The study aims to describe the incidence and geographical distribution of accidental out-of-hospital births (accidental births) in Finland in relation to the changes in the hospital network, and to compare the perinatal outcomes of accidental births and all hospital births.
Data for the incidence and distribution analyses of accidental births were obtained from the official statistics between 1962 and 1973 and from the national Medical Birth Registry (MBR) in 1992-1993. The infant outcomes were analyzed for the MBR data in 1991-1995.
Between 1963 and 1975 the central hospital network expanded and by 1975 they covered 72% of births. The number of small maternity units has decreased since 1963. The incidence of accidental births decreased between 1963 and 1973, from 1.3 to 0.4 per 1000 births, and rose by the 1990s to 1/1000. In the 1990s the parity adjusted risk of an accidental birth was higher for residents of northern than of southern Finland, OR 2.51 (CI 1.75-3.60), and for residents of rural compared to urban municipalities, OR 3.26 (CI 2.48-4.27). The birthweight adjusted risk for a perinatal death was higher in accidental births than in hospital births, OR 3.11 (CI 1.42-6.84).
A temporal correlation between closing of small hospitals and an increase in accidental birth rates was detected. Due to the poor infant outcomes of accidental births, centralization policies should include measures to their prevention.
Fødestuene utgjør en del av en differensiert og desentralisert fødselsomsorg i Norge. Hensikten med studien var å undersøke forekomst og karakteristika ved planlagte og ikke-planlagte fødestuefødsler og årsaker til overflytting samt resultater for mor og barn.
I perioden 2008-10 ble et tilleggsskjema til rutinemeldingen til Medisinsk fødselsregister fortløpende utfylt av jordmor for 2 514 av i alt 2 556 (98,4 %) fødestuefødsler og for 220 fødsler som var planlagt i fødestue, men der fødselen foregikk andre steder. Data fra tilleggsskjema ble så koblet med rutinedata i Medisinsk fødselsregister og resultater fra fødestuefødsler sammenlignet med resultater fra en lavrisikofødepopulasjon i sykehus.
Av de 2 514 fødestuefødslene var 2 320 (92,3 %) planlagt å foregå der, mens 194 (7,7 %) ikke var det. Ved planlagt fødestuefødsel ble totalt 6,9 % overflyttet til sykehus under fødsel, hvorav 19,5 % blant førstegangsfødende. Det var 0,4 % operative vaginale fødsler ved vanlige fødestuer, 3,5 % ved forsterkede fødestuer og 12,7 % ved fødsler overflyttet fra fødestue til sykehus. Blant barn født i fødestue hadde 0,6 % apgarskår
CommentIn: Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2018 Jun 12;138(10): PMID 29893095
OBJECTIVE: To study whether the selection of low risk parturient women into a separate maternity unit leads to a lower risk of emergency cesarean section, compared to giving birth in a unit with mixed cases. DESIGN: Hospital based registry study. SETTING: Maternity units in two university hospitals in Oslo, Norway. POPULATION: All low risk parturient women with attempted vaginal deliveries in the years 2001-2003, a total number of 11,686 deliveries. METHODS: Data were obtained from standardized patient records and risks of cesarean section were estimated as odds ratios. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Emergency cesarean section risk. RESULTS: Compared with women giving birth in a unit with mixed cases, women giving birth in a maternity unit with low risk cases only had a higher risk of emergency cesarean section (OR 1.4; 95% CI 1.2-1.6). CONCLUSIONS: Giving birth in a low risk maternity unit is associated with a higher risk of cesarean section for low risk parturient women compared with giving birth in a maternity unit with mixed cases.
The choice to give birth at home with a regulated midwife in attendance became available to expectant women in British Columbia in 1998. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety of home birth by comparing perinatal outcomes for planned home births attended by regulated midwives with those for planned hospital births.
We compared the outcomes of 862 planned home births attended by midwives with those of planned hospital births attended by either midwives (n = 571) or physicians (n = 743). Comparison subjects who were similar in their obstetric risk status were selected from hospitals in which the midwives who were conducting the home births had hospital privileges. Our study population included all home births that occurred between Jan. 1, 1998, and Dec. 31, 1999.
Women who gave birth at home attended by a midwife had fewer procedures during labour compared with women who gave birth in hospital attended by a physician. After adjustment for maternal age, lone parent status, income quintile, use of any versus no substances and parity, women in the home birth group were less likely to have epidural analgesia (odds ratio 0.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.14-0.27), be induced, have their labours augmented with oxytocin or prostaglandins, or have an episiotomy. Comparison of home births with hospital births attended by a midwife showed very similar and equally significant differences. The adjusted odds ratio for cesarean section in the home birth group compared with physician-attended hospital births was 0.3 (95% CI 0.22-0.43). Rates of perinatal mortality, 5-minute Apgar scores, meconium aspiration syndrome or need for transfer to a different hospital for specialized newborn care were very similar for the home birth group and for births in hospital attended by a physician. The adjusted odds ratio for Apgar scores lower than 7 at 5 minutes in the home birth group compared with physician-attended hospital births was 0.84 (95% CI 0.32-2.19).
