To examine the 1-month prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental, Fifth Edition (DSM-V), and International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10), and the overlap between these criteria, in a population sample of 75-year-olds. We also aimed to examine comorbidity between GAD and other psychiatric diagnoses, such as depression.
During 2005-2006, a comprehensive semistructured psychiatric interview was conducted by trained nurses in a representative population sample of 75-year-olds without dementia in Gothenburg, Sweden (N = 777; 299 men and 478 women). All psychiatric diagnoses were made according to DSM-IV. GAD was also diagnosed according to ICD-10 and DSM-V.
The 1-month prevalence of GAD was 4.1% (N = 32) according to DSM-IV, 4.5% (N = 35) according to DSM-V, and 3.7% (N = 29) according to ICD-10. Only 46.9% of those with DSM-IV GAD fulfilled ICD-10 criteria, and only 51.7% and 44.8% of those with ICD-10 GAD fulfilled DSM-IV/V criteria. Instead, 84.4% and 74.3% of those with DSM-IV/V GAD and 89.7% of those with ICD-10 GAD had depression. Also other psychiatric diagnoses were common in those with ICD-10 and DSM-IV GAD. Only a small minority with GAD, irrespective of criteria, had no other comorbid psychiatric disorder. ICD-10 GAD was related to an increased mortality rate.
While GAD was common in 75-year-olds, DSM-IV/V and ICD-10 captured different individuals. Current definitions of GAD may comprise two different expressions of the disease. There was greater congruence between GAD in either classification system and depression than between DSM-IV/V GAD and ICD-10 GAD, emphasizing the close link between these entities.
Most epidemiologic studies concerned with Major Depressive Disorder have employed cross-sectional study designs. Assessment of lifetime prevalence in such studies depends on recall of past depressive episodes. Such studies may underestimate lifetime prevalence because of incomplete recall of past episodes (recall bias). An opportunity to evaluate this issue arises with a prospective Canadian study called the National Population Health Survey (NPHS).
The NPHS is a longitudinal study that has followed a community sample representative of household residents since 1994. Follow-up interviews have been completed every two years and have incorporated the Composite International Diagnostic Interview short form for major depression. Data are currently available for seven such interview cycles spanning the time frame 1994 to 2006. In this study, cumulative prevalence was calculated by determining the proportion of respondents who had one or more major depressive episodes during this follow-up interval.
The annual prevalence of MDD ranged between 4% and 5% of the population during each assessment, consistent with existing literature. However, 19.7% of the population had at least one major depressive episode during follow-up. This included 24.2% of women and 14.2% of men. These estimates are nearly twice as high as the lifetime prevalence of major depressive episodes reported by cross-sectional studies during same time interval.
In this study, prospectively observed cumulative prevalence over a relatively brief interval of time exceeded lifetime prevalence estimates by a considerable extent. This supports the idea that lifetime prevalence estimates are vulnerable to recall bias and that existing estimates are too low for this reason.
To study sociodemographic determinants of depression among 14-16 years old girls and boys, and the role of perceived social support in mediating the effects of the background variables.
16464 adolescents aged 14-16 participated the School Health Promotion Study, a survey about health, health behaviour and school behaviour. Depression was measured by the Finnish modification of the 13-item Beck Depression Inventory. Moderate to severe symptoms in this scale were recorded as depression.
Depression was associated with family structure in both sexes. Among girls, having moved recently and low parental education increased the risk for depression, among boys, unemployment in the family. Accumulating number of discontinuities in life course increased the proportion of the depressed among both girls and boys. Perceived lack of social support had the same effect. Lack of support did not explain the effect on depression of the discontinuities in life course.
To detect risk groups for adolescent depressive disorders, health services should pay attention to adolescents who have experienced life changes. Perceived social support should be enquired.
Alexithymic features are often associated with depression, which is the most important risk factor for suicidal behaviors. Nevertheless, little is known about the associations between alexithymia and suicidality. In this 12-month follow-up study we investigated the relationship between alexithymia and suicidal ideation in a sample of the general population (N = 1,563) using the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and the 21-item Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Suicidal ideation was more common among subjects with alexithymia than among nonalexithymic subjects (32% v 9% at baseline and 36% v 9% after 12 months). In cross-sectional analyses, alexithymia associated with the presence of suicidal ideation even after adjustment for sex, age, and several psychosocial and socioeconomic factors and the presence of depression. Moreover, after adjustment for depression at baseline, the decrease and increase in alexithymic features during the study period associated independently with recovery from and the occurrence of suicidal ideation, respectively. Nevertheless, these associations were no longer independent when adjusted for concomitant changes in the level of depressive symptoms. In conclusion, if depression presents alexithymic features the subject has an additive impact on the risk of suicidal ideation.
We tested the criterion, concurrent, and content validity of depression indicators in 180 Russian psychiatric patients. Indicators from the Exner Rorschach (DEPI, CDI) and the Russian MMPI (Berezin Scale 2, Wiggins depression content) were compared to Hamilton (HRSD) scores and 3 types of diagnosis: traditional Russian, contemporary Western (ICD-10), and a mixed version. The MMPI scales had significant associations with each other and each criterion. The Rorschach indexes were unrelated to all other variables, even when their affective, cognitive, and interpersonal components were analyzed separately, response styles were taken into account, or the 2 indexes were used in combination. Nevertheless, sample means on 107 variables were roughly similar to Exner's norms. The study represents an initial step towards establishing the validity of instruments commonly used in Russia and North America for assessing depression among Russians.
