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Association between thimerosal-containing vaccine and autism.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature30708
Source
JAMA. 2003 Oct 1;290(13):1763-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-1-2003
Author
Anders Hviid
Michael Stellfeld
Jan Wohlfahrt
Mads Melbye
Author Affiliation
Danish Epidemiology Science Centre, Department of Epidemiology Research, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark. aii@ssi.dk
Source
JAMA. 2003 Oct 1;290(13):1763-6
Date
Oct-1-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Autistic Disorder - chemically induced - epidemiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Ethylmercury Compounds - adverse effects
Humans
Infant
Odds Ratio
Preservatives, Pharmaceutical - adverse effects
Registries
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Thimerosal - adverse effects
Vaccines - adverse effects
Abstract
CONTEXT: Mercuric compounds are nephrotoxic and neurotoxic at high doses. Thimerosal, a preservative used widely in vaccine formulations, contains ethylmercury. Thus it has been suggested that childhood vaccination with thimerosal-containing vaccine could be causally related to neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether vaccination with a thimerosal-containing vaccine is associated with development of autism. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Population-based cohort study of all children born in Denmark from January 1, 1990, until December 31, 1996 (N = 467 450) comparing children vaccinated with a thimerosal-containing vaccine with children vaccinated with a thimerosal-free formulation of the same vaccine. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rate ratio (RR) for autism and other autistic-spectrum disorders, including trend with dose of ethylmercury. RESULTS: During 2 986 654 person-years, we identified 440 autism cases and 787 cases of other autistic-spectrum disorders. The risk of autism and other autistic-spectrum disorders did not differ significantly between children vaccinated with thimerosal-containing vaccine and children vaccinated with thimerosal-free vaccine (RR, 0.85 [95% confidence interval [CI], 0.60-1.20] for autism; RR, 1.12 [95% CI, 0.88-1.43] for other autistic-spectrum disorders). Furthermore, we found no evidence of a dose-response association (increase in RR per 25 microg of ethylmercury, 0.98 [95% CI, 0.90-1.06] for autism and 1.03 [95% CI, 0.98-1.09] for other autistic-spectrum disorders). CONCLUSION: The results do not support a causal relationship between childhood vaccination with thimerosal-containing vaccines and development of autistic-spectrum disorders.
Notes
Comment In: J Fam Pract. 2004 Feb;53(2):94-614764286
Comment In: JAMA. 2004 Jan 14;291(2):180; author reply 180-114722135
Comment In: JAMA. 2004 Jan 14;291(2):180; author reply 180-114722136
PubMed ID
14519711 View in PubMed
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Associations of personal and family preeclampsia history with the risk of early-, intermediate- and late-onset preeclampsia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature107136
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2013 Dec 1;178(11):1611-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1-2013
Author
Heather A Boyd
Hassaan Tahir
Jan Wohlfahrt
Mads Melbye
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2013 Dec 1;178(11):1611-9
Date
Dec-1-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Cohort Studies
Databases, Factual
Denmark - epidemiology
Family
Female
Gene-Environment Interaction
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Humans
Medical History Taking
Odds Ratio
Pre-Eclampsia - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology
Pregnancy
Recurrence
Registries
Regression Analysis
Risk factors
Severity of Illness Index
Abstract
Preeclampsia encompasses multiple conditions of varying severity. We examined the recurrence and familial aggregation of preeclampsia by timing of onset, which is a marker for severity. We ascertained personal and family histories of preeclampsia for women who delivered live singletons in Denmark in 1978-2008 (almost 1.4 million pregnancies). Using log-linear binomial regression, we estimated risk ratios for the associations between personal and family histories of preeclampsia and the risk of early-onset (before 34 weeks of gestation, which is typically the most severe), intermediate-onset (at 34-36 weeks of gestation), and late-onset (after 36 weeks of gestation) preeclampsia. Previous early-, intermediate-, or late-onset preeclampsia increased the risk of recurrent preeclampsia with the same timing of onset 25.2 times (95% confidence interval (CI): 21.8, 29.1), 19.7 times (95% CI: 17.0, 22.8), and 10.3 times (95% CI: 9.85, 10.9), respectively, compared with having no such history. Preeclampsia in a woman's family was associated with a 24%-163% increase in preeclampsia risk, with the strongest associations for early- and intermediate-onset preeclampsia in female relatives. Preeclampsia in the man's family did not affect a woman's risk of early-onset preeclampsia and was only weakly associated with her risks of intermediate- and late-onset preeclampsia. Early-onset preeclampsia appears to have the largest genetic component, whereas environmental factors likely contribute most to late-onset preeclampsia. The role of paternal genes in the etiology of preeclampsia appears to be limited.
