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2004 Tsunami: long-term psychological consequences for Swiss tourists in the area at the time of the disaster.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature151473
Source
Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2009 May;43(5):420-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2009
Author
Bernd Kraemer
Lutz Wittmann
Josef Jenewein
Ulrich Schnyder
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital Zurich, Culmannstrasse 8, Zurich CH-8091, Switzerland. bernd.kraemer@usz.ch
Source
Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2009 May;43(5):420-5
Date
May-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Anxiety - diagnosis
Depression - diagnosis
Disasters
Female
Humans
Life Change Events
Male
Middle Aged
Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic - diagnosis
Survivors - psychology
Switzerland - ethnology
Tidal Waves
Abstract
Most of the data on psychological outcome and the mental health treatment available following natural disasters originate from the indigenous population of the region destroyed. Examining tourists returning from the area affected by the 2004 tsunami presents an opportunity of studying the impact of natural disasters on psychological outcome and mental health treatment in their countries of origin. The aim of the present study was to extend the current knowledge on psychiatric morbidity and potential positive outcomes, as well as subsequent mental health treatment following a natural disaster, based on the results from a sample of home-coming Swiss tourists.
Tourists who had been potentially affected by the 2004 tsunami were assessed using the Post-traumatic Diagnostic Scale, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the Post-traumatic Growth Inventory. Outcome variables were related to the degree of tsunami exposure. In addition, mental health treatment before and after the tsunami was assessed.
Of the 342 respondents, 55 (16.8%) fulfilled the criteria of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Evidence of anxiety or depressive disorder was found in 17.8% and 8.0%, respectively. The tsunami victims who had been directly affected showed significantly more symptoms of anxiety, depression and PTSD, as well as post-traumatic personal growth, than tourists who were indirectly affected or unaffected. A total of 12.3% of untreated respondents fulfilled the criteria for PTSD and 38% of respondents who had received psychiatric treatment were still fulfilling PTSD criteria 2(1/2) years after the tsunami.
A marked percentage of respondents reported symptoms of PTSD but they remained untreated or were treated insufficiently. We recommend that tourists returning from regions affected by natural disasters be informed about PTSD and that careful screening be given to those found to be at risk of PTSD. An open-door policy of mental health services is particularly needed for tourists returning home who have been affected by large-scale disasters.
PubMed ID
19373702 View in PubMed
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The acceptability of a depression screening tool in an urban, Aboriginal community-controlled health service.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature162060
Source
Aust N Z J Public Health. 2007 Jun;31(3):259-63
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2007
Author
Danielle M Esler
Fay Johnston
David Thomas
Author Affiliation
Danila Dilba Health Service, Northern Territory General Practice Education and Flinders University, South Australia. danielleelser@hotmail.com
Source
Aust N Z J Public Health. 2007 Jun;31(3):259-63
Date
Jun-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Community Health Services
Depression - diagnosis
Focus Groups
Humans
Oceanic ancestry group - psychology
Patient Acceptance of Health Care
Urban Population
Abstract
To assess the acceptability and face validity of a psychological assessment instrument, the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9), as a depression screening tool for use with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander patients.
Four focus groups were held in an urban, Aboriginal community-controlled health service. Participants' attitudes to screening for depression and the specific components of PHQ-9 were explored.
Process-oriented and PHQ-9-specific themes were raised. They included the role of family in the screening process, the need for a trusting relationship between the tool administrator and patient, the risk of confounding by social disadvantage or physical co-morbidities, the absence of a question assessing the presence of anger as a symptom of depression, and the importance of culturally appropriate language within the tool.
Modification of the screening process and wording of the PHQ-9 in response to these concerns should render it acceptable for use with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander patients in this setting.
These results may apply to the use of other psychological screening tools in the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population. This is particularly relevant given the policy emphasis on screening in Indigenous health.
