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25 records – page 1 of 3.

3D simulation as a tool for improving the safety culture during remediation work at Andreeva Bay.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature265458
Source
J Radiol Prot. 2014 Dec;34(4):755-73
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2014
Author
K. Chizhov
M K Sneve
I. Szoke
I. Mazur
N K Mark
I. Kudrin
N. Shandala
A. Simakov
G M Smith
A. Krasnoschekov
A. Kosnikov
I. Kemsky
V. Kryuchkov
Source
J Radiol Prot. 2014 Dec;34(4):755-73
Date
Dec-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Decontamination - methods
Hazardous Waste Sites
Imaging, Three-Dimensional - methods
Models, organizational
Norway
Organizational Culture
Radiation Monitoring - methods
Radiation Protection - methods
Radioactive Waste - prevention & control
Russia
Safety Management - organization & administration
Abstract
Andreeva Bay in northwest Russia hosts one of the former coastal technical bases of the Northern Fleet. Currently, this base is designated as the Andreeva Bay branch of Northwest Center for Radioactive Waste Management (SevRAO) and is a site of temporary storage (STS) for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and other radiological waste generated during the operation and decommissioning of nuclear submarines and ships. According to an integrated expert evaluation, this site is the most dangerous nuclear facility in northwest Russia. Environmental rehabilitation of the site is currently in progress and is supported by strong international collaboration. This paper describes how the optimization principle (ALARA) has been adopted during the planning of remediation work at the Andreeva Bay STS and how Russian-Norwegian collaboration greatly contributed to ensuring the development and maintenance of a high level safety culture during this process. More specifically, this paper describes how integration of a system, specifically designed for improving the radiological safety of workers during the remediation work at Andreeva Bay, was developed in Russia. It also outlines the 3D radiological simulation and virtual reality based systems developed in Norway that have greatly facilitated effective implementation of the ALARA principle, through supporting radiological characterisation, work planning and optimization, decision making, communication between teams and with the authorities and training of field operators.
PubMed ID
25254659 View in PubMed
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[4 years after Chernobyl: medical repercussions]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature25355
Source
Bull Cancer. 1990;77(5):419-28
Publication Type
Article
Date
1990
Author
D. Hubert
Source
Bull Cancer. 1990;77(5):419-28
Date
1990
Language
French
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abnormalities, Radiation-Induced - epidemiology
Abortion, Habitual - epidemiology
Blood Cell Count
Bone Marrow Transplantation
Decontamination - methods
Diarrhea - etiology
English Abstract
Europe
Female
Humans
Male
Nuclear Reactors
Pregnancy
Prognosis
Psychophysiologic Disorders - etiology
Pulmonary Fibrosis - etiology
Radiation Dosage
Radiation Injuries - complications - epidemiology - therapy
Skin - radiation effects
Triage
Ukraine
Abstract
The nuclear accident at Chernobyl accounted for an acute radiation syndrome in 237 persons on the site. Triage was the initial problem and was carried out according to clinical and biological criteria; evaluating the doses received was based on these criteria. Thirty one persons died and only 1 survived a dose higher than 6 Gy. Skin radiation burns which were due to inadequate decontamination, greatly worsened prognosis. The results of 13 bone marrow transplantations were disappointing, with only 2 survivors. Some time after the accident, these severely irradiated patients are mainly suffering from psychosomatic disorders, in the USSR, some areas have been significantly contaminated and several measures were taken to mitigate the impact on population: evacuating 135,000 persons, distributing prophylactic iodine, establishing standards and controls on foodstuff. Radiation phobia syndrome which developed in many persons, is the only sanitary effect noticed up to now. Finally, in Europe, there was only an increase in induced abortions and this was totally unwarranted. If we consider the risk of radiation induced cancer, an effect might not be demonstrated.
PubMed ID
2205311 View in PubMed
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Cleaning of anaesthesia breathing circuits and tubings: a Canadian survey.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature240156
Source
Can Anaesth Soc J. 1984 Sep;31(5):572-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1984
Author
A E Barry
M A Noble
T J Marrie
I J Paterson
Source
Can Anaesth Soc J. 1984 Sep;31(5):572-5
Date
Sep-1984
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Anesthesiology - instrumentation
Canada
Decontamination - methods
Detergents
Disinfection - methods
Equipment Contamination
Humans
Sterilization - methods
Abstract
A cross-Canada survey of 38 university-affiliated hospitals with over 250 beds was undertaken to examine the procedures for cleaning anaesthetic tubings and circuits. Twenty-eight (74 per cent) hospitals responded. Gluteraldehyde was the most commonly used method (13/28), and pasteurization was the second most used method (9/28). These two methods are described and recommendations are made for basic requirements for disinfection.