PubMed ID
24049162 View in PubMed
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Birth weight and risk of breast cancer in a cohort of 106,504 women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature18104
Source
Int J Cancer. 2003 Dec 20;107(6):997-1000
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-20-2003
Author
Martin Ahlgren
Thorkild Sørensen
Jan Wohlfahrt
Agústa Haflidadóttir
Claus Holst
Mads Melbye
Author Affiliation
Danish Epidemiology Science Centre, Department of Epidemiology Research, Statens Serum Institut, Artillerivej 5, DK-2300 Copenhagen S, Denmark.
Source
Int J Cancer. 2003 Dec 20;107(6):997-1000
Date
Dec-20-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Birth weight
Breast Neoplasms - epidemiology
Child
Cohort Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Incidence
Middle Aged
Registries
Reproducibility of Results
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Risk
Abstract
The possible association between prenatal factors and breast cancer has been discussed for more than a decade. Birth weight has been used commonly as a proxy measure for intrauterine growth. Whereas some previous studies have found support for an association between birth weight and breast cancer, others have been inconclusive or found no association. We investigated the relationship between birth weight and risk of female breast cancer in a cohort of 106,504 Danish women. Birth weights were obtained from school health records on girls born between 1930-1975. Information on breast cancer came from linking the cohort with the Danish Cancer Registry and the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Groups Registry. A total of 2,334 cases of primary breast cancer were diagnosed in the cohort during 3,255,549 person-years of follow-up among women with birth weight between 500-6,000 g. Of these, 922 (40%) were diagnosed with primary breast cancer at the age of 50 years or older. A significant association between birth weight and breast cancer was found equivalent to an increase in risk of 9% per 1,000 g increase in birth weight (95% CI 2-17). The increase was observed for all age groups, representing both pre- and post-menopausal women, and irrespective of tumor characteristics. Adjustment for age at first birth and parity did not influence the results. Birth weight is positively associated with risk of breast cancer, indicating that prenatal factors are important in the etiology of breast cancer.
PubMed ID
14601061 View in PubMed
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Source
Cancer. 2007 Jul 15;110(2):412-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-15-2007
Author
Martin Ahlgren
Jan Wohlfahrt
Lina W Olsen
Thorkild I A Sørensen
Mads Melbye
Author Affiliation
Department of Epidemiology Research, Statens Serum Institute, Copenhagen, Denmark. mag@ssi.dk
Source
Cancer. 2007 Jul 15;110(2):412-9
Date
Jul-15-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Birth weight
Cohort Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Male
Neoplasms - epidemiology
Risk factors
Abstract
It is well established that prenatal biologic processes are important for the development of some childhood cancers, whereas less is known regarding their influence on adult cancer risk. High birth weight has been associated with risk of breast cancer, whereas studies of other specific cancers and all cancers together have been less conclusive.
The authors established a cohort of more than 200,000 men and women who were born between 1936 and 1975. Birth weights were obtained from school health records and information concerning cancer from the Danish Cancer Registry. Follow-up was performed between April 1, 1968 and December 31, 2003. During 6,975,553 person-years of follow-up, a total of 12,540 primary invasive cancers were diagnosed.
Analyses of site-specific cancers revealed that the majority of cancers had a positive linear association with birth weight. Departures from a positive linear association were found to be statistically significant for cancers of the pancreas and bladder, which demonstrated a V-shaped association, and testicular cancer, which demonstrated an inverse association with birth weight. Excluding these 3 exceptions, the trends for the individual cancer sites were not heterogeneous, and the overall trend was a relative risk of 1.07 (95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.11) per 1000-g increase in birth weight. This trend was the same in men and women and in all age groups.
