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[Activation of free-radical processes as a factor of ionizing radiation-induced changes in contractile activity of a vascular wall]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature11763
Source
Fiziol Zh. 1993 Mar-Jun;39(2-3):23-9
Publication Type
Article
Author
S M Tyshkin
V M Taranenko
M I Rudniev
G S Voronkov
G I Pliushch
I M Isaiechkina
L M Popova
V V Bratus
Source
Fiziol Zh. 1993 Mar-Jun;39(2-3):23-9
Language
Ukrainian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Aorta, Thoracic - physiopathology - radiation effects
Carotid Arteries - physiology - radiation effects
Depression, Chemical
English Abstract
Free Radicals - radiation effects
Muscle Contraction - drug effects - radiation effects
Muscle, Smooth, Vascular - drug effects - radiation effects
Nitroglycerin - pharmacology
Norepinephrine - pharmacology
Potassium Chloride - pharmacology
Rabbits
Radiation Injuries, Experimental - etiology - physiopathology
Stimulation, Chemical
Abstract
The influence of ionizing irradiation (1, 2 and 4 Gy 137Cs) on both the activity of free-radical processes in plasma, formed elements and aorta wall as well as on the character of contractile vascular reactions of isolated rings of thoracic aorta and carotid artery in rabbits has been studied. The experiments were carried out on the 7th day after the whole-body irradiation. The results indicate that simultaneously with the weakening of antioxidant mechanisms both endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vascular wall relaxation slightly decreases after 1 Gy exposure. Noradrenaline and KCI-induced contraction is shown to increase. However, these changes are not statistically significant. Irradiation in dose of 2 and 4 Gy considerably decreases endothelium-dependent relaxation. Nitroglycerin-induced relaxation greatly diminishes, KCI- and noradrenaline-induced constriction considerably increases in these conditions. The level of activation of free-radical processes considerably increases too. Thus, already on the 7th day after irradiation significant changes in reactivity of vascular wall are developed. Radiation injures both endothelium and vascular smooth muscle cells. The free-radical processes seem to be the main cause of radiation vascular damage, so there is a pronounced correlation between the changes of vascular contractile properties and the degree of activation of these processes.
PubMed ID
8405541 View in PubMed
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Acute and long-term psychiatric side effects of mefloquine: a follow-up on Danish adverse event reports.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature264815
Source
Travel Med Infect Dis. 2015 Jan-Feb;13(1):80-8
Publication Type
Article
Author
Åsa Ringqvist
Per Bech
Birte Glenthøj
Eskild Petersen
Source
Travel Med Infect Dis. 2015 Jan-Feb;13(1):80-8
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Adult
Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems
Aged
Antimalarials - adverse effects
Anxiety - chemically induced - epidemiology
Bipolar Disorder - chemically induced - epidemiology
Denmark - epidemiology
Depression - chemically induced - epidemiology
Electronic Health Records
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Hallucinations - chemically induced - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Mefloquine - adverse effects
Mental Disorders - chemically induced - epidemiology
Middle Aged
Psychoses, Substance-Induced - epidemiology - etiology
Questionnaires
Time Factors
Young Adult
Abstract
The aim of the study was to explore the profile of acute and long-term psychiatric side effects associated with mefloquine.
Subjects (n = 73) reported to a Danish national register during five consecutive years for mefloquine associated side effects were included. Acute psychiatric side effects were retrospectively assessed using the SCL-90-R and questions based on Present State Examination (PSE). Subjects reporting suspected psychotic states were contacted for a personal PSE interview. Electronic records of psychiatric hospitalizations and diagnoses were cross-checked. Long-term effects were evaluated with SF-36. SCL-90-R and SF-36 data were compared to age- and gender matched controls.
In the SCL-90-R, clinically significant scores for anxiety, phobic anxiety and depression were found in 55%, 51%, and 44% of the mefloquine group. Substantial acute phase psychotic symptoms were found in 15% and were time-limited. Illusions/hallucinations were more frequently observed among women. Cases of hypomania/mania in the acute phase were 5.5%. Significant long-term mental health effects were demonstrated for the SF-36 subscales mental health (MH), role emotional (RE), and vitality (VT) in the mefloquine group compared to matched controls.
The most frequent acute psychiatric problems were anxiety, depression, and psychotic symptoms. Data indicated that subjects experiencing acute mefloquine adverse side effects may develop long-term mental health problems with a decreased sense of global quality of life with lack of energy, nervousness, and depression.
