The incidence of major depression among adults has been shown to be socially differentiated, and there are reasons to seek explanations for this before adulthood. In this cohort study, we examined whether academic performance in adolescence predicts depression in adulthood, and the extent to which externalizing disorders explain this association.
We followed 26,766 Swedish women and men born 1967-1982 from the last year of compulsory school, at age about 16, up to 48 years of age. We investigated the association between grade point average (GPA, standardized by gender) and first diagnosis of depression in national registers of in- or out-patient psychiatric care. We used Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for lifetime externalizing diagnoses and potential confounders including childhood socioeconomic position and IQ.
During follow-up, 7.0% of the women and 4.4% of the men were diagnosed with depression. A GPA in the lowest quartile, compared with the highest, was associated with an increased risk in both women (hazard ratio 95% confidence interval 1.7, 1.3-2.1) and men (2.9, 2.2-3.9) in models controlling for potential confounders. Additional control for externalizing disorders attenuated the associations, particularly in women.
The findings suggest that poor academic performance is associated with depression in young adulthood and that the association is partly explained by externalizing disorders. Our results indicate the importance of early detection and management of externalizing disorders among children and adolescents.
Adolescent use of social media platforms such as Facebook, Instagram, and Snapchat has increased dramatically over the last decade and now pervades their everyday social lives. Active and passive social media use may impact emotional health differently, but little is known about whether and to what extent either type of social media use influences emotional distress among young people. We analyzed population survey data collected from Icelandic adolescents (N?=?10,563) to document the prevalence of social media use and investigate the relationship of both active and passive social media use with self-reported symptoms of anxiety and depressed mood. A hierarchical linear regression model revealed that passive social media use was related to greater symptoms of anxiety and depressed mood among adolescents and active social media use was related to decreased symptoms of anxiety and depressed mood, even after controlling for time spent on social media. When adding known risk and protective factors, self-esteem, offline peer support, poor body image, and social comparison to the model, active use was not related to emotional distress; however, passive use was still related to adolescent symptoms of anxiety and depressed mood. The effect of social media on emotional distress differed by gender as time spent on social media had a stronger relationship with emotional distress among girls. In addition, passive use was more strongly related to symptoms of depressed mood among girls. Future research should include risk and protective factors as mediators of different types of social media use and adolescent emotional distress.
Several studies suggest a rapid decrease of alcohol use among adolescents after the turn of the century. With decreasing prevalence rates of smokers, a so-called hardening may have taken place, implying that remaining smokers are characterized by more psychosocial problems. Are similar processes witnessed among remaining adolescent alcohol users as well?
In 1992, 2002 and 2010 we used identical procedures to collect data from three population-based samples of 16- and 17-year-old Norwegians (n = 9207). We collected data on alcohol consumption, binge drinking, parental factors, use of other substances, conduct problems, depressive symptoms, social integration, sexual behaviour and loneliness.
There was a steep increase in all measures of alcohol consumption from 1992 to 2002, followed by a similar decline until 2010. Most correlates remained stable over the time span.
Alcohol use was consistently related to psychosocial problems; on the other hand, alcohol users reported higher levels of social acceptance and social integration than did non-users. There were no signs of 'hardening' as seen for tobacco use.
The few available studies on early-onset depression and future earnings offer ambiguous findings, and potential sources of heterogeneity are poorly understood. We examined the differences in adult earnings of males and females with and without a history of depressive disorder in adolescence, with specific focuses on (1) future earnings in clinical subtypes of adolescent depression; (2) the growth and distribution of earnings over time within these subgroups and (3) the mediating role of subsequent depressive episodes occurring in early adulthood.