A 7% increase in cancer risk was observed per 1000-g increase in birth weight. Few cancers demonstrated a nonlinear association with birth weight, and testicular cancer was found to be negatively associated with birth weight. The authors hypothesized that the biologic explanation behind the association between birth weight and cancer at different sites should be sought in a common pathway.
PubMed ID
17538980 View in PubMed
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Body mass index and risk of autoimmune diseases: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature260519
Source
Int J Epidemiol. 2014 Jun;43(3):843-55
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2014
Author
Maria C Harpsøe
Saima Basit
Mikael Andersson
Nete M Nielsen
Morten Frisch
Jan Wohlfahrt
Ellen A Nohr
Allan Linneberg
Tine Jess
Source
Int J Epidemiol. 2014 Jun;43(3):843-55
Date
Jun-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Autoimmune Diseases - epidemiology
Body mass index
Cohort Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Health Behavior
Humans
Incidence
Longitudinal Studies
Obesity - epidemiology
Risk factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
A possible aetiological link between obesity and certain autoimmune diseases (ADs) has been suggested. We investigated the associations between body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) and 43 ADs.
75,008 women participating in the Danish National Birth Cohort were followed during a median time of 11 years. Diagnoses on ADs were retrieved from the Danish National Patient Register. Cox proportional hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated adjusting for potential confounders (smoking, alcohol, parity and socio-occupational status).
During follow-up, 2430 women (3.2%) developed a total of 2607 new-onset ADs. Risk of any autoimmune disease was increased in obese women (HR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.46) compared with normal weight women (18.5-=25 kg/m2). Obese women (BMI=30 kg/m2) were at increased risk of sarcoidosis (HR 3.59; 95% CI, 2.31 to 5.57) and type 1 diabetes mellitus (HR 2.67; 95% CI, 1.71 to 4.17). Risk of dermatitis herpetiformis increased by 14% (95% CI, 1% to 30%) per BMI unit. Conversely, risk of celiac disease and Raynaud's phenomenon decreased by 7% (95% CI, 1% to 13%) and 12% (95% CI, 4% to 19%) per BMI unit, respectively. Further associations between BMI and risk of psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn's disease were suggested.
BMI was found to be associated with several Ads. This was most pronounced between obesity and risk of sarcoidosis and and risk of type 1 diabetes mellitus. These novel findings need confirmation and the possible role of adipose tissue-derived immunological changes in the development of autoimmune reactions needs consideration.
PubMed ID
24609069 View in PubMed
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Body Mass Index and Risk of Infections Among Women in the Danish National Birth Cohort.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature283057
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2016 Jun 01;183(11):1008-17
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-01-2016
Author
Maria C Harpsøe
Nete M Nielsen
Nina Friis-Møller
Mikael Andersson
Jan Wohlfahrt
Allan Linneberg
Ellen A Nohr
Tine Jess
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2016 Jun 01;183(11):1008-17
Date
Jun-01-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Adult
Anti-Infective Agents - therapeutic use
Body Height
Body mass index
Body Weight
Communicable Diseases - drug therapy - epidemiology
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Health Behavior
Humans
Incidence
Obesity - epidemiology
Overweight - epidemiology
Proportional Hazards Models
Prospective Studies
Respiratory Tract Infections - epidemiology
Risk factors
Skin Diseases, Infectious - epidemiology
Socioeconomic Factors
Thinness - epidemiology
Abstract
We investigated the possible association between body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) and hospitalization or treatment for acute infection in a prospective cohort study. We linked 75,001 women enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort from 1996 to 2002, who had information on BMI and a broad range of confounders, to data on infectious diseases and use of antimicrobial agents from the National Patient Register and the Danish Prescription Register. Associations were tested using Cox proportional hazards models. During 12 years of follow-up, we observed a U-shaped association between baseline BMI and later hospitalization for 1) any infectious disease and 2) infections of the respiratory tract, whereas a dose-response relationship was seen for skin infections. The most pronounced associations were seen for acute upper respiratory infections at multiple and unspecified sites (underweight (BMI
PubMed ID
27188940 View in PubMed
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Bottle-feeding and the Risk of Pyloric Stenosis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature121048
Source
Pediatrics. 2012 Oct;130(4):e943-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2012
Author
Camilla Krogh
Robert J Biggar
Thea K Fischer
Morten Lindholm
Jan Wohlfahrt
Mads Melbye
Author Affiliation
Department of Epidemiology Research, Statens Serum Institut, 5 Ørestads Boulevard, DK-2300 Copenhagen S, Denmark. ckr@ssi.dk
Source
Pediatrics. 2012 Oct;130(4):e943-9
Date
Oct-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Bottle Feeding - adverse effects - statistics & numerical data
Breast Feeding - statistics & numerical data
Cohort Studies
Denmark
Female
Health Surveys
Humans
Infant
Male
Proportional Hazards Models
Pyloric Stenosis, Hypertrophic - etiology - surgery
Registries
Risk factors
Abstract
Bottle-feeding has been suggested to increase the risk of pyloric stenosis (PS). However, large population-based studies are needed. We examined the effect of bottle-feeding during the first 4 months after birth, by using detailed data about the timing of first exposure to bottle-feeding and extensive confounder information.
