Acute venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a serious and potentially fatal disorder, which often complicates the course of hospitalized patients, but may also affect ambulatory and otherwise healthy people. While the introduction of thromboprophylactic measures is expected to have reduced the occurrence of postoperative VTE, there is an increasing awareness of the importance of medical conditions in determining thromboembolic events. Among the conditions that predispose patients to VTE are increasing age, cancer and its treatment, prolonged immobility, stroke or paralysis, previous VTE, congestive heart failure, acute infection, pregnancy or puerperium, dehydration, hormonal treatment, varicose veins, long air travel, acute inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatologic disease, and nephrotic syndrome. Other factors that have recently been associated with an increased risk of VTE disorders include persistent elevation of D-dimer and atherosclerotic disease. Recognition of the incidence and clinical importance of thrombosis will most likely encourage more widespread use of antithrombotic prophylaxis in medical patients.
Previous research has suggested that dehydration in infancy may lead to high blood pressure in later life because of sodium retention. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of poor hygiene of the child, poor social and poor housing conditions at home and diarrhoea in childhood as proxies for dehydration on high blood pressure in later life.
Data were from a subset of participants in the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study, a population-based cohort study in eastern Finland. Information on childhood factors was collected from school health records (n=952), from the 1930s to the 1950s. Adult data were obtained from baseline examinations of the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study cohort (n=2682) in 1984-1989.
Men who had poor hygiene in childhood had on average 4.07 mm Hg (95% CI 0.53 to 7.61) higher systolic blood pressure than men who had good or satisfactory hygiene in childhood in the age-adjusted analysis. Reports of diarrhoea were not associated with adult blood pressure.
The authors' findings suggest that poor hygiene and living in poor social conditions in childhood are associated with higher systolic blood pressure in adulthood. Reported childhood diarrhoea did not explain the link between hygiene and high blood pressure in adulthood.
The study aims to assess the risk of developing hyponatraemia when large-volume bolus fluid rehydration therapy is administered.
We conducted a prospective randomised study in a tertiary-care centre emergency department. Participants included children with gastroenteritis and dehydration requiring intravenous rehydration. They were randomised to receive 60?mL/kg (large) or 20?mL/kg (standard) 0.9% saline bolus followed by maintenance 0.9% saline for 3?h. Biochemical tests were performed at baseline and 4?h. The primary outcome measure was the development of hyponatraemia at 4?h. Secondary outcome measures were (i) change in sodium relative to baseline value; (ii) magnitude of decrease among those who experienced a decrease; (iii) risk of hypernatraemia; (iv) correlations between urine parameters and hyponatraemia; and (v) fluid overload.
Eighty-four of 224 (38%) participants were hyponatraemic at baseline. At 4?h, 22% (48/217) had a dysnatraemia, and similar numbers of children were hyponatraemic in both groups: large (23% (26/112)) versus standard (21% (22/105)) (P = 0.69). Among initially hyponatraemic children, 63% (30/48) who received large-volume rehydration and 44% (15/34) of those administered standard rehydration were isonatraemic at 4?h (P = 0.10). Overall, children who received 60?mL/kg experienced a larger mean increase (1.6 ± 2.4?mEq/L vs. 0.9 ± 2.2?mEq/L; P = 0.04) and were less likely to experience a sodium decrease of =2?mEq/L (8/112 vs. 17/105; P = 0.04) than those administered 20?mL/kg.
Large-volume bolus rehydration therapy with 0.9% saline is safe. It does not promote the development of hyponatraemia over the short term, but hastens the resolution of baseline hyponatraemia.
AIMS: To study incidence and risk factors of early neonatal dehydration in a Norwegian population based cohort. METHODS: Term neonates admitted to a paediatric department during 2002-2008 with a weight loss > or = 12% within three weeks of age were identified retrospectively through review of medical records. For each patient a sex-matched control group of two full-term infants was selected to assess risk factors for dehydration. RESULTS: A total of 38 of 37 321 infants (1.0 per thousand) were admitted at a median age of 6 (interquartile range 5-12) days, and the admission rate increased during the study period (p for trend = 0.008). Simultaneously, mean nursery stay decreased from 3.5 to 2.7 days (p = 0.022). Mean weight loss was 15.0% of birth weight and 17 of 29 (58.6%) had serum sodium above 145 mmol/L. The only significant difference between patients and controls was that mothers of patients were older (32.3 +/- 5.0 vs. 29.4 +/- 5.4 years, p = 0.005). Conclusion: Short nursery stay may be a risk factor for dehydration in newborn infants.
On 7 August 1954, the world 42 km marathon record holder, Jim Peters, collapsed repeatedly during the final 385 metres of the British Empire and Commonwealth Games marathon held in Vancouver, Canada. It has been assumed that Peters collapsed from heatstroke because he ran too fast and did not drink during the race, which was held in windless, cloudless conditions with a dry-bulb temperature of 28 degrees C. Hospital records made available to us indicate that Peters might not have suffered from exertional heatstroke, which classically produces a rectal temperature > 42 degrees C, cerebral effects and, usually, a fatal outcome without vigorous active cooling. Although Peters was unconscious on admission to hospital approximately 60 minutes after he was removed from the race, his rectal temperature was 39.4 degrees C and he recovered fully, even though he was managed conservatively and not actively cooled. We propose that Peters' collapse was more likely due to a combination of hyperthermia-induced fatigue which caused him to stop running; exercise-associated postural hypotension as a result of a low peripheral vascular resistance immediately he stopped running; and combined cerebral effects of hyperthermia, hypertonic hypernatraemia associated with dehydration, and perhaps undiagnosed hypoglycaemia. But none of these conditions should cause prolonged unconsciousness, raising the possibility that Peters might have suffered from a transient encephalopathy, the exact nature of which is not understood.
