The treatment-mix, treatment time, and dental status of 268 male industrial workers entitled to employer-provided dental care were studied. The data were collected from treatment records of the covered workers over the 5-year period 1989-93. Treatment time was based on clinical treatment time recorded per patient visit, and the treatment procedure codes were reclassified into a treatment-mix according to American Dental Association categories, with a modification combining endodontics and restorative treatment. The mean number of check-ups followed by prescribed treatment (treatment courses) during the 5 years was 3.7 among those who had entered the in-house dental care program prior to the monitored period (old attenders). Their treatment time was stable, 57-63 min per year, while the first-year mean treatment time (170 min) of those who had entered the program during the study period (new attenders) was significantly higher (P
Before 1981 no representative studies of oral health in an elderly population in northern Sweden had been presented, and longitudinal studies of oral health in the aging person were in general rare. Thus the aim of this study was to investigate longitudinal changes in oral health in a representative sample of an elderly city population in northern Sweden. Reported oral problems and treatment needs were noted, and dental and periodontal status was registered in clinical examinations. The frequency of reported annual dental visits and of being called by the dentist increased in the younger but not in the older cohort during the 9-year period. In 1990 all the 79- and 88-year-olds with annual visits reported that they were recalled by the dentist. The clinical investigation showed an increasing amount of tooth loss, root caries, and periodontal disease with increasing age. Among dentulous persons 1.7 teeth per subject were lost from 1981 to 1990 in the younger cohort, compared with 2.6 teeth per subject in the older cohort. The number of sound teeth decreased very little in the younger cohort (from 3.44 to 3.34) but more evidently in the older cohort (from 3.47 to 2.65) during the 9-year period. The frequency of surfaces with attachment level > 3 mm increased statistically significantly from 1981 to 1990 in the older cohort. Subjects with annual visits had in general fewer oral problems.
The aim of the present study was to describe the Norwegian adult population according to: 1. number of teeth present, 2. demand and utilization of dental services, 3. travel time from home to the dentist, 4. dental health behaviour, 5. fear for dental treatment. The analyses were performed on a set of national data collected in 1989, which was representative of the non-institutionalized Norwegian population 20 years and above. The sample size was 1260 individuals. About 75% of the people had 20 teeth or more present. Nine percent were edentulous. Seventy-seven percent who had demanded dental services during the last year. The average expenditure for dental treatment for those who had demanded the services during the last year was NOK 826. Fifty-three percent travelled 15 minutes or less from home to the dentist. Eighteen percent travelled 30 minutes or more. Almost everybody with their own teeth present brushed their teeth regularly once a day. Thirty-three percent of all dentate people used woodsticks regularly once a day, while 20% used toothfloss regularly. Seventy-five percent had no to mild fear of the dentist, while 7% had a strong fear. Fear of the dentist was higher among women than among men. Fear of the dentist decreased by increasing age. Few people, less than 4%, had cancelled a dental appointment because of dental anxiety. There has been an improvement in dental health and dental health behaviour in Norway during the 1970's and 1980's. These improvements are discussed with special attention paid to the findings from the present study.
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of family income on accessibility to dental services among adults in Norway. The analysis was performed on a set of national data collected in 1989, which was representative of the non-institutionalized Norwegian population aged 20 years and above. The sample size was 1200 individuals. The data were analyzed according to a two-part model. The first part determined the probability of whether the consumer had demanded the services or not during the last year according to family income. The second part estimated how the amount of services utilized depended on family income, for those with demand. The elasticity of the odds of having demanded the services with respect to family income was 0.48. Family income had no effect on the amount of services utilized. Additional analyses also showed that there was no effect of family income on the probability of having received a filling or a crown when visiting the dentist. In Norway, almost all costs for dental services are paid by the consumer. It is not possible from the data alone to say whether subsidized dental care is an effective way of reducing the inequalities in demand.
Three hermetics are assessed: chemically hardened Delton, light-hardened Estiseal, and composite Evikrol. The study was carried out in 126 children aged 6 years. The decrease of the increment of dental caries depends on the retention of hermetics on the occlusion surface of the teeth, and the efficacy of caries prevention in permanent teeth is much higher if hermetic sealing of fissures and fossae is combined with local fluorine prophylaxis and oral hygiene. All types of hermetics can be used to prevent permanent teeth caries, but chemically hardened ones should be preferred.
Utilization of dental services by 30 diabetic and 30 nondiabetic subjects was assessed by longitudinal monitoring over a period of 3 years. All subjects were examined clinically three times, and their treatment consisted mainly of cariologic and periodontal treatment. The treatment was delivered by a dentist and an expanded-duty dental hygienist. The study groups were similar with regard to the total number of dental visits needed. However, the treatment of diabetic subjects was more demanding in that more dentist's workload was needed for the diabetic group. They also missed more appointments without cancellation and therefore more office time had to be reserved for them.
The age and maintenance of dentures, and denture-cleaning habits, were studied by an interview survey. The material represented nation-wide the Finnish population aged greater than or equal to 15 years old, and there were 957 interviewees, of whom 328 were denture wearers. In total, 45% of the upper and 40% of the lower dentures were over 10 years old. More than one-third of the dentures more than 5 years old had never been maintained during that time. Individuals whose dentures had been made and fitted by dental technicians visited dentists less frequently than individuals whose dentures had been made by dentists. Over 80% of the denture wearers reported cleaning their dentures by brushing at least once a day, and women cleaned them more frequently than men. The present findings suggest that denture wearers should be a special target group for dental health education, for the development of the latter, and for the development of dental health care services in the future.
The numbers of participants over 75 years of age in previous studies of oral health have not been sufficient to permit a full investigation of the influence of age on the mouth. In this study a disproportionate stratified random sample of 255 independent elders was selected from a list of urban voters to provide similar numbers of men and women in three age groups. The subjects were interviewed and examined, and nearly half of them had mucosal disorders. There was a significant (P