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The 1-month prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder according to DSM-IV, DSM-V, and ICD-10 among nondemented 75-year-olds in Gothenburg, Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature124775
Source
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2012 Nov;20(11):963-72
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2012
Author
Nilsson, J
Östling, S
Waern, M
Karlsson, B
SigstrÖm, R
Xinxin Guo
Ingmar Skoog
Author Affiliation
Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
Source
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2012 Nov;20(11):963-72
Date
Nov-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Alzheimer Disease - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Anxiety Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Chronic Disease - epidemiology - psychology
Comorbidity
Cross-Sectional Studies
Depressive Disorder, Major - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
Female
Geriatric Assessment - statistics & numerical data
Health Behavior
Health Surveys
Humans
International Classification of Diseases
Interview, Psychological
Life Style
Male
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Phobic Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Sweden
Abstract
To examine the 1-month prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental, Fifth Edition (DSM-V), and International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10), and the overlap between these criteria, in a population sample of 75-year-olds. We also aimed to examine comorbidity between GAD and other psychiatric diagnoses, such as depression.
During 2005-2006, a comprehensive semistructured psychiatric interview was conducted by trained nurses in a representative population sample of 75-year-olds without dementia in Gothenburg, Sweden (N = 777; 299 men and 478 women). All psychiatric diagnoses were made according to DSM-IV. GAD was also diagnosed according to ICD-10 and DSM-V.
The 1-month prevalence of GAD was 4.1% (N = 32) according to DSM-IV, 4.5% (N = 35) according to DSM-V, and 3.7% (N = 29) according to ICD-10. Only 46.9% of those with DSM-IV GAD fulfilled ICD-10 criteria, and only 51.7% and 44.8% of those with ICD-10 GAD fulfilled DSM-IV/V criteria. Instead, 84.4% and 74.3% of those with DSM-IV/V GAD and 89.7% of those with ICD-10 GAD had depression. Also other psychiatric diagnoses were common in those with ICD-10 and DSM-IV GAD. Only a small minority with GAD, irrespective of criteria, had no other comorbid psychiatric disorder. ICD-10 GAD was related to an increased mortality rate.
While GAD was common in 75-year-olds, DSM-IV/V and ICD-10 captured different individuals. Current definitions of GAD may comprise two different expressions of the disease. There was greater congruence between GAD in either classification system and depression than between DSM-IV/V GAD and ICD-10 GAD, emphasizing the close link between these entities.
PubMed ID
22549369 View in PubMed
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Accumulation of major depressive episodes over time in a prospective study indicates that retrospectively assessed lifetime prevalence estimates are too low.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature151127
Source
BMC Psychiatry. 2009;9:19
Publication Type
Article
Date
2009
Author
Scott B Patten
Author Affiliation
Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada. patten@ucalgary.ca
Source
BMC Psychiatry. 2009;9:19
Date
2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Age Factors
Age of Onset
Bias (epidemiology)
Canada - epidemiology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Depressive Disorder, Major - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Female
Health Surveys
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Mental Recall
Prevalence
Prospective Studies
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
Questionnaires
Retrospective Studies
Severity of Illness Index
Sex Factors
Time Factors
Abstract
Most epidemiologic studies concerned with Major Depressive Disorder have employed cross-sectional study designs. Assessment of lifetime prevalence in such studies depends on recall of past depressive episodes. Such studies may underestimate lifetime prevalence because of incomplete recall of past episodes (recall bias). An opportunity to evaluate this issue arises with a prospective Canadian study called the National Population Health Survey (NPHS).
The NPHS is a longitudinal study that has followed a community sample representative of household residents since 1994. Follow-up interviews have been completed every two years and have incorporated the Composite International Diagnostic Interview short form for major depression. Data are currently available for seven such interview cycles spanning the time frame 1994 to 2006. In this study, cumulative prevalence was calculated by determining the proportion of respondents who had one or more major depressive episodes during this follow-up interval.
The annual prevalence of MDD ranged between 4% and 5% of the population during each assessment, consistent with existing literature. However, 19.7% of the population had at least one major depressive episode during follow-up. This included 24.2% of women and 14.2% of men. These estimates are nearly twice as high as the lifetime prevalence of major depressive episodes reported by cross-sectional studies during same time interval.
In this study, prospectively observed cumulative prevalence over a relatively brief interval of time exceeded lifetime prevalence estimates by a considerable extent. This supports the idea that lifetime prevalence estimates are vulnerable to recall bias and that existing estimates are too low for this reason.