PubMed ID
17679245 View in PubMed
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Acceptance and Commitment Therapy preceded by an experimental Attention Bias Modification procedure in recurrent depression: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299363
Source
Trials. 2018 Mar 27; 19(1):203
Publication Type
Clinical Trial Protocol
Journal Article
Date
Mar-27-2018
Author
Tom Østergaard
Tobias Lundgren
Robert Zettle
Rune Jonassen
Catherine J Harmer
Tore C Stiles
Nils Inge Landrø
Vegard Øksendal Haaland
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychiatry, Sørlandet Hospital, Arendal, Norway. tom.ostergaard@sshf.no.
Source
Trials. 2018 Mar 27; 19(1):203
Date
Mar-27-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Clinical Trial Protocol
Journal Article
Keywords
Acceptance and Commitment Therapy
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Attentional Bias
Depression - diagnosis - psychology - therapy
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Multicenter Studies as Topic
Norway
Psychotherapy, Group
Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
Recurrence
Remission Induction
Time Factors
Treatment Outcome
Young Adult
Abstract
This project studies the effect of group-based Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) following Attention Bias Modification (ABM) on residual symptoms in recurrent depression. ACT is a cognitive-behavioral intervention combining acceptance and mindfulness processes with commitment and behavior-change processes. ACT enjoys modest empirical support in treating depression and has also shown promising results in secondary prevention of depression. The experimental cognitive bias modification (ABM) procedure has been shown to reduce surrogate markers of depression vulnerability in patients in remission from depression. The aim of the current project is to investigate if the effect of group-based ACT on reducing residual depressive symptoms can be enhanced by preceding it with ABM. Also, assessment of the relationship between conceptually relevant therapeutic processes and outcome will be investigated.
An invitation to participate in this project was extended to 120 individuals within a larger sample who had just completed a separate randomized, multisite, clinical trial (referred to hereafter as Phase 1) in which they received either ABM (n = 60) or a control condition without bias modification (n = 60). This larger Phase-1 sample consisted of 220 persons with a history of at least two episodes of major depression who were currently in remission or not fulfilling the criteria of major depression. After its inclusion, Phase-1 participants from the Sørlandet site (n = 120) were also recruited for this study in which they received an 8-week group-based ACT intervention. Measures will be taken immediately after Phase 1, 1 month, 2 months, 6 months, and 1 year after the conclusion of Phase 1.
This study sequentially combines acceptable, nondrug interventions from neuropsychology and cognitive-behavioral psychology in treating residual symptoms in depression. The results will provide information about the effectiveness of treatment and on mechanisms and processes of change that may be valuable in understanding and further developing ABM and ACT, combined and alone.
ClinicalTrials.gov, Identifier: NCT02648165 . Registered on 6 January 2016.
PubMed ID
29587807 View in PubMed
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Accuracy of assessment of distress, anxiety, and depression by physicians and nurses in adolescents recently diagnosed with cancer.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature83040
Source
Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2006 Jun;46(7):773-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2006
Author
Hedström Mariann
Kreuger Anders
Ljungman Gustaf
Nygren Peter
von Essen Louise
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Section of Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. mariann.hedstrom@pubcare.uu.se
Source
Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2006 Jun;46(7):773-9
Date
Jun-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Anxiety - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology
Depression - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology
Female
Health status
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Neoplasms - complications - psychology
Nurses
Observer Variation
Physicians
Prevalence
Self Assessment (Psychology)
Sensitivity and specificity
Stress, Psychological - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
BACKGROUND: As staff members prioritize medical resources for patients, it is imperative to find out whether their assessments of patients' health status agree with patients' assessments. The degree to which physicians and nurses can identify the distress, anxiety, and depression experienced by adolescents recently diagnosed with cancer was examined here. PROCEDURE: Adolescents undergoing chemotherapy (13-19 years, n = 53), physicians (n = 48), and nurses (n = 53) completed a structured telephone interview, 4-8 weeks after diagnosis or relapse, investigating disease and treatment-related distress, anxiety, and depression. RESULTS: The accuracy of staff ratings of physical distress could be considered acceptable. However, problems of a psychosocial nature, which were frequently overestimated, were difficult for staff to identify. Staff underestimated the distress caused by mucositis and worry about missing school more than they overestimated distress. These aspects were some of the most prevalent and overall worst according to the adolescents. Both physicians and nurses overestimated levels of anxiety and depression. Nurses tended to show higher sensitivity than physicians for distress related to psychosocial aspects of distress, while physicians tended to show higher accuracy than nurses for physical distress. CONCLUSIONS: Staff was reasonably accurate at identifying physical distress in adolescents recently diagnosed with cancer whereas psychosocial problems were generally poorly identified. Thus, the use of staff ratings as a "test" to guide specific support seems problematic. Considering that the accuracy of staff ratings outside a research study is probably lower, identification of and action taken on adolescent problems in relation to cancer diagnosis and treatment need to rely on direct communication.