PubMed ID
6498573 View in PubMed
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Costs and practicability of clean feeding of dairy cattle during radioactive contamination of grasslands.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature174541
Source
J Environ Radioact. 2005;83(3):399-414
Publication Type
Article
Date
2005
Author
A. Rantavaara
T. Karhula
M. Puurunen
K. Lampinen
T. Taulavuori
Author Affiliation
Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), P.O. Box 14, FIN-00881 Helsinki, Finland. aino.rantavaara@stuk.fi
Source
J Environ Radioact. 2005;83(3):399-414
Date
2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Agriculture
Animal Feed
Animals
Cattle
Cesium radioisotopes
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Dairying
Decontamination - methods
Finland
Food chain
Food Contamination, Radioactive - prevention & control
Humans
Iodine Radioisotopes
Milk
Poaceae
Safety Management - economics - organization & administration - trends
Seasons
Strontium
Abstract
Both the farm-specific and regional costs of clean feeding as a countermeasure to reduce ingestion of contaminated grass when there is insufficient supply of other types of roughage were estimated for dairy farming in Finland in the first year after contamination. The cost estimation considered expenditures and revenues associated with milk production and were calculated using farm models developed for economic planning. A hypothetical contamination scenario was designed using RODOS models for atmospheric dispersion and transfer in terrestrial food chains. Costs for intervention after two similar hypothetical atmospheric dispersion and deposition scenarios in early June and in July were estimated. As a reference, the cost of complete replacement of fodder throughout the area was also calculated. Feed substitution costs were higher in June than in July, due to the availability of some harvested silage in the later scenario. In the first case, the additional costs of clean feeding amounted to one-fifth of the normal production costs. Effective advisory/support services, available to farmers, can substantially improve the implementation of countermeasures. However, high costs and insufficient sources of clean feed would restrict the use of clean feeding as the sole countermeasure after serious contamination during the growing season.
PubMed ID
15922495 View in PubMed
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Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease decontamination of tissues and contaminated materials.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature219080
Source
Can J Med Technol. 1994;56(1):35-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
1994
Author
W G Ozanne
Author Affiliation
St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, ON.
Source
Can J Med Technol. 1994;56(1):35-8
Date
1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Creutzfeldt-Jakob Syndrome - prevention & control
Decontamination - methods
Equipment Contamination - prevention & control
Humans
Laboratories, Hospital
Laboratory Infection - prevention & control
Occupational Exposure - prevention & control
Pathology Department, Hospital
Abstract
Although CJD is certainly infectious, like other unconventional viruses (slow viruses) it demonstrates a low potential for transmissibility to humans who are exposed accidentally to infected material. This may be due to a low dose of prion exposure or to reasons which are unknown at this point. When effective decontamination techniques are available, the processing of tissue from a suspected or confirmed case of CJD can be handled with confidence. Careful application of techniques makes the possibility of acquiring the disease remote, while not interfering with the diagnosis and care of patients.
PubMed ID
10132974 View in PubMed
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A decontamination process to remove metals and stabilise Montreal sewage sludge.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature184967
Source
ScientificWorldJournal. 2002 Apr 26;2:1121-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-26-2002
Author
G. Mercier
J F Blais
F. Hammy
M. Lounès
J L Sasseville
Author Affiliation
Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique (INRS-Eau), Université du Québec, 2700, rue Einstein, Sainte-Foy, Quebec, Canada. Guy_Mercier@inrs-eau.uquebec.ca
Source
ScientificWorldJournal. 2002 Apr 26;2:1121-6
Date
Apr-26-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Decontamination - methods
Fertilizers - economics
Humans
Hydrochloric Acid - chemistry
Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
Metals - metabolism
Odors - prevention & control
Pilot Projects
Sewage - chemistry
Solubility
Sulfuric Acids - chemistry
Urban Population
Water - metabolism
Abstract
The Montreal Urban Community (MUC) treatment plant produces approximately 270 tons of dry sludge daily (tds/day) during physicochemical wastewater treatment. The sludges are burned and contribute to the greenhouse effect by producing atmospheric CO2. Moreover, the sludge emanates a nauseating odour during its thermal stabilisation and retains unpleasant odours for the part (25%) that is dried and granulated. To solve this particular problem, the treatment plant authorities are currently evaluating an acidic chemical leaching (sulfuric or hydrochloric acid) process at a pH between 2 and 3, using an oxidizing agent such as ferric chloride or hydrogen peroxide (METIX-AC technology, patent pending; [20]). They could integrate it to a 70 tds/day granulated sludge production process. Verification of the application of METIX-AC technology was carried out in a pilot plant set up near the sludge production plant of the MUC. The tests showed that METIX-AC technology can be advantageously integrated to the process used at the MUC. The residual copper (274 +/- 58 mg/kg) and cadmium (5.6 +/- 2.9 mg/kg) concentrations in the treated sludge meet legislation standards. The results have also shown that odours have been significantly eliminated for the dewatered, decontaminated, and stabilized biosolids (> 97%) compared to the non-decontaminated biosolids. A high rate of odour elimination also was obtained for the liquid leached biosolids (> 93%), compared to the untreated liquid biosolids. The fertilising value (N and P) is well preserved by the METIX-AC process. Dissolved organic carbon measurements have showed that little organic matter is brought in solution during the treatment. In fact, the average concentration of dissolved organic carbon measured in the treated liquid phase is 966 +/- 352 mg/l, whereas it is 1190 +/- 325 mg/l in untreated sludge. The treated sludge was first conditioned with an organic polymer and a coagulant aid. It was successfully dewatered with various dehydration equipments (filter press, rotary press, centrifuge).