Notes
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PubMed ID
19422724 View in PubMed
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Adolescent depression: the role of discontinuities in life course and social support.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature194984
Source
J Affect Disord. 2001 May;64(2-3):155-66
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2001
Author
R. Kaltiala-Heino
M. Rimpelä
P. Rantanen
P. Laippala
Author Affiliation
University of Tampere, Tampere School of Public Health and Tampere University Hospital, Box 607, 33101, Tampere, Finland. merihe@uta.fi
Source
J Affect Disord. 2001 May;64(2-3):155-66
Date
May-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Depressive Disorder, Major - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Life Change Events
Male
Prevalence
Psychometrics - statistics & numerical data
Questionnaires
Severity of Illness Index
Social Support
Abstract
To study sociodemographic determinants of depression among 14-16 years old girls and boys, and the role of perceived social support in mediating the effects of the background variables.
16464 adolescents aged 14-16 participated the School Health Promotion Study, a survey about health, health behaviour and school behaviour. Depression was measured by the Finnish modification of the 13-item Beck Depression Inventory. Moderate to severe symptoms in this scale were recorded as depression.
Depression was associated with family structure in both sexes. Among girls, having moved recently and low parental education increased the risk for depression, among boys, unemployment in the family. Accumulating number of discontinuities in life course increased the proportion of the depressed among both girls and boys. Perceived lack of social support had the same effect. Lack of support did not explain the effect on depression of the discontinuities in life course.
To detect risk groups for adolescent depressive disorders, health services should pay attention to adolescents who have experienced life changes. Perceived social support should be enquired.
PubMed ID
11313082 View in PubMed
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Alexithymia and suicidal ideation: a 12-month follow-up study in a general population.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature178650
Source
Compr Psychiatry. 2004 Sep-Oct;45(5):340-5
Publication Type
Article
Author
Jukka Hintikka
Kirsi Honkalampi
Heli Koivumaa-Honkanen
Risto Antikainen
Antti Tanskanen
Kaisa Haatainen
Heimo Viinamäki
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychiatry, Kuopio University Hospital, Finland.
Source
Compr Psychiatry. 2004 Sep-Oct;45(5):340-5
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Affective Symptoms - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Alcohol drinking - epidemiology
Depressive Disorder, Major - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Health status
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Population Surveillance - methods
Prevalence
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Smoking - epidemiology
Socioeconomic Factors
Suicide, Attempted - statistics & numerical data
Unemployment - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Alexithymic features are often associated with depression, which is the most important risk factor for suicidal behaviors. Nevertheless, little is known about the associations between alexithymia and suicidality. In this 12-month follow-up study we investigated the relationship between alexithymia and suicidal ideation in a sample of the general population (N = 1,563) using the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and the 21-item Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Suicidal ideation was more common among subjects with alexithymia than among nonalexithymic subjects (32% v 9% at baseline and 36% v 9% after 12 months). In cross-sectional analyses, alexithymia associated with the presence of suicidal ideation even after adjustment for sex, age, and several psychosocial and socioeconomic factors and the presence of depression. Moreover, after adjustment for depression at baseline, the decrease and increase in alexithymic features during the study period associated independently with recovery from and the occurrence of suicidal ideation, respectively. Nevertheless, these associations were no longer independent when adjusted for concomitant changes in the level of depressive symptoms. In conclusion, if depression presents alexithymic features the subject has an additive impact on the risk of suicidal ideation.
PubMed ID
15332196 View in PubMed
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Assessing depression in Russian psychiatric patients: validity of MMPI and Rorschach.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature191967
Source
Assessment. 2001 Dec;8(4):373-89
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2001
Author
J B Ritsher
E B Slivko-Kolchik
I V Oleichik
Author Affiliation
University of Maryland, USA. jennifer@ritsher.net
Source
Assessment. 2001 Dec;8(4):373-89
Date
Dec-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Catchment Area (Health)
Culture
Depressive Disorder, Major - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Humans
MMPI
Mental Disorders - psychology
Reproducibility of Results
Rorschach test
Russia - epidemiology
Abstract
We tested the criterion, concurrent, and content validity of depression indicators in 180 Russian psychiatric patients. Indicators from the Exner Rorschach (DEPI, CDI) and the Russian MMPI (Berezin Scale 2, Wiggins depression content) were compared to Hamilton (HRSD) scores and 3 types of diagnosis: traditional Russian, contemporary Western (ICD-10), and a mixed version. The MMPI scales had significant associations with each other and each criterion. The Rorschach indexes were unrelated to all other variables, even when their affective, cognitive, and interpersonal components were analyzed separately, response styles were taken into account, or the 2 indexes were used in combination. Nevertheless, sample means on 107 variables were roughly similar to Exner's norms. The study represents an initial step towards establishing the validity of instruments commonly used in Russia and North America for assessing depression among Russians.