Data were drawn from the Uppsala Longitudinal Adolescent Depression Study, a community-based cohort study initiated in Uppsala, Sweden, in the early 1990s. Comprehensive diagnostic assessments were conducted at age 16-17 and in follow-up interviews 15 years later, while consecutive data on earnings for the years 1996 to 2016 (ages 20-40) were drawn from population-based registries. The current study included participants with a history of persistent depressive disorder (PDD) (n = 175), episodic major depressive disorder (MDD) (n = 82), subthreshold depression (n = 64) or no depression (n = 218) in adolescence. The association of adolescent depression with earnings in adulthood was analysed using generalised estimating equations. Estimates were adjusted for major child and adolescent psychiatric comorbidities and parental socioeconomic status. The indirect (mediated) effect of depression in early adulthood (ages 19-30) on earnings in mid-adulthood (31-40) was estimated in mediation analysis. The study followed the 'STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology' (STROBE) guidelines.
Earnings across early to middle adulthood were lower for participants with a history of a PDD in adolescence than for their non-depressed peers, with an adjusted ratio of mean earnings of 0.85 (0.77-0.95) for females and 0.76 (0.60-0.95) for males. The differences were consistent over time, and more pronounced in the lower percentiles of the earnings distributions. The association was partially mediated by recurrent depression in early adulthood (48% in total; 61% for females, 29% for males). No reduction in earnings was observed among participants with episodic MDD in adolescence, while results for subthreshold depression were inconclusive.
Our findings suggest that future earnings of adolescents with depressive disorders are contingent on the duration and natural long-term course of early-onset depression, emphasising the need for timely and effective interventions to avoid loss of human capital.
Neck and shoulder pain is frequent in adolescents, and multiple factors seem to affect the risk of such symptoms. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of neck and shoulder pain in Norwegian adolescence and to examine whether behavioral and emotional factors were associated with the risk of neck and shoulder pain. Finally we aimed to investigate whether neck and shoulder pain was related to the use of health services.
Data from the population-based study ung@hordaland were used. Participants were asked how often during the last 6 months they had experienced neck and shoulder pain. The association between frequent neck and shoulder pain and physical activity, symptoms of depression, and screen-based activities was evaluated using logistic regression analyses stratified by gender. The relative risk of visiting health services when reporting neck and shoulder pain was calculated using multiple logistic regression analyses.
Frequent neck and shoulder pain was reported by 20.0% (1,797 of the total 8,990) and more often by girls than boys (p
This article examines factors associated with adolescent self-concept and the impact of adolescent self-concept on psychological and physical health and health behaviour in young adulthood.
The data are from the household cross-sectional (1994/95) and longitudinal (1994/95 to 2000/01) components of Statistics Canada's National Population Health Survey.
Scores on self-concept indicators in 1994/95 were compared between the sexes and age groups (12 to 15 versus 16 to 19). Multivariate analyses were used to examine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between adolescent self-concept and depression, self-perceived health, physical activity and obesity, controlling for other possible confounders.
Self-concept tends to be low among girls compared with boys. Cross-sectionally, adolescent self-concept was associated with household income and emotional support. For girls and for young adolescents, a weak self-concept in 1994/95 was related to the incidence of depression over the next six years; it was also predictive of physical inactivity among boys, and obesity among both sexes. A strong self-concept had a positive long-term effect on girls' self-perceived health.
BACKGROUND: Reported alcohol consumption during pregnancy has proven to be higher when reported retrospectively during or after the pregnancy, compared with concurrent reports. In a longitudinal, population-based questionnaire study, we investigated whether these findings could be replicated. METHODS: A longitudinal, population-based questionnaire study. Among a representative half of pregnant women in Oslo, 92% accepted to join the study. Non-Norwegian speaking and/or immigrants from nonwestern countries were not invited. Questionnaires were answered at 17 (T1) and 30 weeks of pregnancy (T2) and 6 months after term (T3). The response rate was at T1 93% (N = 1,749), at T2 82%, and at T3 94% [representing 86% (T1), 70% (T2), and 64% of those invited to join the study]. RESULTS: Significantly more alcohol consumption after pregnancy recognition was reported retrospectively at both T2 and T3 [T2 0.15 and T3 0.18 standard units per week (SU/wk)] than concurrently at T1 or T2 (T1 0.10 and T2 0.14 SU/wk). When comparing the 2 retrospective reports at T2 and T3, there was a significant increase over time. Predictive factors for higher retrospective reports were higher age, more SU per week before pregnancy, reported alcohol use after pregnancy recognition (at T1), and depression after the pregnancy. A predictive factor for lower retrospective reporting was anxiety during, but not after, the pregnancy. Contrary to previous suggestions, anxiety concerning abnormality in the 6-month-old child was not a predictive factor. CONCLUSION: Concurrently reported alcohol consumption during pregnancy is probably under-reported. Thus, concurrent reports appear to underestimate fetal exposure.
