2000 Study. The nationally representative sample comprised 5129 subjects aged 30 to 97 years. Alexithymia was measured with the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and somatic symptom reporting with the 12-item somatization scale derived from the Hopkins Symptom Checklist. Sociodemographic and health-related variables, including depressive and anxiety disorders, and physician verified somatic diagnoses, were treated as confounders in multivariate analyses.
Alexithymia was associated with somatization independently of somatic diseases, depression and anxiety and confounding sociodemographic variables. The TAS-20 factor scale "Difficulties Identifying Feelings" was the strongest common denominator between alexithymia and somatization.
This was the first time the independent association between alexithymia and somatization was established in a large, nationally representative nonclinical sample of both young and old adults with and without mental disorders and somatic diseases.
The objective of the present study was to assess alexithymia by means of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and The Emotion Protocol (EP) in a group of refugees. Eighty-six subjects were willing to participate. At last follow-up, 33 non-PTSD and 22 PTSD subjects had complete data. Subjects with PTSD had higher scores on the TAS-20 (F = 4.314, df = 77, p = 0.041), but on the subscale level, this was significant only with regard to Factor I, difficulties identifying feelings (F = 5.316, df = 77, p = 0.024). TAS Factor I and to a lower extent TAS Factor II (difficulties naming feelings) were significantly associated with the self-rated presence of dysphoric affects. At follow-up, an increase in TAS Factor I score was associated with increased prevalence of self-rated symptoms of PTSD, but not depression. Decrease in prolactin was associated with significant increase of TAS Factor I (rho = -0.396, n = 54, p = 0.003). The present study indicates that alexithymia as measured by TAS-20 is indeed associated with symptoms of PTSD. This association is almost exclusively explained by the TAS Factor I subscale and is in turn associated with a high level of self-reported dysphoric affect. The longitudinal inverse correlation with prolactin points to the possibility of an underlying disturbance in serotonergic and/or dopaminergic systems. The results thus indicate that secondary, or post-traumatic, alexithymia is a measure of suppressed or warded-off negative affects.
Alexithymia is a personality trait associated with difficulties in identifying feelings, difficulties in describing feelings to other people, constricted imaginal processes, and an externally oriented cognitive style. It has been found to be associated with personality features that may cause interpersonally avoidant behavior and other interpersonal problems. The present study explored, in a sample of primary care patients (N = 491), whether alexithymia is associated with mobile phone usage, and whether the perceived quality and quantity of human relationships mediate its effect. Even controlling for sociodemographic variables and symptoms of depression, mania and psychoses, alexithymia, measured by the 20-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale, was associated with less frequent mobile phone use. Not having enough relationships or a close friend, and relationships being less satisfactory mediated the effect of alexithymia on less frequent mobile phone use. The results support the findings of earlier studies that have linked interpersonal problems with alexithymia.
The aim of this study was to explore the possible association between alexithymia and anxiety in a non-clinical sample of late adolescents.
The questionnaire was sent to 935 adolescents of whom 729 (78%) responded, thus forming the final sample. The mean age of the subjects was 19 years (range 17-21 years). The Finnish versions of the following scales were used: the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) was used to assess alexithymia, and anxiety symptoms were measured using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Alcohol consumption was assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and depression symptoms were evaluated using the short form of the Beck Depression Inventory, as modified by Raitasalo (RBDI).
The prevalence of alexithymia in the sample was 8.2%, with no statistically significant gender difference. The alexithymic subjects had significantly (p
INTRODUCTION: International studies have shown high incidences of symptoms regarding anxiety, depression, and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among asylum seekers of different ethnicities. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of symptoms of anxiety, depression, and PTSD among rejected Iraqi asylum seekers in two Danish Red Cross asylum centers. Factors such as the length of stay in an asylum center and the number of traumatic events were considered as risk factors associated with the degree of psychological morbidity. METHOD: In 2007, 53 rejected Iraqi asylum seekers from two Danish Red Cross centers completed a survey based on the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire-IV (HTQ) and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist 25 (HSCL-25). The response rate was 36%. The analyses focused on the impact of gender, age, marriage, religion, the length of stay at the asylum center, and the number of traumatic events on the severity of symptoms of anxiety, depression, and PTSD. FINDINGS: Of all participants, 94% were found to have symptoms of anxiety, 100% had symptoms of depression, and 77% had symptoms of PTSD. The participants had experienced or witnessed an average of 8.5 traumatic events before their arrival in Denmark. There was no significant association between the number of traumatic events, and the symptoms of PTSD. In addition, there was no significant difference in the length of stay and symptoms of anxiety, depression, and PTSD despite the fact that 79% of the participants had stayed in an asylum center for 5-10 years or more. CONCLUSION: Despite the limitations of the data, such as the small sample, this study showed that the prevalence rates of psychopathology in Iraqi asylum seekers in Denmark were alarmingly high. Therefore, it is recommended that systematic screening of all detained asylum seekers in Denmark is introduced. Given the degree of mental health problems it is also recommended that procedures be changed and that treatment should be offered to asylum seekers who are detained in Danish asylum centers.
The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence of depression and factors associated with depressive mood among pregnant women.
391 women who were 14-37 weeks pregnant were evaluated with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Screen (EPDS), which has also been validated for prenatal use. Four questionnaires were used in order to explore associated factors: a questionnaire on background and pregnancy data, the Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory (SASSI) and two Social Support Questionnaires (SSQ1 and 2).