Dehydration is an important complication for sick children. The Clinical Dehydration Scale for children (CDS) measures dehydration based on 4 clinical signs: general appearance, eyes, saliva, and tears.
To validate the association between the CDS and markers of dehydration in children aged 1 month to 5 years visiting emergency departments (EDs) for vomiting and/or diarrhea.
An international prospective cohort study conducted in 3 university-affiliated EDs in 2009. Participants were a convenience sample of children aged 1-60 months presenting to the ED for acute vomiting and/or diarrhea. Following triage, a research nurse obtained informed consent and evaluated dehydration using the CDS. A few days after recovery, another research assistant weighed participants at home. The primary outcome was the percentage of dehydration calculated by the difference in weight at first evaluation and after recovery. Secondary outcomes included proportion of blood test measurements, intravenous use, hospitalization, and inter-rater agreement.
During the study period, 264 children were recruited and data regarding weight and dehydration scores were complete for 219 (83%). According to the CDS, 88 had no dehydration, 159 some dehydration, and 15 moderate or severe dehydration. A Chi-square test showed a statistical association between CDS and weight gain, the occurrence of blood tests, intravenous rehydration, hospitalization, and abnormal plasmatic bicarbonate. Good inter-rater correlation was found among participants (linear weighted Kappa score of 0.65; (95% CI, 0.43-0.87).
CDS categories correlate with markers of dehydration for young children complaining of vomiting and/or diarrhea in the ED.
INTRODUCTION: Neonatal dehydration with hypernatraemia is a serious condition with risk of cerebral damage and death. Recent studies have reported a rising incidence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted at Hvidovre Hospital over a 5-year period to identify term or near-term infants (>35 weeks of gestation) who were admitted with a weight-loss >10%. Infants admitted between the 3rd and the 14th day of life with a discharge diagnosis code indicating dehydration were also included. RESULTS: During the period a total of 89 infants were admitted and 24 had hypernatraemia. The incidence increased from 2.1 to 4.9 (RR 2,5-p >0.0008). All infants were breastfed and only 3 had had supplementation prior to admission. The weight-loss ranged between 270 and 1100 grams (equivalent to 10.1-29.7% reduction in birth weight) while lethargy and jaundice were frequent symptoms. Cerebral complications occurred for 8 infants and 2 developed permanent brain damage. CONCLUSIONS: Breastfeeding should be encouraged but supplementation may be necessary for some infants. Infants born to primiparous women, infants heavy for gestational age and infants who do not thrive on day 4-5 appear to have a high risk. These infants could be identified by regular weighing and, if necessary, supplementation and follow-up should be instituted.
Prevention of bilirubin encephalopathy relies on the detection of newborns who are at risk of developing serious hyperbilirubinemia. The objective of this study was to reassess the clinical syndrome of kernicterus as neurodiagnostic studies have become more readily available and can be used to evaluate these infants.
The study population was neonates born at term or near term admitted to The Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, between January 1990 and May 2000. During the study period, there were 9776 admissions (average number of admissions per year--888 infants). The inclusion criteria were that patients had total serum bilirubin levels of >400 micromol/L at the time of diagnosis and no evidence of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. Records were reviewed to establish neurodevelopment outcomes.
Twelve neonates (nine males) were identified. Bilirubin levels at the time of diagnosis ranged from 405 to 825 micromol/L. Causes of these elevated levels included glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (seven patients), dehydration (three patients), sepsis (one patient), and was undetermined in one patient. Abnormal visual evoked potentials were found in three of nine patients and abnormal brainstem auditory evoked potentials in seven of ten patients. Abnormal electroencephalograms were documented in five patients studied. Brain magnetic resonance imaging results were abnormal in three of four patients.
Magnetic resonance imaging typically showed an increased signal in the posteromedial aspect of the globus pallidus and was, therefore, useful in the assessment of the structural changes of chronic bilirubin encephalopathy after kernicterus.
Comment In: Can J Neurol Sci. 2005 Aug;32(3):273-416225165
This review focuses on the physiological, behavioural and environmental factors which predispose to frostbite. Also prevention of frostbite is summarised. Predisposing factors may increase heat loss, decrease heat production, decrease the insulation of the clothing, make people especially susceptible to cold or make them to behave inadequately. Marked increase in convective or conductive heat loss is often the immediate reason for frostbite. Wind (as described by wind chill index) increases convective heat loss and touching of metal objects increases conductive cooling. Poor insulation of the clothing is also a common reason of frostbite. The insulation can be insufficient when clothing is wet, tight, permeable to wind or does not cover the cold sensitive body parts. Individual factors predisposing to frostbite are inadequate behaviour, low physical fitness, fatigue, dehydration, earlier cold injuries, sickness or poor circulation in peripheral parts of the body. Frostbite is often associated with the use of alcohol. To prevent frostbite, it is necessary to recognise cold risks, practise tasks in the cold, eat and drink well, have physical exercise, have sufficient clothing (also spare clothing), change into dry clothing if necessary and take care of companions. In the cold it is not advisable to get fatigued until exhaustion, sweat excessively, use tight and/or wet clothing, drink alcohol, smoke and expose oneself unnecessarily to wind, metals or fluids.