The aim of the present study was to describe the Norwegian adult population according to: 1. number of teeth present, 2. demand and utilization of dental services, 3. travel time from home to the dentist, 4. dental health behaviour, 5. fear for dental treatment. The analyses were performed on a set of national data collected in 1989, which was representative of the non-institutionalized Norwegian population 20 years and above. The sample size was 1260 individuals. About 75% of the people had 20 teeth or more present. Nine percent were edentulous. Seventy-seven percent who had demanded dental services during the last year. The average expenditure for dental treatment for those who had demanded the services during the last year was NOK 826. Fifty-three percent travelled 15 minutes or less from home to the dentist. Eighteen percent travelled 30 minutes or more. Almost everybody with their own teeth present brushed their teeth regularly once a day. Thirty-three percent of all dentate people used woodsticks regularly once a day, while 20% used toothfloss regularly. Seventy-five percent had no to mild fear of the dentist, while 7% had a strong fear. Fear of the dentist was higher among women than among men. Fear of the dentist decreased by increasing age. Few people, less than 4%, had cancelled a dental appointment because of dental anxiety. There has been an improvement in dental health and dental health behaviour in Norway during the 1970's and 1980's. These improvements are discussed with special attention paid to the findings from the present study.
In August 1991, three rural Alaska Public Health dentists made a professionally significant return visit to the Soviet Far East. The city of Magadan was the site for the first actual demonstration of portable American dental equipment and treatment techniques in this remote region of Russia. This exchange was held at several clinical locations and took place during the time of the attempted USSR government coup.
The objective of the study was to compare the acceptability of occlusion among orthodontically treated and untreated adolescents in eight Finnish municipal health centres applying different timing of treatment. A random sample of 16- and 18-year olds (n = 2325) living in these municipalities was invited for a clinical examination, and 1109 adolescents participated. Two calibrated orthodontists blindly examined the participants for the acceptability of occlusion with the Occlusal Morphology and Function Index. The history of orthodontic treatment was elicited by questionnaire. The impact of the history and timing of treatment on the acceptability of occlusion was analysed with logistic regression analysis. The history of orthodontic treatment decreased the odds for acceptability of morphology [odds ratio (OR) = 0.719, 95 per cent confidence limit (CL), P = 0.016] and acceptability of function (OR = 0.724, 95 per cent CL, P = 0.018). The early timing of treatment increased the odds for acceptability of morphology (OR = 1.370, 95 per cent CL, P = 0.042) and of function (OR = 1.420, 95 per cent CL, P = 0.023). No substantial differences were observed in the acceptability of occlusion between the early and late timing health centres. However, the proportion of subjects with acceptable occlusion was slightly higher in the early than in the late timing group. These findings suggest that when examining the effect of timing on treatment outcome, factors other than acceptability of occlusion should be concomitantly evaluated. Consequently, in this context, the duration and cost of treatment need to be investigated.
Representatives of faculties of dentistry and agencies working to improve the oral health of groups with restricted access to dental care were invited to address the access and care symposium held in Toronto in May 2004. They told of their clients" sometimes desperate needs in graphic terms. The agencies" response ranged from simple documentation of the need, to expression of frustration with current trends and the apparent indifference of policy makers, to the achievement of some success in arranging alternative models of care. The presenters consistently identified the need to change methods of financing dental education and both the financing and models of care delivery to meet the needs of those with restricted access to oral health care.
During the last 10-20 yr there has been a marked increase in demand for dental services in most western countries. An important issue is how this increase in demand has influenced inequalities in use of services among different income groups in the population. It is of particular interest to study this in Norway, as almost all the costs for dental care among adults are borne by the patient. The aim of the present study was to examine how the effect of family income on demand for dental services has changed over time. The analyses were performed on three sets of national data from 1977, 1983, and 1989. The samples were representative of the non-institutionalized Norwegian population aged 20 yr and above. Inequalities in use of dental services among different income groups have decreased between 1977 and 1989. However, separate analyses on the data from 1989 showed that some inequalities still exist. A non-selective subsidizing policy for dental care is unlikely to have any great effect in reducing these inequalities. Subsidized dental care is likely to raise the total amount of dental care demanded. However, it is difficult to assess accurately the size of this increase as the elasticity of demand for dental care in Norway with respect to price is unknown.