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Alexithymia and somatization in general population.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature156341
Source
Psychosom Med. 2008 Jul;70(6):716-22
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2008
Author
Aino K Mattila
Erkki Kronholm
Antti Jula
Jouko K Salminen
Anna-Maija Koivisto
Riitta-Liisa Mielonen
Matti Joukamaa
Author Affiliation
Tampere School of Public Health, FIN-33014 University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland. aino.mattila@uta.fi
Source
Psychosom Med. 2008 Jul;70(6):716-22
Date
Jul-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Affective Symptoms - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Age Distribution
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Anxiety Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Comorbidity
Cross-Sectional Studies
Depressive Disorder - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales - statistics & numerical data
Questionnaires
Sentinel Surveillance
Socioeconomic Factors
Somatoform Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Abstract
Even though the association between alexithymia and somatization seems plausible according to several studies with selected populations, it has not been verified in carefully controlled and nationally representative population studies. We conducted such a study to find out whether alexithymia is associated with somatization at population level.
This study was a part of the Finnish Health 2000 Study. The nationally representative sample comprised 5129 subjects aged 30 to 97 years. Alexithymia was measured with the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and somatic symptom reporting with the 12-item somatization scale derived from the Hopkins Symptom Checklist. Sociodemographic and health-related variables, including depressive and anxiety disorders, and physician verified somatic diagnoses, were treated as confounders in multivariate analyses.
Alexithymia was associated with somatization independently of somatic diseases, depression and anxiety and confounding sociodemographic variables. The TAS-20 factor scale "Difficulties Identifying Feelings" was the strongest common denominator between alexithymia and somatization.
This was the first time the independent association between alexithymia and somatization was established in a large, nationally representative nonclinical sample of both young and old adults with and without mental disorders and somatic diseases.
PubMed ID
18596251 View in PubMed
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Alexithymia, emotions and PTSD; findings from a longitudinal study of refugees.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature45803
Source
Nord J Psychiatry. 2004;58(3):185-91
Publication Type
Article
Date
2004
Author
Hans Peter Söndergaard
Töres Theorell
Author Affiliation
Swedish National Institute for Psychosocial Factors and Health, Stockholm. hans.peter.sondergaard@phs.ki.se
Source
Nord J Psychiatry. 2004;58(3):185-91
Date
2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Affective Symptoms - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Depressive Disorder - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Emotions
Female
Humans
Incidence
Iraq - ethnology
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Personality Inventory - statistics & numerical data
Psychometrics - statistics & numerical data
Refugees - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Reproducibility of Results
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
The objective of the present study was to assess alexithymia by means of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and The Emotion Protocol (EP) in a group of refugees. Eighty-six subjects were willing to participate. At last follow-up, 33 non-PTSD and 22 PTSD subjects had complete data. Subjects with PTSD had higher scores on the TAS-20 (F = 4.314, df = 77, p = 0.041), but on the subscale level, this was significant only with regard to Factor I, difficulties identifying feelings (F = 5.316, df = 77, p = 0.024). TAS Factor I and to a lower extent TAS Factor II (difficulties naming feelings) were significantly associated with the self-rated presence of dysphoric affects. At follow-up, an increase in TAS Factor I score was associated with increased prevalence of self-rated symptoms of PTSD, but not depression. Decrease in prolactin was associated with significant increase of TAS Factor I (rho = -0.396, n = 54, p = 0.003). The present study indicates that alexithymia as measured by TAS-20 is indeed associated with symptoms of PTSD. This association is almost exclusively explained by the TAS Factor I subscale and is in turn associated with a high level of self-reported dysphoric affect. The longitudinal inverse correlation with prolactin points to the possibility of an underlying disturbance in serotonergic and/or dopaminergic systems. The results thus indicate that secondary, or post-traumatic, alexithymia is a measure of suppressed or warded-off negative affects.
PubMed ID
15204204 View in PubMed
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Alexithymia, human relationships, and mobile phone use.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature140272
Source
J Nerv Ment Dis. 2010 Oct;198(10):722-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2010
Author
Aino K Mattila
Sinikka Luutonen
Mikko Ylinen
Raimo K R Salokangas
Matti Joukamaa
Author Affiliation
Tampere School of Public Health, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland. aino.mattila@uta.fi
Source
J Nerv Ment Dis. 2010 Oct;198(10):722-7
Date
Oct-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Affective Symptoms - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Aged
Cellular Phone - utilization
Comorbidity
Depressive Disorder - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Emotions
Female
Finland
Friends - psychology
Humans
Internal-External Control
Interpersonal Relations
Male
Middle Aged
Personality Inventory - statistics & numerical data
Psychometrics
Young Adult
Abstract
Alexithymia is a personality trait associated with difficulties in identifying feelings, difficulties in describing feelings to other people, constricted imaginal processes, and an externally oriented cognitive style. It has been found to be associated with personality features that may cause interpersonally avoidant behavior and other interpersonal problems. The present study explored, in a sample of primary care patients (N = 491), whether alexithymia is associated with mobile phone usage, and whether the perceived quality and quantity of human relationships mediate its effect. Even controlling for sociodemographic variables and symptoms of depression, mania and psychoses, alexithymia, measured by the 20-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale, was associated with less frequent mobile phone use. Not having enough relationships or a close friend, and relationships being less satisfactory mediated the effect of alexithymia on less frequent mobile phone use. The results support the findings of earlier studies that have linked interpersonal problems with alexithymia.
