Glukose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is essential in protecting the red cell from oxidative damage. We report a case of acute haemolysis in a child with G6PD deficiency. Because of the severity of the anaemia, the patient was treated with blood transfusions and recovered fully. There are two main variants of G6PD deficiency (the Mediterranean variant and variant A) with different clinical profiles. Acute haemolytic attacks are induced by certain drugs, by infections or, in the Mediterranean variant, by ingestion of fava beans (favism). Increased awareness of this condition is necessary in Denmark because of increased immigration.
INTRODUCTION: According to hospital-based studies, increased susceptibility to certain infections is associated with genotypes that cause low serum levels of the protein mannose-binding lectin (MBL). However, the contribution of MBL insufficiency to the incidence of common childhood infections on a population basis is unknown. To investigate the effect of MBL insufficiency on the risk of acute respiratory infections (ARI) in unselected children, we performed a prospective population-based study of ARI in young children in Sisimiut, Greenland. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An open cohort of children aged 0-2 years was formed in 1996, and followed up with weekly morbidity surveillance visits for a two-year period. Episodes of ARI were diagnosed on medical history and clinical examinations. MBL genotypes were determined from blood samples according to the presence of structural alleles and promoter alleles. RESULTS: Altogether 294 children participated and 44 refused. Blood samples were taken from 252 participants. A 2.1-fold (95% confidence interval 1.4-3.1) increased risk of ARI was found in MBL-insufficient children compared with MBL-sufficient children (p
INTRODUCTION: On Denmark's decision to join the war in Iraq, it was decided to immunise all personnel to be deployed there with anthrax vaccine. This paper describes the types and frequency of adverse reactions to the vaccine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between March 2003 and February 2004, 1,899 immunisations against anthrax in 755 personnel were registered at the health care facilities of the Danish Defence. RESULTS: No serious or life-threatening adverse reactions were reported. The data showed a statistically significant decrease in adverse reactions between the four immunisation series. For males, adverse reactions after the second immunisation depended on possible adverse reactions to the first immunisation. In females, this correlation was not found. No differences in the frequency of adverse reactions between males and females were found. DISCUSSION: None of the vaccinated persons suffered serious or life-threatening adverse reactions. Compared to other studies on self-reported adverse reactions, the overall frequency was low. The data showed a statistically significant decrease in adverse reactions between the four immunisation series. This has been described in comparable studies. The correlation between adverse reactions in the second immunisation being dependent on adverse reactions to the first immunisation has been partly confirmed by other studies. No differences between the sexes were found, probably because only a few females were included in the study. In case of a significant level of threat concerning biological weapons, immunisation against anthrax is considered appropriate.
Dissociative experiences are common in traumatized individuals, and can sometimes be mistaken for psychosis. It is difficult to identify pathological dissociation in the treatment of traumatized refugees, because there is a lack of systematic clinical descriptions of dissociative phenomena in refugees. Furthermore, we are currently unaware of how dissociation measures perform in this clinical group.
To describe the phenomenology of dissociative symptoms in Bosnian treatment-seeking refugees in Denmark.
As a part of a larger study, dissociation was assessed systematically in 86 Bosnian treatment-seeking refugees using a semi-structured clinical interview (Structured Interview for Disorders of Extreme Stress-dissociation subscale; SIDES-D) and a self-report scale (Dissociative Experiences Scale; DES).
The SIDES-D indicated twice as high prevalence of pathological dissociation as the DES. According to the DES, 30% of the refugees had pathological dissociation 15 years after their resettlement. On the SIDES-D, depersonalization and derealization experiences were the most common. Also, questions about depersonalization and derealization at times elicited reporting of visual and perceptual hallucinations, which were unrelated to traumatic re-experiencing. Questions about personality alteration elicited spontaneous reports of a phenomenon of "split" pre- and post-war identity in the refugee group. Whether this in fact is a dissociative phenomenon, characteristic of severe traumatization in adulthood, needs further examination.
Knowledge of dissociative symptoms in traumatized refugees is important in clinical settings to prevent misclassification and to better target psychotherapeutic interventions. Much development in the measurement of dissociation in refugees is needed.