Elective caesarean delivery is increasing rapidly in many countries, and one of the reasons might be that caesarean delivery is widely believed to protect against pelvic floor disorders, including anal incontinence. Previous studies on this issue have been small and with conflicting results. The aim of present study was to compare the risk of developing anal incontinence in women who had a caesarean delivery, in those who had a vaginal delivery, and in two age-matched control groups (nulliparous women and men).
In this observational population-based study, we included all women in the Swedish Medical Birth Register who gave birth by caesarean delivery or vaginal delivery during 1973-2015 in Sweden and were diagnosed with anal incontinence according to ICD 8-10 in the Swedish National Patient Register during 2001-15. Exclusion criteria were multiple birth delivery, mixed vaginal and caesarean delivery, and four or more deliveries. We compared the diagnosis of anal incontinence between women previously delivered solely by caesarean delivery and those who solely had delivered vaginally. We also compared it with two age-matched control groups of nulliparous women and men from the Swedish Total Population Register. Finally, we analysed risk factors for anal incontinence in the caesarean delivery and vaginal delivery groups.
3?755?110 individuals were included in the study. Between 1973 and 2015, 185?219 women had a caesarean delivery only and 1?400?935 delivered vaginally only. 416 (0·22 %) of the 185?219 women in the caesarean delivery group were diagnosed with anal incontinence compared with 5171 (0·37%) of 1?400?935 women in the vaginal delivery group. The odds ratio (OR) for being diagnosed with anal incontinence after vaginal delivery compared with caesarean delivery was 1·65 (95% CI 1·49-1·82; p
CommentIn: Lancet. 2019 Mar 23;393(10177):1183-1184 PMID 30799058
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence and degree of anal incontinence after vaginal delivery among primiparous women and to define associated risk factors. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Karolinska Institutet, Danderyd Hospital, Sweden, a university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Three hundred and forty-nine primiparous women. METHODS: Questionnaires distributed within the first days after delivery and re-distributed five and nine months postpartum. Analysis of delivery records. RESULTS: Eighty percent of the women answered all questionnaires. At five months postpartum, 2% of the women had symptoms of faecal incontinence and 25% had symptoms of involuntary flatus. At nine months postpartum, 1% of the women had symptoms of faecal incontinence and 26% had symptoms of involuntary flatus. The majority of the women had infrequent symptoms and a decrease in severity was noted at nine months. Symptoms of incontinence were more common in women who sustained a sphincter tear at delivery. Risk factors for incontinence at five months included maternal age, duration of the second stage of labour, instrumental vaginal delivery, and clinically diagnosed sphincter tear at delivery. Development of incontinence at nine months was associated with maternal age and clinically diagnosed sphincter tear at delivery. CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrates that infrequent involuntary flatus is a common symptom after vaginal delivery in primiparous women. These symptoms of involuntary flatus frequently improved and only a few women suffered from frank faecal incontinence. Factors associated with an increased risk of anal incontinence and sphincter tears should be considered during delivery.
OBJECTIVE: To analyze circumstances relating to severe anal sphincter tears occurring at spontaneous delivery, in view of reported differences in practice regarding manual perineal protection during delivery. DESIGN: Cohort study of midwife-conducted non-operative vaginal deliveries. SETTING: Five Norwegian hospitals with 12,438 consecutive deliveries during a 12-month period. METHODS: Data from 357 women sustaining third and fourth grade anal sphincter tears (2.9%) were analyzed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Different incidence of major perineal tears. RESULTS: Sphincter tear incidence varied significantly between the five hospitals, from 1.3 to 4.7% (p
To study changes in the incidence of obstetric anal sphincter rupture (OASR) during recent years in Denmark, Finland, Sweden and Norway and hospital-based incidence in recent years in Norway.
Retrospective birth register study.
Unselected population of delivering women in four Nordic countries.
All deliveries (574 175) registered in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, 2004-2010.
Parity data, including maternal, obstetrical and fetal characteristics, were obtained. The incidence of OASR was calculated from vaginal deliveries. A chi-squared test was used to analyse differences between countries and time periods.
Incidence of OASR.
During the study period, the OASR incidence in Finland was notably lower (0.7-1.0%) than in the other three Nordic countries (4.2-2.3%). A significant and constant reduction in OASR incidence was observed in Norway only (from 4.1 to 2.3%, from 2004 to 2010, p
Despite the biological plausibility of an association between obstetric mode of delivery and psychosis in later life, studies to date have been inconclusive. We assessed the association between mode of delivery and later onset of psychosis in the offspring. A population-based cohort including data from the Swedish National Registers was used. All singleton live births between 1982 and 1995 were identified (n= 1,345,210) and followed-up to diagnosis at age 16 or later. Mode of delivery was categorized as: unassisted vaginal delivery (VD), assisted VD, elective Caesarean section (CS) (before onset of labor), and emergency CS (after onset of labor). Outcomes included any psychosis; nonaffective psychoses (including schizophrenia only) and affective psychoses (including bipolar disorder only and depression with psychosis only). Cox regression analysis was used reporting partially and fully adjusted hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Sibling-matched Cox regression was performed to adjust for familial confounding factors. In the fully adjusted analyses, elective CS was significantly associated with any psychosis (HR 1.13, 95% CI 1.03, 1.24). Similar findings were found for nonaffective psychoses (HR 1.13, 95% CI 0.99, 1.29) and affective psychoses (HR 1.17, 95% CI 1.05, 1.31) (?(2)for heterogeneityP= .69). In the sibling-matched Cox regression, this association disappeared (HR 1.03, 95% CI 0.78, 1.37). No association was found between assisted VD or emergency CS and psychosis. This study found that elective CS is associated with an increase in offspring psychosis. However, the association did not persist in the sibling-matched analysis, implying the association is likely due to familial confounding by unmeasured factors such as genetics or environment.