PubMed ID
20921862 View in PubMed
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Alexithymia is associated with anxiety among adolescents.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature144773
Source
J Affect Disord. 2010 Sep;125(1-3):383-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2010
Author
Max Karukivi
Lea Hautala
Olli Kaleva
Kirsi-Maria Haapasalo-Pesu
Pirjo-Riitta Liuksila
Matti Joukamaa
Simo Saarijärvi
Author Affiliation
Unit of Adolescent Psychiatry, University of Turku, Finland. max.karukivi@utu.fi
Source
J Affect Disord. 2010 Sep;125(1-3):383-7
Date
Sep-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Affective Symptoms - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Alcoholism - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Anxiety Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Comorbidity
Cross-Sectional Studies
Depressive Disorder - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Eating Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Female
Finland
Health Surveys
Humans
Male
Personality Inventory - statistics & numerical data
Psychometrics
Young Adult
Abstract
The aim of this study was to explore the possible association between alexithymia and anxiety in a non-clinical sample of late adolescents.
The questionnaire was sent to 935 adolescents of whom 729 (78%) responded, thus forming the final sample. The mean age of the subjects was 19 years (range 17-21 years). The Finnish versions of the following scales were used: the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) was used to assess alexithymia, and anxiety symptoms were measured using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Alcohol consumption was assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and depression symptoms were evaluated using the short form of the Beck Depression Inventory, as modified by Raitasalo (RBDI).
The prevalence of alexithymia in the sample was 8.2%, with no statistically significant gender difference. The alexithymic subjects had significantly (p
PubMed ID
20303180 View in PubMed
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An evaluation of the mental status of rejected asylum seekers in two Danish asylum centers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature88826
Source
Torture. 2009;19(1):51-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
2009
Author
Schwarz-Nielsen Kathrine Hvid
Elklitt Ask
Author Affiliation
University of Copenhagen, Panum Institute, Copenhagen, Denmark. trine_hvid@hotmail.com
Source
Torture. 2009;19(1):51-9
Date
2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Psychological
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Aged
Anxiety - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Depressive Disorder - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Incidence
Iraq - ethnology
Male
Mental Status Schedule
Middle Aged
Probability
Questionnaires
Refugees - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Risk assessment
Severity of Illness Index
Sex Distribution
Statistics, nonparametric
Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Stress, Psychological
Time Factors
War
Young Adult
Abstract
INTRODUCTION: International studies have shown high incidences of symptoms regarding anxiety, depression, and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among asylum seekers of different ethnicities. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of symptoms of anxiety, depression, and PTSD among rejected Iraqi asylum seekers in two Danish Red Cross asylum centers. Factors such as the length of stay in an asylum center and the number of traumatic events were considered as risk factors associated with the degree of psychological morbidity. METHOD: In 2007, 53 rejected Iraqi asylum seekers from two Danish Red Cross centers completed a survey based on the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire-IV (HTQ) and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist 25 (HSCL-25). The response rate was 36%. The analyses focused on the impact of gender, age, marriage, religion, the length of stay at the asylum center, and the number of traumatic events on the severity of symptoms of anxiety, depression, and PTSD. FINDINGS: Of all participants, 94% were found to have symptoms of anxiety, 100% had symptoms of depression, and 77% had symptoms of PTSD. The participants had experienced or witnessed an average of 8.5 traumatic events before their arrival in Denmark. There was no significant association between the number of traumatic events, and the symptoms of PTSD. In addition, there was no significant difference in the length of stay and symptoms of anxiety, depression, and PTSD despite the fact that 79% of the participants had stayed in an asylum center for 5-10 years or more. CONCLUSION: Despite the limitations of the data, such as the small sample, this study showed that the prevalence rates of psychopathology in Iraqi asylum seekers in Denmark were alarmingly high. Therefore, it is recommended that systematic screening of all detained asylum seekers in Denmark is introduced. Given the degree of mental health problems it is also recommended that procedures be changed and that treatment should be offered to asylum seekers who are detained in Danish asylum centers.