PubMed ID
11785582 View in PubMed
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Association of depressive symptoms and metabolic syndrome in men.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature153246
Source
Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2009 Jul;120(1):23-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2009
Author
H. Viinamäki
T. Heiskanen
S M Lehto
L. Niskanen
H. Koivumaa-Honkanen
T. Tolmunen
K. Honkalampi
T. Saharinen
K. Haatainen
J. Hintikka
Author Affiliation
Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Kuopio, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland. heimo.viinamaki@kuh.fi
Source
Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2009 Jul;120(1):23-9
Date
Jul-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Comorbidity
Cross-Sectional Studies
Depressive Disorder, Major - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Female
Finland
Health Surveys
Humans
Male
Metabolic Syndrome X - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Personality Inventory - statistics & numerical data
Psychometrics
Sex Factors
Statistics as Topic
Abstract
To explore the relationship between several indicators of depression and metabolic syndrome (MetS).
A population-based sample with high (HMS group) or low (LMS group) levels of mental symptoms, including those of depression, in three follow-ups participated in a clinical examination in 2005 (n = 223). MetS was determined according to the NCEP criteria.
The prevalence of MetS was 49% in men and 21% in women. Men with MetS had higher rates of major depressive disorder than other men. They also displayed higher Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HDRS) scores and more often signs of suicidality. In logistic regression analyses, higher HDRS scores (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.04-1.64) and belonging to the HMS group (OR 10.1, 95% CI 1.98-51.3) were independent associates for MetS but only in men.
The results highlight that there is an association between long-term depressive symptoms and the emergence of MetS, especially in men.
PubMed ID
19133875 View in PubMed
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Associations of social relationships with consultation for symptoms of depression: a community study of depression in older men and women in Qu├ębec.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature133702
Source
Psychol Rep. 2011 Apr;108(2):537-52
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2011
Author
Samia-Djemaa Mechakra-Tahiri
Maria Victoria Zunzunegui
Micheline Dubé
Michel Préville
Author Affiliation
Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health, Université de Montréal. samiatahiri@yahoo.fr
Source
Psychol Rep. 2011 Apr;108(2):537-52
Date
Apr-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Aged
Depressive Disorder - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Depressive Disorder, Major - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Family Characteristics
Female
Health Surveys
Humans
Interpersonal Relations
Male
Marital status
Quebec
Referral and Consultation - utilization
Sex Factors
Social Support
Utilization Review - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
To assess associations between social relationships and consultation for symptoms of depression, data from a representative sample of 2,811 French-speaking community-dwelling older adults in Québec were used. Less than half of the older adults meeting DSM criteria for depression (N = 379; 47.1%) had sought consultation about their depression-relevant symptoms in the preceding 12 months. Having a cohabitant partner or having children were not associated with frequency of consultation for women. Men without a partner tended to consult more frequently than men with a cohabiting partner (OR = 2.5; 95% CI = 0.81, 7.88). None of the men without a confidant had consulted. Among the 67 men with a confidant, consultation was more frequent among those not cohabiting with a partner (70%) than among those with a cohabiting partner (46%). The influence of social relationships on consultation for depression differed in men and women in this population of depressed elderly people in Québec.
PubMed ID
21675568 View in PubMed
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Categorical and dimensional stability of comorbid personality disorder symptoms in DSM-IV major depressive disorder: a prospective study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature146035
Source
J Clin Psychiatry. 2010 Mar;71(3):287-95
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2010
Author
Tarja K Melartin
Jari Haukka
Heikki J Rytsälä
Pekka J Jylhä
Erkki T Isometsä
Author Affiliation
Mood, Depression, and Suicidal Behavior Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.
Source
J Clin Psychiatry. 2010 Mar;71(3):287-95
Date
Mar-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Anxiety Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Comorbidity
Depressive Disorder, Major - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
Extraversion (Psychology)
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Male
Personality Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Personality Inventory
Prospective Studies
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
Psychometrics
Questionnaires
Self Concept
Abstract
To investigate the categorical and dimensional temporal stability of Axis II personality disorders among depressive patients, and to determine whether variations in Axis I comorbid disorders or self-reported personality traits predict changes in researcher-assigned personality disorder symptoms.
