BACKGROUND: Some cases of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) may be triggered by emotional states such as anger, but it is not known if acute depressed mood can act as a trigger. METHODS: 295 men and women with a verified ACS were studied. Depressed mood in the two hours before ACS symptom onset was compared with the same period 24 hours earlier (pair-matched analysis), and with usual levels of depressed mood, using case-crossover methods. RESULTS: 46 (18.2%) patients experienced depressed mood in the two hours before ACS onset. The odds of ACS following depressed mood were 2.50 (95% confidence intervals 1.05 to 6.56) in the pair-matched analysis, while the relative risk of ACS onset following depressed mood was 4.33 (95% confidence intervals 3.39 to 6.11) compared with usual levels of depressed mood. Depressed mood preceding ACS onset was more common in lower income patients (p = .032), and was associated with recent life stress, but was not related to psychiatric status. CONCLUSIONS: Acute depressed mood may elicit biological responses that contribute to ACS, including vascular endothelial dysfunction, inflammatory cytokine release and platelet activation. Acute depressed mood may trigger potentially life-threatening cardiac events.
This article estimates the prevalence of alcohol and illicit drug dependence among Canadians aged 15 or older Comorbidity with depression is examined.
The data are from the 2002 Canadian Community Health Survey: Mental Health and Well-being and the National Population Health Survey.
Cross-tabulations were used to estimate the prevalence of alcohol and illicit drug dependence by selected characteristics. Multiple logistic regression models were used to determine if associations persisted after controlling for potentially confounding factors, and to test temporal relationships between frequent heavy drinking and depression.
In 2002, an estimated 641,000 people (2.6% of the household population aged 15 or older) were dependent on alcohol, and 194,000 (0.8%), on illicit drugs. These people had elevated levels of depression compared with the general population. Heavy drinking more than once a week was a risk factor for a new episode of depression, and depression was a risk factor for new cases of frequent heavy drinking.
This article describes the prevalence of heavy drinking among the Canadian population and the prevalence of alcohol dependence among heavy drinkers aged 18 or older. It also examines the association of depression to alcohol dependence among the latter group and the correlates of depression and alcohol dependence comorbidity. The data are from a national representative sample of the Canadian population in 2000/01. One in five current drinkers aged 18 or older was classified as a regular heavy drinker. This constituted a significant increase of approximately 2% in the prevalence of heavy drinking from 1996/97 to 2000/01 in Canada (p
To compare lifetime prevalence of alcohol use disorder (AUD) in older adults who were hospitalized in connection with a suicide attempt and in a population comparison group, as well as to compare previous suicidal behavior in attempters with and without AUD.
Five hospitals in Western Sweden.
Persons 70 years or older, who were treated in a hospital because of a suicide attempt during 2003-2006 were recruited. Of 133 eligible participants, 103 participants were enrolled (47 men, 56 women, mean age 80 years, response rate 77%). Four comparison subjects per case were randomly selected among participants in our late-life population studies.
Lifetime history of AUD in accordance with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, was discerned on the basis of interview data, case record review, and the hospital discharge register. Depression symptoms were rated using the Montgomery-?sberg Rating Scale.
AUD was observed in 26% of the cases and in 4% of the comparison group (odds ratio [OR]: 10.5; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.9-22.5). Associations were noted in men (OR: 9.5; 95% CI: 4.0-22.8) and women (OR: 12.0; 95% CI: 2.4-59.5). More than half of the cases with AUD and?a third of those without AUD had made at least one prior suicide attempt. In these, AUD was associated with a longer interval between the first attempt and the index attempt.
A strong association between AUD and hospital-treated suicide attempts was noted in both sexes in this northern European setting. Given the high rates of suicide worldwide in this fast-growing and vulnerable group, comparison studies in other settings are needed.
Studies have identified prevalence rates of major depression in patients with cardiovascular disease to range from 16% to 23%, whereas 65% of patients report some symptoms after a myocardial event. Depression has been shown to be strongly related to overall poorer outcomes in patients with coronary artery disease.
The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the potential benefit of providing follow-up information regarding mental health resources to patients who had undergone cardiac catheterization and had reported significant levels of depression symptoms. Two methods of providing this follow-up information (personal telephone interaction and mailed-out written information) were compared.
As part of the Alberta Provincial Project for Outcome Assessment in Coronary Heart Disease registry, patients completed baseline questionnaires, including the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale. Patients reporting a score of 10 or higher were randomly assigned to one of three groups. Group A patients were contacted by mail, whereas Group B patients were contacted through a telephone follow-up call by a nurse. Both groups received information regarding community- and hospital-based mental health resources. Six weeks after the initial contact, patients in Groups A and B and those in a third control group (Group C) were called and asked to complete a repeat CES-D via telephone interview. Logistic regression modeling was used to determine the influence of the intervention on the change in depression scores from baseline to 6 weeks.
Ninety-eight respondents had both baseline and 6-week CES-D scores. The mean age of the respondents was 64.9 years, and women constituted 27% of the sample. There was no statistically significant clinical difference between the three groups. Regression analysis demonstrated that patients who were contacted by either telephone or mail were significantly more likely to report improvement in the CES-D scores (odds ratio = 3.03, p = .03) as compared with the control group. Furthermore, respondents who were phoned reported the highest percentage of improved CES-D scores as compared with the mailed and control groups.