To explore the relationship between several indicators of depression and metabolic syndrome (MetS).
A population-based sample with high (HMS group) or low (LMS group) levels of mental symptoms, including those of depression, in three follow-ups participated in a clinical examination in 2005 (n = 223). MetS was determined according to the NCEP criteria.
The prevalence of MetS was 49% in men and 21% in women. Men with MetS had higher rates of major depressive disorder than other men. They also displayed higher Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HDRS) scores and more often signs of suicidality. In logistic regression analyses, higher HDRS scores (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.04-1.64) and belonging to the HMS group (OR 10.1, 95% CI 1.98-51.3) were independent associates for MetS but only in men.
The results highlight that there is an association between long-term depressive symptoms and the emergence of MetS, especially in men.
To assess associations between social relationships and consultation for symptoms of depression, data from a representative sample of 2,811 French-speaking community-dwelling older adults in Québec were used. Less than half of the older adults meeting DSM criteria for depression (N = 379; 47.1%) had sought consultation about their depression-relevant symptoms in the preceding 12 months. Having a cohabitant partner or having children were not associated with frequency of consultation for women. Men without a partner tended to consult more frequently than men with a cohabiting partner (OR = 2.5; 95% CI = 0.81, 7.88). None of the men without a confidant had consulted. Among the 67 men with a confidant, consultation was more frequent among those not cohabiting with a partner (70%) than among those with a cohabiting partner (46%). The influence of social relationships on consultation for depression differed in men and women in this population of depressed elderly people in Québec.
To investigate the categorical and dimensional temporal stability of Axis II personality disorders among depressive patients, and to determine whether variations in Axis I comorbid disorders or self-reported personality traits predict changes in researcher-assigned personality disorder symptoms.
Patients with DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD) in the Vantaa Depression Study (N = 269) were interviewed with the World Health Organization Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry, version 2.0, and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R Axis II Disorders and were assessed with the 57-item Eysenck Personality Inventory at baseline, 6 months, and 18 months. Baseline interviews occurred between February 1, 1997, and May 31, 1998; follow-up interviews were 6 months and 18 months after baseline for each patient. Of the patients included in the study, 193 remained unipolar and could be interviewed at both follow-ups. The covariation of the severity of depression, anxiety, alcohol use, and reported neuroticism and extraversion with assigned personality disorder symptoms was investigated by using general estimation equations.
The diagnosis of personality disorder persisted at all time points in about half (43%) of the 81 MDD patients diagnosed with personality disorder at baseline. The number of positive personality disorder criteria declined, particularly during the first 6 months, by a mean of 3 criteria. The decline in reported personality disorder symptoms covaried significantly with declines in the severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms (depressive: P = .02 for paranoid, P = .02 for borderline, and P = .01 for avoidant; anxiety: P = .08 for paranoid, P = .01 for borderline, and P
Little is known about the predictive association between childhood bullying behavior with depression and suicidal ideation at age 18.
The sample included 2348 boys born in 1981. Information about bullying was gathered at the age of 8 from self, parent and teacher's reports. Depression and suicidal ideation were assessed during the Finnish military call-up examination.
Based on regression models, boys who were bullies frequently, but not merely sometimes, were more likely to be severely depressed and to report suicidal ideation compared to boys who were not bullies. When controlling for depression at age 8 the association between frequent bullying and severe depression was maintained but the association with suicidal ideation became non-significant. Boys who were only victimized were not more likely to be depressed or to report suicidal ideation at age 18. Boys who were frequently both bullies and victims were found to be at risk for later depression.
Our finding can only be generalized to boys who were involved in bullying at elementary school age. Data at age 18 was based only on self-reports and the bullying/victimization questions were very general.
Childhood bullying behavior is a risk factor for later depression. Screening and intervention for bullying behavior in the early school years is recommended to avoid subsequent internalizing problem in late adolescence.
Personality disorder frequently co-occurs with depression and seems to be associated with a poorer outcome of treatment and increased risk for recurrences. However, the diagnosing of personality disorder can be lengthy and requires some training. Therefore, a brief screening interview for comorbid personality disorder among patients suffering from depression would be of clinical use.
The present study aimed to assess the utility of the Standardised Assessment of Personality - Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS) as a screen for personality disorder in a population of patients recently diagnosed with first episode depression. A total number of 394 patients with an ICD-10 diagnosis of a single depressive episode were sampled consecutively via the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register during a 2years inclusion period and assessed by the screening interview and, subsequently, by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders.
We found, that a cut-off of 3 on the screen correctly identified the presence of comorbid personality disorder in 73.1% of the patients. The sensitivity and specificity were 0.80 and 0.70, respectively.
The findings cannot be generalized to patients outside hospital settings.
The study provides evidence for the clinical utility of SAPAS as a screening interview for comorbid personality disorder in a population of patients with a primary diagnosis of depression.