PubMed ID
16333833 View in PubMed
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Accuracy of the Danish version of the 'distress thermometer'.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature137474
Source
Psychooncology. 2012 Apr;21(4):436-43
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2012
Author
Pernille Envold Bidstrup
Birgitte Goldschmidt Mertz
Susanne Oksbjerg Dalton
Isabelle Deltour
Niels Kroman
Henrik Kehlet
Nina Rottmann
Rune Gärtner
Alex J Mitchell
Christoffer Johansen
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychosocial Cancer Research, Institute of Cancer Epidemiology, Danish Cancer Society, Copenhagen, Denmark. pernille@cancer.dk
Source
Psychooncology. 2012 Apr;21(4):436-43
Date
Apr-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Anxiety - diagnosis
Breast Neoplasms - psychology
Denmark
Depression - diagnosis
Female
Humans
Middle Aged
Predictive value of tests
Psychometrics - instrumentation
Questionnaires
Sensitivity and specificity
Stress, Psychological - diagnosis
Abstract
Short screening instruments have been suggested to improve the detection of psychological symptoms. We examined the accuracy of the Danish version of the 'Distress Thermometer'.
Between October 2008 and October 2009, 426 women with newly diagnosed primary breast cancer who were operated at the Breast Surgery Clinic of the Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, were eligible for this study. Of these, 357 participated (84%) and 333 completed a questionnaire. The distress thermometer was evaluated against the 'hospital anxiety and depression scale' (HADS). We also examined the women's wish for referral for psychological support.
A cut-off score of 6 vs 7 (low: =6, high: =7) on the distress thermometer was optimal for confirming distress, with a sensitivity of 42%, a specificity of 93%, a positive predictive value (PPV) of 78% and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 73%. A cut-off score of 2 vs 3 was optimal for screening, with a sensitivity of 99%, a specificity of 36%, a PPV of 47% and a NPV of 99%. Of those who were distressed using the cut-off score of 2 vs 3 on the distress thermometer, 17% (n = 41) wished to be referred for psychological support and 57% (n = 140) potentially wanted a later referral.
The distress thermometer performed satisfactorily relative to the HADS in detecting distress in our study. A screening procedure in which application of the distress thermometer is a first step could be useful for identifying persons in need of support.
PubMed ID
21280139 View in PubMed
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Activity of daily living performance amongst Danish asylum seekers: a cross-sectional study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature266272
Source
Torture. 2014;24(1):49-64
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Anne-Le Morville
Lena-Karin Erlandsson
Mona Eklund
Bente Danneskiold-Samsøe
Robin Christensen
Kirstine Amris
Source
Torture. 2014;24(1):49-64
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Activities of Daily Living - psychology
Adult
Afghanistan - ethnology
Denmark - epidemiology
Depression - diagnosis - ethnology - etiology - psychology
Disability Evaluation
Female
Humans
Interview, Psychological
Iran - ethnology
Male
Middle Aged
Pain - diagnosis - ethnology - etiology - psychology
Pain Measurement
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
Refugees - psychology
Self Report
Syria - ethnology
Torture - psychology
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent of Activities of Daily Living (ADL) ability impairment in newly arrived Danish asylum seekers. It was hypothesized that exposure to trauma and torture would negatively influence ADL performance and that measures of ADL ability would be lower in individuals exposed to torture as compared to the non-tortured.
Forty-three newly arrived asylum seekers aged 20-50 years, from Iran, Afghanistan and Syria, were consecutively included in the study.