This pilot study demonstrated that early recognition strategies and referral protocols that address mental health needs are effective in decreasing the reported depressive symptomatology of this high-risk population. Proactively addressing mental health issues as an integral part of the overall treatment with patients with coronary artery disease could potentially improve the health outcomes in this population.
Pain is often underrecognized and undertreated among older people. However, older people may be particularly susceptible to adverse drug reactions linked to prescription and nonprescription analgesics.
The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of analgesic use among a random sample of community-dwelling people aged >or=75 years, and to investigate factors associated with daily and as-needed analgesic use.
A random sample of people aged >or=75 years was drawn from the population register in Kuopio, Finland, in November 2003. Data on prescription and nonprescription analgesic use were elicited during nurse interviews conducted once for each participant in 2004. Self-reported drug utilization data were verified against medical records. The interview included items pertaining to sociodemographic factors, living conditions, social contacts, health behavior, and state of health. Physical function was assessed using the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale, and the 10-item Barthel Index. Self-rated mobility was assessed by asking whether respondents could walk 400 meters (yes, yes with difficulty but without help, not without help, or no). Cognitive function was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination. The presence of depressive symptoms was assessed using the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale. Respondents' self-rated health was determined using a 5-point scale (very poor, poor, moderate, good, or very good).
Of the initial random sample of participants (N = 1000), 700 provided consent to participate and were community dwelling. Among the participants, 318 (45.4%) were users of >or=1 analgesic on a daily or as-needed basis. Only 23.3% of analgesic users took an analgesic on a daily basis. Factors associated with any analgesic use included female sex (odds ratio [OR], 1.78 [95 degrees % CI, 1.17-2.71]), living alone (OR, 1.46 [95 degrees % CI, 1.02-2.11]), poor self-rated health (OR, 2.6 [95% CI, 1.22-3.84]), and use of >or=10 nonanalgesic drugs (OR, 2.21 [95% CI, 1.26-3.87]). Among users of >or=1 oral analgesic, factors associated with opioid use included moderate (OR, 2.46 [95% CI, 1.175.14]) and poor (OR, 2.57 [95% CI, 1.03-6.42]) self-rated health. Opioid use (OR, 0.19 [95% CI, 0.04-0.86]) and daily analgesic use (OR, 0.16 [95% CI, 0.34-0.74]) were inversely associated with depressive symptoms. Pain in the previous month was reported by 71.4% of analgesic users and 26.4% of nonusers of analgesics.
Analgesics were used by approximately 50% of community-dwelling people aged >or=75 years. However, age was not significantly associated with increased use of analgesics in multivariate analysis. The majority of analgesic drugs were used on an as-needed rather than a daily basis (76.7% vs 23.3%, respectively). Factors most significantly associated with analgesic use were female sex, living alone, poor self-rated health, and use of >or=10 nonanalgesic drugs.
The prevalence of major depression is increased in people with chronic medical conditions. The objective of this analysis was to determine whether this is due to a higher incidence, an impact on prognosis, or an effect of mortality.
An analysis of data collected in two national Canadian general health surveys was carried out. Markov models representing period prevalence, incidence, mortality, and recovery were developed using these data sources. Monte Carlo simulation, using tracking variables, was used to evaluate the model.
The incidence of major depression was higher in subjects with chronic medical conditions. However, the pattern of recovery was also different: Subjects with chronic medical conditions had slightly longer episode durations. The analysis of mortality data was limited by a small number of deaths in the survey sample; however, the models suggested that the impact of mortality on the association is small.
An elevated prevalence of major depression has been observed in persons with chronic medical conditions. Two factors seem to contribute to this association: increased episode incidence and duration.
Several studies have indicated depression and anxiety to be associated with urinary incontinence (UI), however, the strength of the associations varies widely. The objective of this study was to determine these associations in a large survey.
In a cross-sectional population-based survey study, we analysed questionnaire data on UI, depression and anxiety from 5,321 women between 40 and 44 years. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to predict the odds of having high levels of anxiety and depression among women with UI of different types and severities.
Among women with UI, the adjusted OR for depression was 1.64 (95% CI, 1.32-2.04) and for anxiety 1.59 (95% CI, 1.36-1.86) compared with women without UI.
UI was associated with both anxiety and depression in middle-aged women, with the strongest associations for mixed and urgency UI.
Obesity is a problem that is increasing worldwide, leading to an increased incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Depression is more common among individuals with diabetes, and they are more likely than non-diabetic individuals to experience emotional problems. People with both T2DM and obesity bear an additional emotional burden, which affects their quality of life.
To describe the prevalence of symptoms of anxiety and depression in groups of obese and normal-weight individuals with T2DM who are undergoing primary care and to investigate possible differences between the groups and between genders.
Three hundred and thirty-nine patients with T2DM from nine primary-care centres participated in a cross-sectional study (n = 180 + 159). The response rate was 67%. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Beck Depression Inventory - second edition (BDI-II) were employed to estimate the patients' symptoms of depression and anxiety.
An association between T2DM, obesity and depression was observed in both genders. More than one in three women and one in five men with T2DM and obesity exhibited symptoms of anxiety or depression. In the normal-weight group, the females presented more symptoms of anxiety than did their male counterparts.
In primary healthcare, the fact that both obese men and women with T2DM are at increased risk of anxiety and depression is an important finding, which must be recognised and considered in the course of primary healthcare consultations. Meeting the unique needs of each individual requires an understanding of both laboratory data and the individual's emotional status.