PubMed ID
25435322 View in PubMed
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Adrenal suppression in asthmatic children receiving low-dose inhaled budesonide: comparison between dry powder inhaler and pressurized metered-dose inhaler attached to a spacer.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature15304
Source
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2002 Dec;89(6):566-71
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2002
Author
Shmuel Goldberg
Tsurit Einot
Nurit Algur
Shimshon Schwartz
Alan C Greenberg
Elie Picard
Dov Virgilis
Eitan Kerem
Author Affiliation
Department of Pediatric Respiratory Medicine, Shaare Zedek Medical Center, Hebrew University Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel.
Source
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2002 Dec;89(6):566-71
Date
Dec-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Absorption
Administration, Inhalation
Adolescent
Adrenal Cortex - secretion
Aerosols
Anti-Asthmatic Agents - administration & dosage - adverse effects - pharmacology
Biological Availability
Budesonide - administration & dosage - adverse effects - pharmacology
Child
Child, Preschool
Comparative Study
Cross-Over Studies
Depression, Chemical
Female
Humans
Hydrocortisone - secretion - urine
Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System - drug effects
Inhalation Spacers
Lung - metabolism
Male
Pituitary-Adrenal System - drug effects
Powders
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Dry powder inhalers (DPI) have in recent years become a common mode for administration of inhaled corticosteroids for preventive therapy of asthma. Inhaled steroids delivered by DPI achieve increased lung deposition compared with pressurized metered-dose inhalers (pMDI), which is associated with increased therapeutic effect. This may be associated with increased systemic absorption. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of adrenal suppression in children using low-dose budesonide given by DPI, as compared with pMDI attached to a large-volume spacer device (pMDI + spacer). METHODS: In an open-labeled crossover study, 15 asthmatic children aged 5 to 15 years received 200 microg of inhaled budesonide twice daily by DPI (Turbuhaler, Astra, Draco AB, Lund, Sweden) and by pMDI + spacer, 1 month each, in a randomized order. Twenty-four-hour urine collections were performed at baseline and at the end of each of the 2 months of the study period, and urinary cortisol and creatinine were measured. RESULTS: Baseline urinary cortisol:creatinine was 0.038 +/- 0.012 microg/mg, similar in both groups. After 1 month of DPI therapy, urinary cortisol:creatinine was reduced by 27 +/- 16% to 0.028 +/- 0.012 microg/mg (P = 0.018). Urinary cortisol:creatinine after 1 month of pMDI + spacer therapy was similar to baseline 0.037 +/- 0.019 microg/mg (P = 0.78). CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of asthmatic children with budesonide 400 microg daily given via a DPI for 1 month was associated with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis suppression. This effect was not observed with the same dose of budesonide administered via pMDI + spacer. This indicates that systemic absorption might be reduced with pMDI + spacer therapy.
Notes
Comment In: Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2002 Dec;89(6):537-912487216
Comment In: Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2003 Jun;90(6):674; author reply 674-512839330
PubMed ID
12487221 View in PubMed
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Adverse effects associated with high-dose olanzapine therapy in patients admitted to inpatient psychiatric care.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature105792
Source
Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2014 Jan;52(1):39-43
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2014
Author
A B Petersen
S E Andersen
M. Christensen
H L Larsen
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Bispebjerg Hospital , Copenhagen , Denmark.
Source
Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2014 Jan;52(1):39-43
Date
Jan-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Antipsychotic Agents - administration & dosage - adverse effects - therapeutic use
Basal Ganglia Diseases - chemically induced - epidemiology
Benzodiazepines - administration & dosage - adverse effects - therapeutic use
Central Nervous System - drug effects
Denmark - epidemiology
Depression, Chemical
Drug Overdose - epidemiology - mortality
Electrocardiography - drug effects
Female
Hospitals, Psychiatric
Humans
Inpatients
Long QT Syndrome - chemically induced
Male
Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome - physiopathology
Psychotic Disorders - complications - drug therapy
Retrospective Studies
Risk assessment
Abstract
In 2012, Danish psychiatrist raised concerns regarding the use of high-dose olanzapine in the treatment of patients. The present study was part of an audit carried out by the Mental Health Services of the Capitol Region of Denmark regarding this topic. Objective. To assess the potential risks associated with high-dose olanzapine treatment (> 40 mg daily) in inpatient psychiatric units.
