In a group of 1111 school children aged 12 years from two selected town in Poland (Rzeszów and Ostroleka) a comparative study of three BCG vaccines was performed, the Polish, the Danish, and the Japanese. Tests for viability of the vaccines gave the following results: for the Polish vaccine 17680000 culturable particles in 1 mg; the Danish--12060000, and the Japanese--43540000 respectively Children eligible for vaccination were selected on the basis of prevaccination tuberculin testing with 2 TU tuberculin RT-23 with Tween 80. All the three vaccines gave high level of postvaccination tuberculin reactions measured after 10 weeks. In more than 30% of children these reactions were higher than 15 mm. The mean postvaccination reactions after the Polish vaccine was 14.2 mm (s.d.3.7), after the Danish--13.7 mm (s.d.3.9), and after the Japanese 14.9 mm(s.d.3.0). The difference between the Danish and the Japanese vaccines was statistically significant, but between the Polish and the other two vaccines was not. It was also formed that children with larger postvaccination tuberculin indurations had larger diameter of preview BCG scars.
Three freeze-dried BCG vaccines: Polish, Danish and Japan were compared. It was found, that they fullfill all WHO requirements for freeze-dried BCG vaccine. They were shown to have a high survival of bacilli upon freeze-drying, good viability, thermostability and allergizing properties in guinea pigs. Japan BCG vaccine had especially high viability and thermostability. Mentioned BCG vaccines were safe for guinea pigs even in dose of 5 mg BCG (100 human doses) administrated subcutaneously. It was shown, that Polish BCG vaccine, that is regarded as vaccine of middle strength does not differ essentialy from strong Danish vaccine in respect to viability, thermostability and allergizing properties in guinea pigs evaluated 6 weeks after vaccination.
Femoral neck fractures are among the most frequent and the most dangerous types of musculoskeletal injuries in the elderly population. There is general agreement that because of the morphology of the fracture, internal fixation is the treatment of choice irrespective of the degree of displacement. The optimal surgical treatment of femoral neck fractures remains controversial despite constant progress in the surgical management of such fractures and still remains a serious therapeutic problem. The goal of the present study was to compare the outcome in patients who underwent surgery of femoral neck fractures with AO screws; a compression screw and a side-plate; and a compression screw and a side-plate with an additional AO screw.
The study group included 112 patients who underwent surgery for femoral neck fracture with the use of AO screws; a compression screw and a side-plate; and compression screw and a side-plate with an additional AO screw, at the Orthopaedic Department at Vendsyssel Hospital, Hjörring, Northern Orthopaedic Division, Denmark, between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2005. Garden's classification was used to classify femoral neck fractures. Implant position and fracture reduction were categorised according to recommendations by Tornkvist and Lindequist.
Irrespective of fracture morphology, compression screw and side-plate fixation provides better stabilisation to the bony fragments and improves early mobilisation in comparison with AO screws.
The paper is a review of the reports on the treatment of simple obesity, comparing the methods of surgical therapy used as yet with the new method of intragastric balloon. This method is simple, repeatable, connected with a low number of complications making possible a mean weight loss of 16 kg during one course of treatment.