Internationally adopted adolescents are at increased risk for mental health problems. However, little is known about problematic alcohol and drug use, which are important indicators of maladjustment. The aim of this study was to examine the level of problematic alcohol and drug use in internationally adopted adolescents compared to their nonadopted peers. The study is based on data from the youth@hordaland-survey, which was conducted in Hordaland County, Norway, in the spring of 2012. All adolescents born from 1993 to 1995 residing in Hordaland at the time of the study were invited to participate. Information on adoption was obtained from the Central Adoption Registry and linked to self-report data from the youth@hordaland-survey. Among 10,200 participants, 45 were identified as internationally adopted. No significant differences were found between international adoptees and their peers regarding whether or not they had tried alcohol or illicit drugs or their patterns of drinking behavior. However, adopted adolescents had a higher mean score on a measure of problematic alcohol and drug use compared to their nonadopted peers. The difference was attenuated and no longer significant when adjusting for measures of depression and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Results from a structural equation model indicated a full mediation effect of mental health problems on the association between adoption status and problematic alcohol and drug use. Our findings indicate that internationally adopted adolescents experience more problematic alcohol and drug use than their nonadopted peers, and the difference can largely be explained by mental health problems. (PsycINFO Database Record
The study was conducted to determine if alpha brain-wave neurofeedback training can have positive psychological results by reducing anxiety and other psychopathology.
The cohort participated in alpha brain-wave neurofeedback training for 76 minutes (day 1) to 120 or more minutes (days 5-7) daily for 7 days. Electroencephalogram (EEG) electrodes were attached to the head with conductive gel according to the 10-20 International Electrode Placement System. During training, participants were seated in a comfortable armchair within a soundproof and lightproof room. Brain-wave signals were amplified for processing by analog-to-digital converters and polygraphs, then filtered to the pure delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma bands as well as subbands of these bands of the EEG. For 2-minute epochs, trainees sat with their eyes closed in the dark listening to their feedback tones as the filtered alpha brain-wave EEG signals controlled the loudness of the tones. Then a "ding" sounded and the tones stopped. For 8 seconds, a monitor lit up with dimly illuminated, static numbers, indicating the strength of their alpha brain waves, after which the feedback tones resumed and the process was repeated.
40 adult volunteers were recruited from the aboriginal population (First Nations, Métis, and Inuit) of Canada. The cohort ranged in age from 25 to 60 years and included males and females.
The study was conducted at Biocybernaut Institute of Canada in Victoria, British Columbia.
Data was obtained to determine the effectiveness of this training by giving four psychological tests (Minnesota Multi-Phasic Personality Inventory, and the trait forms of the Multiple Affect Adjective Check List, Clyde Mood Scale, and Profile of Mood States) on the first day prior to commencing training and on the seventh day upon completion of the training. EEG data was also compiled throughout the training and analyzed as a factor of the training process.
Postintervention data showed positive results with reduction of psychopathology when compared to the data from testing prior to the training. Analysis of this data showed improvement in several areas of psychopathology.
Alpha brain-wave neurofeedback training daily for 7 days does have positive psychological results in adult male and female Canadian aboriginals as measured by data from four psychological tests on the participants.
To discover how women from a nondominant cultural background (West Indian) experience and manage depression.
Explanatory using grounded theory.
Semistructured interviews were conducted with 12 Black West-Indian Canadian women who experienced depression. Between 1994 and 1996, the first author engaged in participant observation.
The women used the basic social process they called "being strong" to manage or ameliorate depression. Being strong included "dwelling on it," "diverting myself," and "regaining my composure." For most of the women, the range of available life choices was limited to the three processes; however, a few engaged in "trying new approaches." These women were less limited in their range of cultural and behavioral boundaries than were the others, and began tentatively to explore other options for themselves.
Black West-Indian Canadian women in this study managed their depression in culturally defined ways by being strong and not showing vulnerability. Because being strong was also evident in a previous study of dominant-culture women as a prelude to depression, the process may be widespread in women prone to depression. The findings provide helpful information for intervening in an unfamiliar culture.
Variations in access to care, utilization of available resources and treatment outcomes in the context of ethnicity have been recognized, but very little research of this nature exists in the oncology context. The present paper is an in-depth analysis of data on a large representative sample of Canadian cancer patients with a focus on the role of 'ethnicity', its association to psychological distress, and its impact on the cancer experience. Because of a heterogeneous representation of ethnic self-identifications which were not easily grouped or classified, English as a second language was considered as a surrogate marker to ethnicity. People who self-reported to be from an English-speaking country were grouped together and compared to those hailing from countries which do not have English as a primary language. In a hierarchical logistic regression model (n = 2,402) the demographic and cancer-related variables associated with significant clinical distress in the first block were gender (male, except those with prostate cancer), age less that 68 years, less than a year since diagnosis, diagnosis of lung cancer, and recurrent disease. In the second block, after controlling for the influence of these factors, patient-reported ethnicity (being originally from a non-English speaking country) added significantly to the prediction of patient distress. Though compelling, there is a need to understand the relationship between the ethnic features and language (English versus non-English language). A hypothesis is presented as an attempt to understand an individual's 'ethnicity' within the framework of a multicultural society.