PubMed ID
19491487 View in PubMed
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Antenatal depression, substance dependency and social support.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature194225
Source
J Affect Disord. 2001 Jun;65(1):9-17
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2001
Author
M. Pajulo
E. Savonlahti
A. Sourander
H. Helenius
J. Piha
Author Affiliation
Child Psychiatry Clinic, University of Turku, Finland.
Source
J Affect Disord. 2001 Jun;65(1):9-17
Date
Jun-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Cross-Sectional Studies
Depression, Postpartum - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Depressive Disorder - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Incidence
Mass Screening
Personality Inventory
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Prenatal Care
Risk assessment
Social Support
Substance-Related Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence of depression and factors associated with depressive mood among pregnant women.
391 women who were 14-37 weeks pregnant were evaluated with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Screen (EPDS), which has also been validated for prenatal use. Four questionnaires were used in order to explore associated factors: a questionnaire on background and pregnancy data, the Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory (SASSI) and two Social Support Questionnaires (SSQ1 and 2).
7.7% of the total sample screened positive on the EPDS with a cut-off point of 12/13 recommended. Substance dependency and experienced difficulties in social environment had an independently significant association with maternal depression.
The caseness was defined with a self-report instrument.
Substance dependency and experienced difficulties, especially in relation to friends, partner and own mother, are associated with antenatal depression. It is important to be aware of this when developing interventions in maternity care primary units.
PubMed ID
11426516 View in PubMed
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Anxiety and depressive symptoms related to parenthood in a large Norwegian community sample: the HUNT2 study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature149184
Source
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2010 Jul;45(7):713-21
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2010
Author
Tormod Rimehaug
Jan Wallander
Author Affiliation
Regional Centre for Child and Adolescent Mental Health, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), 7489, Trondheim, Norway. Tormod.Rimehaug@ntnu.no
Source
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2010 Jul;45(7):713-21
Date
Jul-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Anxiety Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Data Collection
Depression - epidemiology
Depressive Disorder - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Divorce - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Female
Health Surveys
Humans
Male
Marriage - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Parents - psychology
Prevalence
Residence Characteristics
Single Person - psychology
Single-Parent Family - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
The study compared anxiety and depression prevalence between parents and non-parents in a society with family- and parenthood-friendly social politics, controlling for family status and family history, age, gender, education and social class.
All participants aged 30-49 (N = 24,040) in the large, non-sampled Norwegian HUNT2 community health study completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales.
The slightly elevated anxiety and depression among non-parents compared to parents in the complete sample was not confirmed as statistically significant within any subgroups. Married parents and (previously unmarried) cohabiting parents did not differ in portraying low anxiety and depression prevalence. Anxiety was associated with single parenthood, living alone or being divorced, while elevated depression was found only among those living alone.
Burdening selection and cultural/political context are suggested as interpretative perspectives on the contextual and personal influences on the complex relationship between parenthood and mental health.
Notes
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PubMed ID
19669679 View in PubMed
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Anxiety at age 15 predicts psychiatric diagnoses and suicidal ideation in late adolescence and young adulthood: results from two longitudinal studies.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature308169
Source
BMC Psychiatry. 2019 11 14; 19(1):363
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Twin Study
Date
11-14-2019
Author
Sabrina Doering
Paul Lichtenstein
Christopher Gillberg
Christel M Middeldorp
Meike Bartels
Ralf Kuja-Halkola
Sebastian Lundström
Author Affiliation
Centre for Ethics, Law and Mental Health, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden. sabrina.doering@gu.se.
Source
BMC Psychiatry. 2019 11 14; 19(1):363
Date
11-14-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Twin Study
Keywords
Adolescent
Anxiety - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Autism Spectrum Disorder - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Depressive Disorder - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Diseases in Twins - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Female
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Predictive value of tests
Prospective Studies
Risk factors
Self Report
Suicidal ideation
Sweden - epidemiology
Twins - psychology
Young Adult
Abstract
Anxiety disorders in adolescence have been associated with several psychiatric outcomes. We sought to describe the prospective relationship between various levels of adolescent anxiety and psychiatric diagnoses (anxiety-, bipolar/psychotic-, depressive-, and alcohol and drug misuse disorders) and suicidal ideation in early adulthood while adjusting for childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Furthermore, we aimed to estimate the proportion attributable to the various anxiety levels for the outcomes.
We used a nation-wide population-based Swedish twin study comprising 14,106 fifteen-year-old twins born in Sweden between 1994 and 2002 and a replication sample consisting of 9211 Dutch twins, born between 1985 and 1999. Adolescent anxiety was measured with parental and self-report. Psychiatric diagnoses and suicidal ideation were retrieved from the Swedish National Patient Register and via self-report.
