In many parts of the world the prevalence of a sedentary lifestyle in combination with high consumption of food has increased, which contributes to increased risk for becoming overweight. Our primary aim was, in an intervention, to examine the influence on health related quality of life (HRQoL) and mood in young normal weight subjects of both sexes, when adopting an obesity provoking behaviour by increasing the energy intake via fast food and simultaneously adopting a sedentary lifestyle. A secondary aim was to follow-up possible long-term effects on HRQoL and mood 6 and 12 months after this short-term intervention. In this prospective study, 18 healthy normal weight subjects (mean age 26±6.6 years), mainly university students were prescribed doubled energy intake, and maximum 5000 steps/day, during 4 weeks. An age and sex matched control group (n=18), who were asked to have unchanged eating habits and physical activity, was recruited. Before and after the intervention questionnaires including Short Form-36, Hospital Anxiety Depression scale, Center of Epidemiological Studies Depression scale, Sense of Coherence and Mastery scale were completed by the subjects in the intervention group and by the controls with 4 weeks interval. Six and 12 months after the intervention the subjects underwent the same procedure as at baseline and the controls completed the same questionnaires. During the intervention, subjects in the intervention group increased their bodyweight and developed markedly lower physical and mental health scores on Short Form-36 as well as depressive symptoms while no changes appeared in the controls. The increase of depressive symptoms was associated with increases of energy intake, body weight and body fat. When followed up, 6 and 12 months after the intervention, physical and mental health had returned completely to baseline values, despite somewhat increased body weight. In conclusion, adopting obesity provoking behaviour for 4 weeks decreases HRQoL and mood in young normal weight subjects. The effect is temporary and when followed up 6 and 12 months after the short-term intervention no remaining influence is found.
To examine whether depressed mood and anger mediate the effects of sexual abuse and family conflict/violence on self-injurious behavior and substance use.
A cross-sectional national survey was conducted including 9,085 16-19 year old students attending all high schools in Iceland in 2004. Participants reported frequency of sexual abuse, family conflict/violence, self-injurious behavior, substance use, depressed mood, and anger.
Sexual abuse and family conflict/violence had direct effects on self-injurious behavior and substance use among both genders, when controlling for age, family structure, parental education, anger, and depressed mood. More importantly, the indirect effects of sexual abuse and family conflict/violence on self-injurious behavior among both males and females were twice as strong through depressed mood as through anger, while the indirect effects of sexual abuse and family conflict/violence on substance use were only significant through anger.
These results indicate that in cases of sexual abuse and family conflict/violence, substance use is similar to externalizing behavior, where anger seems to be a key mediating variable, opposed to internalizing behavior such as self-injurious behavior, where depressed mood is a more critical mediator.
Practical implications highlight the importance of focusing on a range of emotions, including depressed mood and anger, when working with stressed adolescents in prevention and treatment programs for self-injurious behavior and substance use.
Child hunger represents an adverse experience that could contribute to mental health problems in later life. The objectives of this study were to: (1) examine the long-term effects of the reported experience of child hunger on late adolescence and young adult mental health outcomes; and (2) model the independent contribution of the child hunger experience to these long-term mental health outcomes in consideration of other experiences of child disadvantage.
Using logistic regression, we analyzed data from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth covering 1994 through 2008/2009, with data on hunger and other exposures drawn from NLSCY Cycle 1 (1994) through Cycle 7 (2006/2007) and mental health data drawn from Cycle 8 (2008/2009). Our main mental health outcome was a composite measure of depression and suicidal ideation.
The prevalence of child hunger was 5.7% (95% CI 5.0-6.4). Child hunger was a robust predictor of depression and suicidal ideation [crude OR=2.9 (95% CI 1.4-5.8)] even after adjustment for potential confounding variables, OR=2.3 (95% CI 1.2-4.3).
A single question was used to assess child hunger, which itself is a rare extreme manifestation of food insecurity; thus, the spectrum of child food insecurity was not examined, and the rarity of hunger constrained statistical power.
Child hunger appears to be a modifiable risk factor for depression and related suicide ideation in late adolescence and early adulthood, therefore prevention through the detection of such children and remedy of their circumstances may be an avenue to improve adult mental health.