OBJECTIVES: To examine the relationship of childhood physical and sexual abuse with reported parenting satisfaction and parenting role impairment later in life among American Indians (AIs). METHODS: AIs from Southwest and Northern Plains tribes who participated in a large-scale community-based study (n=3,084) were asked about traumatic events and family history; those with children were asked questions about their parenting experiences. Regression models estimated the relationships between childhood abuse and parenting satisfaction or parenting role impairment, and tested for mediation by depression or substance use disorders. RESULTS: Lifetime substance use disorder fully mediated the relationship between childhood physical abuse and both parenting satisfaction and parenting role impairment in the Northern Plains tribe. There was only partial mediation between childhood sexual abuse and parenting role impairment in the Southwest. In both tribes, lifetime depression did not meet the criteria for mediation of the relationship between childhood abuse and the two parenting outcomes. Instrumental and perceived social support significantly enhanced parenting satisfaction; negative social support reduced satisfaction and increased the likelihood of parenting role impairment. Exposure to parental violence while growing up had deleterious effects on parenting outcomes. Mothers and fathers did not differ significantly in the relation of childhood abuse experience and later parenting outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Strong effects of social support and mediation of substance abuse disorders in the Northern Plains offer direct ways in which childhood victims of abuse could be helped to avoid negative attributes of parenting that could put their own children at risk. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Mothers were not significantly different from fathers in the relation of abusive childhood experiences and later parenting outcomes, indicating both are candidates for interventions. Strong effects of social support offer avenues for interventions to parents. The prevalence of substance use disorders and their role as a mediator of two parenting outcomes in the Northern Plains should focus special attention on substance use treatment, especially among those who experienced childhood victimization. These factors offer direct ways in which childhood victims of abuse can be helped to avoid negative attributes of parenting that could put their own children at risk of violence.
Explanations for depression usually implicate contemporaneous stressors, although biologic predispositions and childhood violence may also serve as precursors. This study evaluates the relative influence of contemporaneous stressors and both intrafamilial and interethnic violence experienced in childhood. Logistic regression is applied to data collected from a random sample of 355 women aged 20-89 in 1993 who lived in Chukotka and Kamchatka in the Russian Far East and in the Aleutians and the Northwest Alaskan Native Association region of Alaska. Although two contemporaneous stressors influence the likelihood of depression, intrafamilial violence experienced in childhood and, for natives of both Alaska and the Russian Far East, childhood emotional abuse by nonnatives exhibit dramatically more important effects that do not decay with time. These findings point to a violence-induced biologic mechanism for depression in adulthood. They also warrant interventions that extend their focus to the subtle forms of emotional violence that members of one ethnic group may inflict on another and to the social power relationships that may give these forms of violence a lifelong impact.
Immigrant women present high prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy, the early postpartum period and as mothers of young children. We compared mental health of immigrant and Canadian native-born women during pregnancy according to length of stay and region of origin, and we assessed the role of economics and social support in antenatal depressive symptomatology.
Data originated from the Montreal study on socio-economic differences in prematurity; 3834 Canadian-born and 1,495 foreign-born women attending Montreal hospitals for antenatal care were evaluated for depression at 24-26 weeks of pregnancy using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale by fitting logistic regressions with staggered entry of possible explanatory variables.
Immigrant women had a higher prevalence of depressive symptomatology independently of time since immigration. Region of origin was a strong predictor of depressive symptomatology: women from the Caribbean, South Asia, Maghreb, Sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America had the highest prevalence of depressive symptomatology compared to Canadian-born women. The higher depression odds in immigrant women are attenuated after adjustment for lack of social support and money for basic needs. Time trends of depressive symptoms varied across origins. In relation to length of stay, depressive symptoms increased (European, Southeast Asian), decreased (Maghrebian, Sub-Saharan African, Middle Eastern, East Asian) or fluctuated (Latin American, Caribbean).
Depression in minority pregnant women deserves more attention, independently of their length of stay in Canada. Social support favouring integration and poverty reduction interventions could reduce this risk of antenatal depression.
Low sexual desire has been studied more extensively in women than in men.
The study aims to analyze the correlates of distressing lack of sexual interest and the self-assessed reasons for the lack of sexual interest among heterosexual men from three countries.
A web-based survey was completed by 5,255 men aged 18-75 years from Portugal, Croatia, and Norway.
We used an item that assesses lack of sexual interest from the British NATSAL 2000. Anxiety and depression were measured with the SCL-ANX4 and SCL-DEP6. Relationship intimacy was measured using a five-item version of the Emotional Intimacy Scale. A shortened version of the Sexual Boredom Scale was used to assess proneness to sexual boredom in relation to the duration of relationship, and personal distress was evaluated using an item created for this study.
Distressing lack of sexual interest lasting at least 2 months in the previous year was reported by 14.4% of the participants. The most prevalent comorbidity among these men was erectile difficulty (48.7%). Men with low confidence levels in erectile function, not feeling attracted to the partner, and those in long-term relationships were more likely to have experienced lack of sexual interest than were men with high confidence levels and those who felt attracted to their partner and those in shorter-term relationships. Professional stress was the most frequently reported reason for lack of sexual interest. Sexual boredom as a result of a long-term relationship was significantly and negatively correlated with the level of intimacy (r?=?-0.351, P?
The purpose of this cross-sectional analysis is to examine symptoms of depressed mood in relation to age, menopausal status, and length of residence in the United States in midlife women who are recent immigrants from the former Soviet Union. Data for this analysis are from a longitudinal study of the impact of acculturation on postimmigration health status and psychological well-being. The mean score for the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale was 23.56, with 77.3% of the women obtaining a score greater than the usual screening cutoff score for referral. Women taking antidepressant medications had a mean score of 30.52. CES-D scores varied significantly by age group. The lowest CES-D scores were reported by women aged 40-50, and women aged 55-60 had significantly higher scores than younger women and those over 65 years old. Total CES-D scores did not vary significantly by length of residence in United States or use of hormone therapy. Regression analysis indicated that even when use of antidepressant medication was held constant, age and residence in the United States were significant independent contributors to CES-D score: women who were older, had lived fewer years in the United States, and those who took antidepressants had higher CES-D scores. Cultural and immigration-related explanations for high scores on the depression scale are suggested.