The psychosocial work environment may be a determinant of the development and course of depressive disorders, but the literature shows inconsistent findings. Thus, the aim of this study is to determine longitudinal effects of the job demands-control-support model (JDCSM) variables on the occurrence of major depression among working men and women from the general population.
The sample comprised 4,710 working women and men living in Stockholm, who answered the same questionnaire twice, 3?years apart, who were not depressed during the first wave and had the same job in both waves. The questionnaire included JDCSM variables (demands, skill discretion, decision authority and social climate) and other co-variables (income, education, occupational group, social support, help and small children at home, living with an adult and depressive symptoms at time 1; and negative life events at time 2). Multiple logistic regressions were run to calculate odds ratios of having major depression at time 2, after adjustment for other JDCSM variables and co-variables.
Among women, inadequate work social climate was the only significant risk indicator for major depression. Surprisingly, among men, high job demands and low skill discretion appeared as protective factors against major depression.
The results showed a strong relationship between inadequate social climate and major depression among women, while there were no certain effects for the remaining exposure variables. Among men, few cases of major depression hampered well-founded conclusions regarding our findings of low job demands and high skill discretion as related to major depression.
We prospectively studied parental mental health after suddenly losing a son in a military training accident. Parents (N = 32) were interviewed at 1, 2 and 23 years after the death of their son. The General Health Questionnaire and Expanded Texas Inventory of Grief were self-reported at 1, 2, 5, and 23 years; the Inventory of Complicated Grief was self-reported at 23 years. We observed a high prevalence of psychiatric disorders at 1- and 2-year follow-ups (57% and 45%, respectively), particularly major depression (43% and 31%, respectively). Only one mental disorder was diagnosed at the 23-year follow-up. Grief and psychological distress were highest at 1- and 2-year follow-ups. Spouses exhibited a high concordance of psychological distress. Mothers reported more intense grief reactions than did fathers. The loss of a son during military service may have a substantial impact on parental mental health particularly during the first 2 years after death. Spouses' grief can be interrelated and may contribute to their psychological distress.