Comment In: Evid Based Med. 2014 Jun;19(3):11324361751
Six-hundred-seven employees in 3 metal industry plants were studied for depressive and distress symptoms, musculoskeletal symptoms, and findings in the musculo-skeletal system made by a physiotherapist. Measurements were made 3 times at 5-year intervals. The mean distress and depressive symptom scores of the first 2 examinations predicted the change in several musculo-skeletal symptom measures during the second 5-year period, when the effects of age and occupational class were accounted for in multiple regression analysis. They also predicted the development in clinical musculoskeletal findings in men. The proportions of variance explained by the depressive and distress symptoms were modest in magnitude. Analogous analyses were made with reference to the reverse temporal sequence: musculoskeletal disorders were considered as predating the development in depressive and distress symptoms. The musculoskeletal symptom scores were associated with the change in the stress symptoms in men, as did the clinical findings in the neck-shoulder and low back regions. None of the musculoskeletal morbidity scores predicted the change in the depressive symptoms in either sex. We conclude that depressive symptoms predict future musculoskeletal disorders, but not vice versa, whereas the association of stress symptoms and musculoskeletal disorders is reciprocal.
In a follow-up study of 234 twin pairs, now aged 12-20 yrs, the intertwin relationships were evaluated by the parents and the twins themselves. The dominance-submissiveness aspect was inquired from three separate points of view, physical dominance, psychic dominance, and role of the spokesman. These three different aspects of dominance reflected on the twins' well being and mental health in somewhat different ways. The submissiveness in one area was often compensated by equality or dominance in another area, with only about 10% of adolescents being submissive or dominant in all three areas. According to the parents' reports, the most submissive twins suffered most often from psychosomatic symptoms, and the most dominant ones from nervous symptoms. The twins who themselves reported to be most submissive had most often somatic complaints and scored highest in the Kovacs' Depression Inventory.
To explore the presenting and early symptoms of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB).
Patients with mild dementia fulfilling diagnostic criteria for DLB (n = 61) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) (n = 109) were recruited from outpatient dementia clinics in western Norway. At diagnosis, caregivers were asked which symptom had been the presenting symptom of dementia.
Caregivers reported that memory impairment was the most common presenting symptom in DLB (57%), followed by visual hallucinations (44%), depression (34%), problem solving difficulties (33%), gait problems (28%), and tremor/stiffness (25%). In contrast, 99% of AD carers reported impaired memory as a presenting symptom, whereas visual hallucinations were a presenting symptom in 3% of the AD cases.
DLB should be suspected in predementia cases with visual hallucinations.
The enterosorbent noolit (representing a mineral matrix base with immobilized lithium and silicon compounds) significantly affects the psychoemotional state of mice with depression model induced by prolonged social emotional stress. Noolit administration produces a pronounced anxiolytic and antidepressant effect and reduced the level of behavioral deficiency in the test animals.
Phodopus sungorus, the Siberian dwarf hamster, exhibits a number of reproducible and quantifiable behavioral changes when the members of a male-female pair bond are separated. Preliminary evaluation of the syndrome revealed a significant increase in body weight, decrease in social interaction, and decrease in exploratory behaviors, which occurred predominantly in separated males. Some, but not all, of the behavioral effects of separation are reversed by the tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine. Separation of pair-bonded Siberian dwarf hamsters may provide a new animal model for depression, incorporating the practical advantages of a rodent model with the conceptual advantages of a naturalistic life event precipitant.
The objectives were to (1) document the risk of clinical depression in mothers in the 24 months after epilepsy diagnosis in their children, (2) determine whether the probability of risk of clinical depression changes over time, and (3) identify factors predictive of risk of clinical depression.
Data were obtained from the Health Related Quality of Life in Children with Epilepsy Study, a national prospective study of children 4-12 years old with new-onset epilepsy followed for 24 months. Risk-free survival was calculated using the life table approach. Binary sequence modeling for longitudinal data was implemented to identify risk factors.
A total of 210 mothers were included in the analysis. Twenty-eight percent of mothers without clinically relevant levels of depressive symptoms at baseline were at risk for clinical depression by 24 months. The probability for risk of clinical depression and associated 95% confidence intervals by 6, 12, and 24 months was 0.13 (0.08, 0.18), 0.12 (0.07, 0.17), and 0.19 (0.10, 0.27), respectively. Significant predictors (p