The study was an observational case series based on review of patient charts. The main inclusion criterion was treatment with at least one daily dose > 40 mg olanzapine during the index admission in the period between 1st of January and 15th of March 2012. Six additional criteria were applied in order to target the subgroup of patients most likely to have experienced an adverse event due to treatment with olanzapine. The physician order entry system and the central patient register containing patient specific information about diagnoses and treatments were used for identification of study population.
The 91 patients included in the study received maximum daily doses of olanzapine ranging from 45 to 160 mg and in 25% of patients, the total antipsychotic load exceeded 2000 mg of chlorpromazine equivalents. Extrapyramidal symptoms and sedation were the most frequent adverse events with frequencies of 27% and 25%, respectively. Furthermore, other well-known adverse events such as weight gain (14%), hypotension (2%), neuroleptic malignant syndrome (2%) and corrected QT-interval (QTc) prolongation (1%) were also observed in some patients. Five patients died and in two of these cases, olanzapine was concluded to be a possible contributing cause of death.
Increased frequency of extrapyramidal symptoms and sedation as well as severe toxicity was observed in patients treated with up to 160 mg olanzapine per day. In order to prevent harmful outcomes, the clinicians should be ready to act appropriately if toxic effects of olanzapine occur. Treatment cessation should be immediate if serious adverse events such as neuroleptic malignant syndrome arise.
PubMed ID
24313745 View in PubMed
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Age-dependent reduction of the response of rat cardiac muscle to the phosphodiesterase inhibitor milrinone.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature46530
Source
Arch Int Physiol Biochim Biophys. 1994 Sep-Oct;102(5):265-9
Publication Type
Article
Author
M. Canepari
B. Polla
M R Gualea
C. Zanardi
C. Reggiani
Author Affiliation
Institute of Human Physiology, University of Pavia, Italy.
Source
Arch Int Physiol Biochim Biophys. 1994 Sep-Oct;102(5):265-9
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aging - metabolism
Animals
Biomechanics
Comparative Study
Depression, Chemical
In Vitro
Male
Milrinone
Myocardial Contraction - drug effects
Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors - pharmacology
Pyridones - pharmacology
Rats
Rats, Inbred BN
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate whether milrinone effect on cardiac muscle contractility undergoes to age-related changes. Experiments were carried out on papillary muscles isolated from right ventricle of Brown Norway rats belonging to two different age groups: 2 month old and 18 month old. The effect of milrinone (10-100 microM) on rat cardiac muscle in vitro preparations was characterized by a reduction of peak developed tension and of contraction duration. Furthermore, the recovery of contractility after a contractile cycle, i.e. the mechanical restitution was faster in the presence of milrinone than in control conditions. All these effects were reduced in preparations from 18 month old rats compared to preparations from 2 month old rats. The decrease of milrinone effect on the mechanical restitution was particularly pronounced. The reduction of the milrinone effects is likely connected with the reduction of the maximal effect of adrenergic stimulation, although the molecular basis of this link is not yet clearly understood.
PubMed ID
7849274 View in PubMed
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[Age-related changes in inotropic effects of noradrenaline and acetylcholine on the myocardium of guinea pigs]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature11882
Source
Fiziol Zh. 1992 May-Jun;38(3):11-8
Publication Type
Article
Author
S H Kaz'min
S B Dudka
Source
Fiziol Zh. 1992 May-Jun;38(3):11-8
Language
Ukrainian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acetylcholine - pharmacology
Aging - physiology
Animals
Atrial Function
Comparative Study
Culture Media
Depression, Chemical
English Abstract
Guinea Pigs
Heart Atria - drug effects
Heart Ventricles - drug effects - physiology
In Vitro
Models, Cardiovascular
Myocardial Contraction - drug effects - physiology
Norepinephrine - pharmacology
Papillary Muscles - drug effects - physiology
Abstract
The inotropic effects of noradrenaline (10(-7)-10(-5) M) and acetylcholine (10(-8)-10(-6) M) were studied in experiments carried out on preparations of the right atria and on papillary muscles of the right ventricle in adult (4-5 months) and old (18-24 months) guinea pigs. An age-related decrease in inotropic noradrenaline effects and the displacement of dose-effect relationships to the right was revealed. Similar changes of the dose-related effects of acetylcholine superfused against the background of noradrenaline action were observed. The direct inotropic action of the acetylcholine did not change with ageing. A lack of the essential atrial-ventricular differences in age-related changes in myocardial reactivity is apparently very significant for support of effective functional coupling of cardiac chambers in ageing.
PubMed ID
1499755 View in PubMed
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137 records – page 1 of 14.