Adolescent anxiety, of various levels, predicted, in the Swedish National Patient Register, anxiety disorders: hazard ratio (HR)?=?4.92 (CI 3.33-7.28); depressive disorders: HR?=?4.79 (3.23-7.08), and any psychiatric outcome: HR?=?3.40 (2.58-4.48), when adjusting for ADHD, ASD, and DCD. The results were replicated in the Dutch data. The proportion of psychiatric outcome attributable to adolescent anxiety over time (age 15-21) was 29% for any psychiatric outcome, 43-40% for anxiety disorders, and 39-38% for depressive disorders.
Anxiety in adolescence constitutes an important risk factor in the development of psychiatric outcomes, revealing unique predictions for the different levels of anxiety, and beyond the risk conferred by childhood ADHD, ASD, and DCD. Developmental trajectories leading into psychiatric outcomes should further empirically investigated.
PubMed ID
31727035 View in PubMed
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Anxiety, depression, and 1-year incident cognitive impairment in community-dwelling older adults.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature132631
Source
J Am Geriatr Soc. 2011 Aug;59(8):1421-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2011
Author
Olivier Potvin
Hélène Forget
Sébastien Grenier
Michel Préville
Carol Hudon
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Québec, Canada. Olivier.Potvin@crulrg.ulaval.ca
Source
J Am Geriatr Soc. 2011 Aug;59(8):1421-8
Date
Aug-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Anxiety Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Cognition Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Comorbidity
Cross-Sectional Studies
Depressive Disorder - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
Female
Geriatric Assessment - statistics & numerical data
Health Surveys
Humans
Incidence
Independent Living - psychology
Male
Mental Status Schedule - statistics & numerical data
Psychometrics
Quebec
Abstract
To examine in men and women the independent associations between anxiety and depression and 1-year incident cognitive impairment and to examine the association of cognitive impairment, no dementia (CIND) and incident cognitive impairment with 1-year incident anxiety or depression.
Prospective cohort study.
General community.
Population-based sample of 1,942 individuals aged 65 to 96.
Two structured interviews 12 months apart evaluated anxiety and mood symptoms and disorders according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria. Incident cognitive impairment was defined as no CIND at baseline and a follow-up Mini-Mental State Examination score at least 2 points below baseline and below the 15th percentile according to normative data. The associations between cognitive impairment and anxiety or depression were assessed using logistic regression adjusted for potential confounders.
Incident cognitive impairment was, independently of depression, associated with baseline anxiety disorders in men (odds ratio (OR)=6.27, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.39-28.29) and anxiety symptoms in women (OR=2.14, 95%=1.06-4.34). Moreover, the results indicated that depression disorders in men (OR=8.87, 95%=2.13-36.96) and anxiety symptoms in women (OR=4.31, 95%=1.74-10.67) were particularly linked to incident amnestic cognitive impairment, whereas anxiety disorders in men (OR=12.01, 95%=1.73-83.26) were especially associated with incident nonamnestic cognitive impairment. CIND at baseline and incident cognitive impairment were not associated with incident anxiety or depression.
Anxiety and depression appear to have different relationships with incident cognitive impairment according to sex and the nature of cognitive impairment. Clinicians should pay particular attention to anxiety in older adults because it may shortly be followed by incident cognitive treatment.
PubMed ID
21797836 View in PubMed
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Are early and current erectile problems associated with anxiety and depression in young men? A retrospective self-report study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature123276
Source
J Sex Marital Ther. 2012;38(4):349-64
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Patrick Jern
Annika Gunst
Kenneth Sandnabba
Pekka Santtila
Author Affiliation
Abo Akademi University, Department of Psychology and Logopedics, Turku, Finland. pjern@abo.fi
Source
J Sex Marital Ther. 2012;38(4):349-64
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Anxiety Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Coitus - psychology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Depressive Disorder - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Diseases in Twins - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Erectile Dysfunction - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Finland
Health Surveys
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Questionnaires
Retrospective Studies
Young Adult
Abstract
Erectile dysfunction (ED) has been extensively studied in the past few decades, and significant advances have been made in understanding its etiology. Most cases of this type of dysfunction have an organic etiology, and ED occurs primarily in older men. However, relatively little is known about erectile problems in young men or about the interconnection between psychiatric symptoms and ED etiology. In this study, the authors investigated ED symptoms in a large, population-based sample of 18-48-year-old men. Participants reported ED symptoms from their first intercourse experience as well as those occurring at present. The authors assessed the association between reported ED symptoms during early partnered sexual experiences and present ED symptoms. Furthermore, the authors investigated associations between age, symptoms of anxiety and depression, and erectile problems. Results indicated that age was a significant predictor of ED problems already in young age groups. ED problems were prevalent to a much higher extent during early sexual intercourse experiences and appeared to pass with time for most men. Anxiety and depression were significant predictors of present erectile problems. Implications of the results and potential limitations were discussed.
PubMed ID
22712819 View in PubMed
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156 records – page 1 of 16.