Studies link antibiotic treatment and delivery by cesarean section with increased risk of chronic diseases through changes of the gut-microbiota. We aimed to evaluate the association of broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment during the first two years of life with subsequent onset of childhood type 1 diabetes and the potential effect-modification by mode of delivery.
A Danish nationwide cohort study including all singletons born during 1997-2010. End of follow-up by December 2012. Four national registers provided information on antibiotic redemptions, outcome and confounders. Redemptions of antibiotic prescriptions during the first two years of life was classified into narrow-spectrum or broad-spectrum antibiotics. Children were followed from age two to fourteen, both inclusive. The risk of type 1 diabetes with onset before the age of 15 years was assessed by Cox regression. A total of 858,201 singletons contributed 5,906,069 person-years, during which 1,503 children developed type 1 diabetes.
Redemption of broad-spectrum antibiotics during the first two years of life was associated with an increased rate of type 1 diabetes during the following 13 years of life (HR 1.13; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.25), however, the rate was modified by mode of delivery. Broad-spectrum antibiotics were associated with an increased rate of type 1 diabetes in children delivered by either intrapartum cesarean section (HR 1.70; 95% CI 1.15 to 2.51) or prelabor cesarean section (HR 1.63; 95% CI 1.11 to 2.39), but not in vaginally delivered children. Number needed to harm was 433 and 562, respectively. The association with broad-spectrum antibiotics was not modified by parity, genetic predisposition or maternal redemption of antibiotics during pregnancy or lactation.
Redemption of broad-spectrum antibiotics during infancy is associated with an increased risk of childhood type 1 diabetes in children delivered by cesarean section.
Cites: Nature. 2008 Oct 23;455(7216):1109-1318806780
Obstetric anal sphincter injury (OASIS) has been identified as a major preventable risk factor for anal incontinence.
Aim was to measure national variation in incidence of OASIS by socioeconomic status (SES).
A retrospective population based case-control study using the data derived from the Finnish Medical Birth Register for the years 1991-2010. A total population of singleton vaginal births was reviewed. We calculated unadjusted incidences of OASIS stratified by SES and vaginal parity, and adjusted risks for OASIS in each social class, after controlling for parity, birthweight, mode of delivery, maternal age and maternal smoking. SES was recorded into five categories based on mother's occupation at time of birth; upper white-collar workers such as physicians, lower white-collar workers such as nurses, blue-collar workers such as cleaners, others such as students, and cases with missing information.
Seven per thousand (6,404 of 980,733) singleton births were affected by OASIS. In nulliparae the incidence of OASIS was 18% higher (adjusted OR 1.18 95% CI 1.04-1.34) for upper white-collar workers and 12% higher (adjusted OR 1.12 95% CI 1.02-1.24) for lower white-collar workers compared with blue-collar workers. Among women in these higher SES groups, 40% of the excess OASIS risk was explained by age, non-smoking, birthweight and mode of delivery. Despite the large effect of SES on OASIS, inclusion of SES in multivariable models caused only small changes in estimated adjusted effects for other established risk factors.
OASIS at the first vaginal delivery demonstrates a strong positive social gradient. Higher SES is associated with a number of risk factors for OASIS, including higher birthweight and non-smoking, but only 40% of the excess incidence is explained by these known risk factors. Further research should address other underlying causes including differences in lifestyle or environmental factors, and inequalities in healthcare provision.
Cites: BJOG. 2000 Jul;107(7):926-3110901566
Cites: Matern Child Health J. 2013 Sep;17(7):1315-2422983810
Cites: Am J Public Health. 2001 Feb;91(2):284-611211639
OBJECTIVES: Anal sphincter rupture is a serious complication of a vaginal delivery. A considerable number of women suffer permanent anal incontinence after this type of injury. The incidence of sphincter tears is believed to have increased over several decades in Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Finland, but there seem to be significant differences in the incidence rates among these countries. The aim of this study is to compare frequency of anal sphincter tears among the four Nordic countries, and to discuss the possible reasons for the development. STUDY DESIGN: Ecological register study. Anal sphincter ruptures are registered as third and fourth degree perineal tears in the national birth and hospital registries in the Nordic countries. Data from these registries were sampled from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The incidences of anal sphincter ruptures were calculated as percentages of all vaginal deliveries and caesarean sections were excluded. The test of relative proportions, Chi-square and linear regression modelling were used to study the difference between countries and time trends. RESULTS: The frequency of anal sphincter rupture was significantly higher in three countries, Denmark 3.6%, Norway 4.1% and Sweden 4.2%, compared to Finland 0.6%. The trend was clearly increasing from the early 1970s in all countries. CONCLUSIONS: There is a significant difference in the Nordic countries in the incidence of anal sphincter tears and a significant increment in the incidence over three decades. Our hypothesis is that change in the routines during labour may be one reason for this increment. Higher episiotomy frequency in Finland may be one contributing reason. We assume that there has been a change in the conduct of labour during the last decades, and protecting the perineum may have lost its importance in the three Nordic countries, while the classic method of protecting perineum is still in use in Finland.