In an epidemiological population study 87 subjects were studied with home sleep recordings. Nineteen subjects had minor psychiatric disorders: six subjects had a minor depression, six subjects had a generalized anxiety disorder, and seven subjects had a mild vegetative discomfort syndrome. Syndrome profiles of the three groups, using the AMDP system, showed a significantly higher degree of insomnia in the anxiety group than in the depressive group. The mean rapid eye movement (REM) latency in the anxiety group was significantly longer than in the other groups, including normals. The study showed a slight tendency towards a reduced REM latency in the minor depressives, but no statistical significance was obtained.
Sexual minority individuals have a higher risk of anxiety and depression compared with heterosexuals. However, whether the higher risk is spread equally across the sexual minority population is not clear.
To investigate the association between sexual orientation and self-reported current anxiety and a history of diagnosis of depression, paying particular attention to possible subgroup differences in risks within the sexual minority population, stratified by sex and to examine participants' history of medical care for anxiety disorders and depression.
We conducted a population-based study of 874 lesbians and gays, 841 bisexuals, and 67,980 heterosexuals recruited in 2010 in Stockholm County. Data were obtained from self-administered surveys that were linked to nationwide registers.
By using logistic regression, we compared risks of current anxiety, histories of diagnosed depression, and register-based medical care for anxiety and/or depression in lesbian and gay, bisexual, and heterosexual individuals.
Bisexual women and gay men were more likely to report anxiety compared with their heterosexual peers. Bisexual individuals and gay men also were more likely to report a past diagnosis of depression. All sexual minority groups had an increased risk of having used medical care for anxiety and depression compared with heterosexuals, with bisexual women having the highest risk.
Bisexual women appear to be a particularly vulnerable sexual minority group. Advocating for non-discrimination and protections for lesbian, gay, and bisexual people is a logical extension of the effort to lower the prevalence of mental illness. Björkenstam C, Björkenstam E, Andersson G, et al. Anxiety and Depression Among Sexual Minority Women and Men in Sweden: Is the Risk Equally Spread Within the Sexual Minority Population? J Sex Med 2017;14:396-403.
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common autosomal recessive life-shortening disease among Caucasians. Studies exploring the prevalence of anxiety and depression in adult CF patients are few, show inconsistent findings and rarely include comparisons with general populations. Prevalence and degree of anxiety and depression were investigated in adult CF patients in Sweden, Belgium, Germany and the UK, and compared to corresponding general population data.
Adult non-transplanted CF patients from the three largest CF-centres (out of four) in Sweden (N = 129; Age range 18-70 years; 50 % women) completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Studies using HADS in adult CF populations in the UK, Germany, and Belgium were included, as well as HADS normative data from the corresponding general populations.
No elevated risk for anxiety and depression was found among the CF patients. However, a Country x Group interaction effect emerged; CF patients experienced a higher degree of anxiety than the general population in Sweden, but not in the other countries, though this finding did not remain significant in a logistic regression analysis. In Sweden the effect was limited to women. A Country x Group interaction effect was also found for Depression; CF patients experienced lower degree of depression than the general population in Sweden, Germany and the UK, but not in Belgium/Netherlands.
Contrary to earlier outcomes, the present results do not indicate any general elevated risk for anxiety and depression among CF patients. Anxiety was slightly higher in the Swedish CF population, compared to the general population; this finding was not seen in the other countries. Depression among CF patients was lower than or similar to that in the general populations in the studied countries.