We performed a large population-based cohort study based on the Danish National Birth Cohort, which provided information on infants and feeding practice. Information about surgery for PS was obtained from the Danish National Patient Register. The association between bottle-feeding and the risk of PS was evaluated by hazard ratios (HRs) estimated in a Cox regression model, adjusting for possible confounders.
Among 70148 singleton infants, 65 infants had surgery for PS, of which 29 were bottle-fed before PS diagnosis. The overall HR of PS for bottle-fed infants compared with not bottle-fed infants was 4.62 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.78-7.65). Among bottle-fed infants, risk increases were similar for infants both breast and bottle-fed (HR: 3.36 [95% CI: 1.60-7.03]), formerly breastfed (HR: 5.38 [95% CI: 2.88-10.06]), and never breastfed (HR: 6.32 [95% CI: 2.45-16.26]) (P = .76). The increased risk of PS among bottle-fed infants was observed even after 30 days since first exposure to bottle-feeding and did not vary with age at first exposure to bottle-feeding.
Bottle-fed infants experienced a 4.6-fold higher risk of PS compared with infants who were not bottle-fed. The result adds to the evidence supporting the advantage of exclusive breastfeeding in the first months after birth.
Notes
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PubMed ID
22945411 View in PubMed
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Breast cancer in women using digoxin: tumor characteristics and relapse risk.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature261130
Source
Breast Cancer Res. 2013;15(1):R13
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Robert J Biggar
Elisabeth W Andersen
Niels Kroman
Jan Wohlfahrt
Mads Melbye
Source
Breast Cancer Res. 2013;15(1):R13
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aromatase Inhibitors - administration & dosage - adverse effects
Breast Neoplasms - chemically induced - drug therapy - epidemiology - pathology
Denmark
Digoxin - administration & dosage - adverse effects
Female
Heart Diseases - drug therapy - pathology
Humans
Middle Aged
Neoplasm Recurrence, Local - chemically induced - epidemiology - pathology
Prognosis
Receptors, Estrogen - metabolism
Risk factors
Tamoxifen - administration & dosage - adverse effects
Abstract
Digoxin use is associated with increased incidence of breast and uterus cancers. We postulated that digoxin use might affect tumor characteristics and increase relapse risk in women with breast cancer.
Incident breast cancer cases in Danish women (n = 49,312; 1995 to 2008) were identified. Analyses were conducted in women 20 to 74 years old. Relapse hazard ratios (HR) were compared in women using and not using digoxin, adjusting for age, calendar period, protocol, tumor size, nodal involvement, histology grade, estrogen-receptor (ER) status, and anti-estrogen therapy in Cox regression models.
At diagnosis, tumors in digoxin users were more likely ER+ (85.4% vs. 78.6%: P = 0.002) and have grade 1 ductal histology (37.2% vs. 25.7%; P = 0.004), compared to non-users. 45 relapses occurred in women already using digoxin at breast cancer diagnosis (1,487 person-years); 24 relapses occurred in women later starting digoxin (384 person-years). Overall relapse risk HR in digoxin users was 1.13 (95% confidence interval: 0.88, 1.46) compared to non-users. Relapse risk in digoxin users was significantly increased in the first year (2.19; 1.26, 3.78) but not thereafter (0.99; 0.74, 1.32) (P = 0.02 for difference in HRs). First-year relapse hazard was high in digoxin-using women with ER+ tumors (2.51; 1.39, 4.55) but not ER- tumors (0.72; 0.10, 5.27). Recurrence hazard was not significantly changed among digoxin-using women also using tamoxifen.