7.7% of the total sample screened positive on the EPDS with a cut-off point of 12/13 recommended. Substance dependency and experienced difficulties in social environment had an independently significant association with maternal depression.
The caseness was defined with a self-report instrument.
Substance dependency and experienced difficulties, especially in relation to friends, partner and own mother, are associated with antenatal depression. It is important to be aware of this when developing interventions in maternity care primary units.
The study compared anxiety and depression prevalence between parents and non-parents in a society with family- and parenthood-friendly social politics, controlling for family status and family history, age, gender, education and social class.
All participants aged 30-49 (N = 24,040) in the large, non-sampled Norwegian HUNT2 community health study completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales.
The slightly elevated anxiety and depression among non-parents compared to parents in the complete sample was not confirmed as statistically significant within any subgroups. Married parents and (previously unmarried) cohabiting parents did not differ in portraying low anxiety and depression prevalence. Anxiety was associated with single parenthood, living alone or being divorced, while elevated depression was found only among those living alone.
Burdening selection and cultural/political context are suggested as interpretative perspectives on the contextual and personal influences on the complex relationship between parenthood and mental health.
Cites: J Nerv Ment Dis. 2000 Nov;188(11):741-5011093376
Anxiety disorders in adolescence have been associated with several psychiatric outcomes. We sought to describe the prospective relationship between various levels of adolescent anxiety and psychiatric diagnoses (anxiety-, bipolar/psychotic-, depressive-, and alcohol and drug misuse disorders) and suicidal ideation in early adulthood while adjusting for childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Furthermore, we aimed to estimate the proportion attributable to the various anxiety levels for the outcomes.
We used a nation-wide population-based Swedish twin study comprising 14,106 fifteen-year-old twins born in Sweden between 1994 and 2002 and a replication sample consisting of 9211 Dutch twins, born between 1985 and 1999. Adolescent anxiety was measured with parental and self-report. Psychiatric diagnoses and suicidal ideation were retrieved from the Swedish National Patient Register and via self-report.
Adolescent anxiety, of various levels, predicted, in the Swedish National Patient Register, anxiety disorders: hazard ratio (HR)?=?4.92 (CI 3.33-7.28); depressive disorders: HR?=?4.79 (3.23-7.08), and any psychiatric outcome: HR?=?3.40 (2.58-4.48), when adjusting for ADHD, ASD, and DCD. The results were replicated in the Dutch data. The proportion of psychiatric outcome attributable to adolescent anxiety over time (age 15-21) was 29% for any psychiatric outcome, 43-40% for anxiety disorders, and 39-38% for depressive disorders.
Anxiety in adolescence constitutes an important risk factor in the development of psychiatric outcomes, revealing unique predictions for the different levels of anxiety, and beyond the risk conferred by childhood ADHD, ASD, and DCD. Developmental trajectories leading into psychiatric outcomes should further empirically investigated.
To examine in men and women the independent associations between anxiety and depression and 1-year incident cognitive impairment and to examine the association of cognitive impairment, no dementia (CIND) and incident cognitive impairment with 1-year incident anxiety or depression.
Prospective cohort study.
Population-based sample of 1,942 individuals aged 65 to 96.
Two structured interviews 12 months apart evaluated anxiety and mood symptoms and disorders according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria. Incident cognitive impairment was defined as no CIND at baseline and a follow-up Mini-Mental State Examination score at least 2 points below baseline and below the 15th percentile according to normative data. The associations between cognitive impairment and anxiety or depression were assessed using logistic regression adjusted for potential confounders.
Incident cognitive impairment was, independently of depression, associated with baseline anxiety disorders in men (odds ratio (OR)=6.27, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.39-28.29) and anxiety symptoms in women (OR=2.14, 95%=1.06-4.34). Moreover, the results indicated that depression disorders in men (OR=8.87, 95%=2.13-36.96) and anxiety symptoms in women (OR=4.31, 95%=1.74-10.67) were particularly linked to incident amnestic cognitive impairment, whereas anxiety disorders in men (OR=12.01, 95%=1.73-83.26) were especially associated with incident nonamnestic cognitive impairment. CIND at baseline and incident cognitive impairment were not associated with incident anxiety or depression.
Anxiety and depression appear to have different relationships with incident cognitive impairment according to sex and the nature of cognitive impairment. Clinicians should pay particular attention to anxiety in older adults because it may shortly be followed by incident cognitive treatment.
Erectile dysfunction (ED) has been extensively studied in the past few decades, and significant advances have been made in understanding its etiology. Most cases of this type of dysfunction have an organic etiology, and ED occurs primarily in older men. However, relatively little is known about erectile problems in young men or about the interconnection between psychiatric symptoms and ED etiology. In this study, the authors investigated ED symptoms in a large, population-based sample of 18-48-year-old men. Participants reported ED symptoms from their first intercourse experience as well as those occurring at present. The authors assessed the association between reported ED symptoms during early partnered sexual experiences and present ED symptoms. Furthermore, the authors investigated associations between age, symptoms of anxiety and depression, and erectile problems. Results indicated that age was a significant predictor of ED problems already in young age groups. ED problems were prevalent to a much higher extent during early sexual intercourse experiences and appeared to pass with time for most men. Anxiety and depression were significant predictors of present erectile problems. Implications of the results and potential limitations were discussed.