ADL ability was assessed with the observation-based test Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS). Interviews were based on questionnaires about torture exposure, WHO-5 Wellbeing Index, Major Depression Inventory and Pain Detect Questionnaire. All participants were interviewed and tested using a linguistic interpreter.
Thirty three (77%) participants reported exposure to torture. The tortured did not differ significantly from the nontortured on measures of ADL ability (two-sample t-tests: Motor, p= 0.36; Process, p= 0.82). ADL performance impairment was observed in the overall study sample. Twelve had motor and 15 process ability measures below age norms and 2 below both AMPS motor and process cut-offs for effortless and efficient ADL performance. There were statistically significant - weak to moderate - correlations between self-reported psychological distress, VAS average pain, pain distribution and the AMPS measures.
The study results supported significant ADL ability impairment in tortured as well as non-tortured newly arrived asylum seekers. Implementation of performance-based evaluation of ADL ability as part of the initial medical screening of this particular population should be considered.
PubMed ID
25590464 View in PubMed
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Addressing challenges of validity and internal consistency of mental health measures in a 27- year longitudinal cohort study - the Northern Swedish Cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature277188
Source
BMC Med Res Methodol. 2016 Jan 07;16:4
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-07-2016
Author
Anne Hammarström
Hugo Westerlund
Kaisa Kirves
Karina Nygren
Pekka Virtanen
Bruno Hägglöf
Source
BMC Med Res Methodol. 2016 Jan 07;16:4
Date
Jan-07-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Anxiety - diagnosis - psychology
Chi-Square Distribution
Depression - diagnosis - psychology
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Mental Health - statistics & numerical data
Prospective Studies
Reproducibility of Results
Sensitivity and specificity
Socioeconomic Factors
Surveys and Questionnaires
Sweden
Young Adult
Abstract
There are inherent methodological challenges in the measurement of mental health problems in longitudinal research. There is constant development in definitions, taxonomies and demands concerning the properties of mental health measurements. The aim of this paper was to construct composite measures of mental health problems (according to today's standard) from single questionnaire items devised in the early 1980s, and to evaluate their internal consistency and factorial invariance across the life course using the Northern Swedish Cohort.
All pupils in the last year of compulsory school in Luleå in 1981 (n?=?1083) form a prospective cohort study where the participants have been followed with questionnaires from the age of 16 (in 1981) until the age of 43 (in 2008). We created and tested the following composite measures from self-reports at each follow-up: depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, functional somatic symptoms, modified GHQ and positive health. Validity and internal consistency were tested by confirmatory factor analysis, including tests of factorial invariance over time.
As an overall assessment, the results showed that the composite measures (based on more than 30-year-old single item questions) are likely to have acceptable factorial invariance as well as internal consistency over time.
Testing the properties of the mental health measures used in older studies according to the standards of today is of great importance in longitudinal research. Our study demonstrates that composite measures of mental health problems can be constructed from single items which are more than 30 years old and that these measures seem to have the same factorial structure and internal consistency across a significant part of the life course. Thus, it can be possible to overcome some specific inherent methodological challenges in using historical data in longitudinal research.
Notes
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PubMed ID
26743433 View in PubMed
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Adolescent risk factors for excessive alcohol use at age 32 years. A 16-year prospective follow-up study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature151566
Source
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2010 Jan;45(1):125-34
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2010
Author
Taina Huurre
Tomi Lintonen
Jaakko Kaprio
Mirjami Pelkonen
Mauri Marttunen
Hillevi Aro
Author Affiliation
Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services, Child and Adolescent Mental Health Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare, P.O. Box 30, 00271, Helsinki, Finland. taina.huurre@thl.fi
Source
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2010 Jan;45(1):125-34
Date
Jan-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior - psychology
Adult
Age Factors
Alcohol Drinking - epidemiology - psychology
Alcohol-Related Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - prevention & control
Comorbidity
Depression - diagnosis - epidemiology
Diagnosis, Dual (Psychiatry)
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Life Style
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Probability
Prospective Studies
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Social Class
Students - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
To examine which socioeconomic, family, personal and lifestyle risk factors in adolescence were the strongest independent predictors of excessive alcohol use in adulthood.