Breast cancers arising in digoxin-using women had better prognostic features. After adjustment for markers, overall breast cancer relapse risk in digoxin users was not increased significantly, although recurrence hazards for ER+ tumors were higher in the first year following diagnosis.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23421975 View in PubMed
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Breast cancer risk after childbirth in young women with family history (Denmark).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature19201
Source
Cancer Causes Control. 2002 Mar;13(2):169-74
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2002
Author
Jan Wohlfahrt
Jørgen H Olsen
Mads Melby
Author Affiliation
Department of Epidemiology Research, Danish Epidemiology Science Center, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen.
Source
Cancer Causes Control. 2002 Mar;13(2):169-74
Date
Mar-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age of Onset
Breast Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology - genetics
Child
Cohort Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Family Health
Female
Humans
Medical History Taking
Parity
Postpartum Period
Pregnancy
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Risk factors
Time Factors
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: The increased risk of breast cancer in women with family history of breast cancer (FHBC) might be reduced by early childbirths. However, childbirth induces a transient increase in risk in the first 5-10 years, which coincides with the relatively increased risk of family cases at a young age. The objective was to investigate this short-term change in risk according to FHBC. METHODS: We used a population-based cohort of 1.5 million Danish women. Between 1968 and 1990, 2770 incident cases of breast cancer below 40 years of age were identified in the Danish Cancer Register, of whom 276 (10%) had a FHBC. RESULTS: The first 5 years after a birth the short-term increase in risk was 30% (3-64%) larger in women with FHBC than without FHBC. After the first 5 years we observed no difference in the effect of a birth between women with and without FHBC. CONCLUSIONS: The adverse short-term effect of childbirthis stronger in women with FHBC.
PubMed ID
11936823 View in PubMed
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Breastfeeding and risk of atopic dermatitis, by parental history of allergy, during the first 18 months of life.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature15150
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2004 Aug 1;160(3):217-23
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1-2004
Author
Christine Stabell Benn
Jan Wohlfahrt
Peter Aaby
Tine Westergaard
Eva Benfeldt
Kim Fleischer Michaelsen
Bengt Björkstén
Mads Melbye
Author Affiliation
Department of Epidemiology Research, Danish Epidemiology Science Centre, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark. cb@ssi.dk
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2004 Aug 1;160(3):217-23
Date
Aug-1-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Asthma - epidemiology - genetics
Breast Feeding - statistics & numerical data
Cohort Studies
Comparative Study
Denmark - epidemiology
Dermatitis, Atopic - epidemiology - genetics
Family Health
Female
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Infant Formula - statistics & numerical data
Infant, Newborn
Male
Parents
Pregnancy
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Abstract
The role of breastfeeding in allergic diseases remains controversial. The authors studied the association between breastfeeding and development of atopic dermatitis during the first 18 months of life among children with and without a parental history of allergy. A cohort study of 15,430 mother-child pairs enrolled in The Danish National Birth Cohort was carried out between 1998 and 2000. Data on breastfeeding, atopic dermatitis, and potential confounders was obtained from telephone interviews conducted during pregnancy and when the children were 6 and 18 months of age. The cumulative incidence of atopic dermatitis was 11.5% at 18 months of age. Overall, current breastfeeding was not associated with atopic dermatitis (incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.80, 1.04). Exclusive breastfeeding for at least 4 months was associated with an increased risk of atopic dermatitis in children with no parents with allergies (IRR = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.55) but not for children with one (IRR = 1.11, 95% CI: 0.94, 1.31) or two (IRR = 0.88, 95% CI: 0.69, 1.13) parents with allergies (test for homogeneity, p = 0.03). The authors found no overall effects of exclusive or partial breastfeeding on the risk of atopic dermatitis. However, the effect of exclusive breastfeeding for 4 months or more depended on parental history of allergic diseases.
PubMed ID
15257994 View in PubMed
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79 records – page 1 of 8.