There was no increased maternal or neonatal risk associated with planned home birth under the care of a regulated midwife. The rates of some adverse outcomes were too low for us to draw statistical comparisons, and ongoing evaluation of home birth is warranted.
We aimed to validate a widely used US prediction model for vaginal birth after cesarean (Grobman et al. ) and modify it to suit Swedish conditions.
Women having experienced one cesarean section and at least one subsequent delivery (n=49,472) in the Swedish Medical Birth Registry 1992-2011 were randomly divided into two data sets. In the development data set, variables associated with successful trial of labor were identified using multiple logistic regression. The predictive ability of the estimates previously published by Grobman et al., and of our modified and new estimates, respectively, was then evaluated using the validation data set. The accuracy of the models for prediction of vaginal birth after cesarean was measured by area under the receiver operating characteristics curve.
For maternal age, body mass index, prior vaginal delivery, and prior labor arrest, the odds ratio estimates for vaginal birth after cesarean were similar to those previously published. The prediction accuracy increased when information on indication for the previous cesarean section was added (from area under the receiver operating characteristics curve=0.69-0.71), and increased further when maternal height and delivery unit cesarean section rates were included (area under the receiver operating characteristics curve=0.74). The correlation between the individual predicted vaginal birth after cesarean probability and the observed trial of labor success rate was high in all the respective predicted probability decentiles.
Customization of prediction models for vaginal birth after cesarean is of considerable value. Choosing relevant indicators for a Swedish setting made it possible to achieve excellent prediction accuracy for success in trial of labor after cesarean. During the delicate process of counseling about preferred delivery mode after one cesarean section, considering the results of our study may facilitate the choice between a trial of labor or an elective repeat cesarean section.
To study whether there are significant differences in the rate of obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS) between the different sized delivery units in Finland.
The study was performed as a population based registry study in Finland, including all births (294725) between 2006 and 2010. All the Finnish delivery units (34) were categorized by the number of annual deliveries and the OASIS rate was then compared between the different sized delivery units using a logistic regression analysis adjusting for maternal age and parity. The Robson ten group classification was used for more accurate comparison.
The OASIS rate was significantly elevated, both in the largest units with 5000 annual deliveries or more (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.11-1.92) and in the smallest units with less than 500 annual deliveries (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.22-1.45). In the Robson's group 1 (primiparous, single cephalic term pregnancy, spontaneous labour) the risk for OASIS was the highest in the largest units (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.28-1.61) while in the Robson's group 3 (multiparous, single cephalic term pregnancy, spontaneous labour) the highest risk was found in the smallest units (OR 2.90, 95% CI 1.68-5.02).
There is significant inter-hospital variation in OASIS rates suggesting significant differences in obstetric practices. Robson's ten group classification should be used to enhance the inter-hospital comparison.
To assess possible association between the incidence of approved claims for severe and fatal obstetric injuries and delivery volume in Denmark.
A nationwide panel study of labor units.
Claimants seeking financial compensation due to injuries occurring in labor units in 1995-2012.
Exposure information regarding the annual number of deliveries per labor unit was retrieved from the Danish National Birth Register. Outcome information was retrieved from the Danish Patient Compensation Association. Exposure was categorized in delivery volume quintiles as annual volume per labor unit: (10-1377), (1378-2016), (2017-2801), (2802-3861), (3862-6659).
Five primary measures of outcome were used. Incidence rate ratios of (A) Submitted claims, (B) Approved claims, (C) Approved severe injury claims (120% degree of disability), (D) Approved fatal injury claims, and (C+D) Combined.
1 151 734 deliveries in 51 labor units and 1872 submitted claims were included. The incidence rate ratios of approved claims overall, of approved fatal injury claims, and of approved severe and fatal injuries combined increased significantly with decreasing annual delivery volume. Face value incidence rate ratios of approved severe injuries increased with decreasing labor unit volume, but the association did not reach statistical significance.
High volume labor units appear associated with fewer approved and fewer fatal injury claims compared with units with less volume. The findings support the development towards consolidation of units in Denmark. A suggested option would be to tailor obstetric patient safety initiatives according to the delivery volume of individual labor units.
The work consists of a statistical study of the workload on a labour ward. This included a study of the admission/birth frequency and an investigation of the factors that influenced the process of admissions and the time spent on the ward. Also the relation between the number of midwives and women in labour present on the ward was investigated. It was found that the variation in the number of spontaneous admissions/births could be described reasonably well by a Poisson distribution. A simple statistical model was proposed to calculate the number of midwives necessary at any given birth frequency. For a specific choice of parameters the model fitted the actual distribution very well. The relative frequency of complications was highest for women with no previous births and smallest for women with one previous birth. The time spent on the labour ward depended significantly on the number of times the woman had given birth before and on whether the present delivery was complicated.