In a prospective longitudinal study, all 16-year-olds of one Finnish city completed questionnaires at school, and were followed up by postal questionnaires at 32 years of age [n = 1,471, (females n = 805, males n = 666); response rate 70.3%). The alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT) was used to assess alcohol use in adulthood. AUDIT scores of 8 or more for females and 10 or more for males were classified as excessive alcohol use. Adolescent risk factors examined were parental social class, school performance, depressive symptoms, self-esteem, impulsiveness, parental divorce, relationships with parents, parental trust, health behaviour, leisure-time spent with friends, dating, and problems with the law.
All the socioeconomic, family, personal, and lifestyle variables in adolescence, except parental social class in both genders and self-esteem among females, showed significant univariate associations with excessive alcohol use at age 32 years. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that among adolescent males, parental divorce, moderate and high level of depressive symptoms, leisure-time spent daily among friends and moderate and drunkenness-orientated drinking were the strongest predictors of excessive alcohol use in adulthood. Among females, the strongest adolescent predictors of excessive alcohol use in adulthood were drunkenness-orientated drinking and frequent smoking.
Early interventions for adolescent substance use and a set of specific psychosocial risk factors should be tailored and evaluated as methods for identifying those at high risk of and preventing excessive alcohol use in adulthood.
PubMed ID
19363578 View in PubMed
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Adolescents with and without a facial difference: The role of friendships and social acceptance in perceptions of appearance and emotional resilience.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature142923
Source
Body Image. 2010 Sep;7(4):271-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2010
Author
Kristin Billaud Feragen
Ingela L Kvalem
Nichola Rumsey
Anne I H Borge
Author Affiliation
Bredtvet Resource Center, Oslo, Norway. kristin.feragen@statped.no
Source
Body Image. 2010 Sep;7(4):271-9
Date
Sep-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Body Image
Cleft Lip - psychology
Cleft Palate - psychology
Depression - diagnosis - psychology
Emotions
Female
Friends - psychology
Health Surveys
Humans
Male
Norway
Questionnaires
Resilience, Psychological
Sex Factors
Social Adjustment
Abstract
This study investigated the role of friendships and social acceptance in self-perceptions of appearance and depressive symptoms, comparing adolescents with and without a facial difference. Adolescents with a visible cleft (n=196) were compared with adolescents with a non-visible cleft (n=93), and with a comparison group (n=1832). Boys with a visible difference reported significantly more positive perceptions of friendships and less depressive symptoms than the comparison group. These results were interpreted in the context of indicators of emotional resilience. The objective measure of facial difference did not explain levels of depressive symptoms, while subjective measures did. Subjective ratings of appearance mediated the association between social acceptance and depressive symptoms in all samples. Gender did not contribute in explaining the paths between friendships, appearance, and depressive symptoms. The associations between perceptions of social acceptance, appearance, and emotional distress, support the possible utility of strengthening social experiences in preventing and treating appearance-concerns.
PubMed ID
20541483 View in PubMed
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Age and depression in a nationally representative sample of Canadians: a preliminary look at the National Population Health Survey.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature207129
Source
Can J Public Health. 1997 Sep-Oct;88(5):297-302
Publication Type
Article
Author
T J Wade
J. Cairney
Author Affiliation
Calgary World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Research & Training in Mental Health, Calgary Regional Health Authority.
Source
Can J Public Health. 1997 Sep-Oct;88(5):297-302
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Canada - epidemiology
Depression - diagnosis - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Population Surveillance
Prevalence
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
Sex Factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
There are considerable inconsistencies in the literature concerning the relationship between age and depression. Recently, however, two independent studies in the U.S. have shown that the distribution is U-shaped with the lowest reported levels of depression at ages 45-49. Three reasons for past inconsistencies are identified and addressed using the 1994 National Population Health Survey by Statistics Canada. Using both a distress scale and a diagnostic measure, a substantially different relationship was found. The prevalence of distress decreased steadily with age until about 65, with only a slight increase afterwards for both males and females. After the introduction of several sociodemographic covariates, however, this relationship was clearly negative. These findings are discussed in terms of future research questions.
PubMed ID
9401161 View in PubMed
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537 records – page 1 of 54.