Patients with DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD) in the Vantaa Depression Study (N = 269) were interviewed with the World Health Organization Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry, version 2.0, and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R Axis II Disorders and were assessed with the 57-item Eysenck Personality Inventory at baseline, 6 months, and 18 months. Baseline interviews occurred between February 1, 1997, and May 31, 1998; follow-up interviews were 6 months and 18 months after baseline for each patient. Of the patients included in the study, 193 remained unipolar and could be interviewed at both follow-ups. The covariation of the severity of depression, anxiety, alcohol use, and reported neuroticism and extraversion with assigned personality disorder symptoms was investigated by using general estimation equations.
The diagnosis of personality disorder persisted at all time points in about half (43%) of the 81 MDD patients diagnosed with personality disorder at baseline. The number of positive personality disorder criteria declined, particularly during the first 6 months, by a mean of 3 criteria. The decline in reported personality disorder symptoms covaried significantly with declines in the severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms (depressive: P = .02 for paranoid, P = .02 for borderline, and P = .01 for avoidant; anxiety: P = .08 for paranoid, P = .01 for borderline, and P
PubMed ID
20079331 View in PubMed
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Childhood bullying as a risk for later depression and suicidal ideation among Finnish males.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature159137
Source
J Affect Disord. 2008 Jul;109(1-2):47-55
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2008
Author
Anat Brunstein Klomek
Andre Sourander
Kirsti Kumpulainen
Jorma Piha
Tuula Tamminen
Irma Moilanen
Fredrik Almqvist
Madelyn S Gould
Author Affiliation
Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA. klomeka@childpsych.columbia.edu
Source
J Affect Disord. 2008 Jul;109(1-2):47-55
Date
Jul-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Aggression - psychology
Child
Depressive Disorder, Major - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Mass Screening - methods
Prevalence
Suicide, Attempted - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Little is known about the predictive association between childhood bullying behavior with depression and suicidal ideation at age 18.
The sample included 2348 boys born in 1981. Information about bullying was gathered at the age of 8 from self, parent and teacher's reports. Depression and suicidal ideation were assessed during the Finnish military call-up examination.
Based on regression models, boys who were bullies frequently, but not merely sometimes, were more likely to be severely depressed and to report suicidal ideation compared to boys who were not bullies. When controlling for depression at age 8 the association between frequent bullying and severe depression was maintained but the association with suicidal ideation became non-significant. Boys who were only victimized were not more likely to be depressed or to report suicidal ideation at age 18. Boys who were frequently both bullies and victims were found to be at risk for later depression.
Our finding can only be generalized to boys who were involved in bullying at elementary school age. Data at age 18 was based only on self-reports and the bullying/victimization questions were very general.
Childhood bullying behavior is a risk factor for later depression. Screening and intervention for bullying behavior in the early school years is recommended to avoid subsequent internalizing problem in late adolescence.
PubMed ID
18221788 View in PubMed
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Clinical utility of Standardised Assessment of Personality - Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS) among patients with first episode depression.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature142598
Source
J Affect Disord. 2010 Dec;127(1-3):199-202
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2010
Author
Jens Drachmann Bukh
Camilla Bock
Maj Vinberg
Ulrik Gether
Lars Vedel Kessing
Author Affiliation
Psychiatric Center Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. jens.bukh@regionh.dk
Source
J Affect Disord. 2010 Dec;127(1-3):199-202
Date
Dec-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Ambulatory Care - statistics & numerical data
Comorbidity
Cross-Sectional Studies
Denmark
Depressive Disorder - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Depressive Disorder, Major - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Female
Humans
Interview, Psychological
Male
Mass Screening
Middle Aged
Personality Assessment - standards - statistics & numerical data
Personality Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Psychometrics
Registries
Abstract
Personality disorder frequently co-occurs with depression and seems to be associated with a poorer outcome of treatment and increased risk for recurrences. However, the diagnosing of personality disorder can be lengthy and requires some training. Therefore, a brief screening interview for comorbid personality disorder among patients suffering from depression would be of clinical use.
The present study aimed to assess the utility of the Standardised Assessment of Personality - Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS) as a screen for personality disorder in a population of patients recently diagnosed with first episode depression. A total number of 394 patients with an ICD-10 diagnosis of a single depressive episode were sampled consecutively via the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register during a 2years inclusion period and assessed by the screening interview and, subsequently, by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders.
We found, that a cut-off of 3 on the screen correctly identified the presence of comorbid personality disorder in 73.1% of the patients. The sensitivity and specificity were 0.80 and 0.70, respectively.
The findings cannot be generalized to patients outside hospital settings.
The study provides evidence for the clinical utility of SAPAS as a screening interview for comorbid personality disorder in a population of patients with a primary diagnosis of depression.
PubMed ID
20579743 View in PubMed
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