PubMed ID
12805970 View in PubMed
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Development and validation of rapid use scope test strips to determine the efficacy of manual cleaning for flexible endoscope channels.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature127171
Source
Am J Infect Control. 2012 Nov;40(9):860-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2012
Author
Michelle J Alfa
Nancy Olson
Pat Degagné
Patricia J Simner
Author Affiliation
Diagnostic Services of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada; St Boniface Research Centre, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. malfa@dsmanitoba.ca
Source
Am J Infect Control. 2012 Nov;40(9):860-5
Date
Nov-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Carbohydrates - analysis
Decontamination - methods
Endoscopes
Humans
Proteins - analysis
Abstract
Cleaning of flexible endoscopes is most commonly performed using manual methods that are often performed inadequately. The aim of this study was to validate the sample collection protocol and the Rapid Use Scope Test (RUST) and then assess its usefulness in clinical use.
The benchmarks for adequate cleaning were protein
PubMed ID
22317858 View in PubMed
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Discrepant advice from poison centres and their medical directors.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature189045
Source
Can J Clin Pharmacol. 2002;9(2):101-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
2002
Author
David N Juurlink
John P Szalai
Michael A McGuigan
Author Affiliation
Sunnybrook and Women's College Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. david.juurlink@ices.on.ca
Source
Can J Clin Pharmacol. 2002;9(2):101-5
Date
2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal - poisoning
Aspirin - poisoning
Canada
Counseling - standards
Decontamination - methods
Humans
Poison Control Centers - standards
United States
Abstract
To characterize the recommendations of the medical directors of North American poison information centres for gastrointestinal decontamination of a hypothetical poisoned patient, and to examine the extent to which those recommendations agree with the advice previously issued by their poison information centres for the same scenario.
The medical directors of 72 poison centres in the United States and Canada were contacted and invited to participate in a survey. Each participant was asked to provide specific advice for gastrointestinal decontamination of a hypothetical patient presenting 1 h after a potentially life-threatening ingestion (32.5 g) of enteric-coated acetylsalicylic acid. The directors were then presented with the recommendation their poison centres had previously issued for the same overdose scenario. The main outcome measures were perceived agreement with their own centre's recommendation and director-centre concordance for each method of gastrointestinal decontamination.
Sixty-seven of 72 (93%) medical directors participated in the survey. They issued 30 different management suggestions for our hypothetical patient, and were in full agreement with their own centres 27% of the time. Concordance was moderate for recommendations on syrup of ipecac (k=0.468, P
PubMed ID
12172589 View in PubMed
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[Gastrointestinal decontamination. Use in non-drug poisoning]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature32080
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 2001 May 28;163(22):3083-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-28-2001
Author
N E Ebbehøj
P. Jacobsen
Author Affiliation
H:S Bispebjerg Hospital, Giftinformationen. ne01@bbh.hosp.dk
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 2001 May 28;163(22):3083-5
Date
May-28-2001
Language
Danish
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Charcoal - administration & dosage
Child
Decontamination - methods
Denmark
Drug Information Services
English Abstract
Hotlines
Humans
Poisoning - therapy
Prospective Studies
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Abstract
AIM: To assess whether Danish doctors use gastrointestinal decontamination (GID) in non-drug poisoning in accordance with recommendations for restricted application. METHOD: Doctors telephoning the Danish Poisons Information Centre about non-drug exposures were surveyed prospectively. The doctor's intention to treat, the age and sex of the patient, and information about poison, amount and time since exposure, were assessed. RESULTS: Of the 138 telephone calls, 64% concerned children below 5 years of age and 24% patients above 15 years of age. The risk was estimated as insignificant in 63%, minor in 30%, significant in 6% and severe in only 1%. The insignificant risk was found mainly in children and the severe risk solely in those above 15 years of age. GID was proposed in 33% with the highest frequency in children with minor or insignificant risks, and the time since exposure did not influence the frequency of GID. Charcoal was not proposed. CONCLUSION: It is clear from this small sample that Danish doctors tend to use GID more often than is recommended. Activated charcoal was apparently not used. GID was in most cases used in children with insignificant and minor risks, where it is likely to do more harm than good.
PubMed ID
11449835 View in PubMed
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Human microbial ecology: lactobacilli, probiotics, selective decontamination.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature132706
Source
Anaerobe. 2011 Dec;17(6):463-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2011
Author
Marika Mikelsaar
Author Affiliation
Department of Microbiology, Medical Faculty, University of Tartu, Tartu 50411, Estonia. marika.mikelsaar@ut.ee
Source
Anaerobe. 2011 Dec;17(6):463-7
Date
Dec-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Anti-Infective Agents - administration & dosage - pharmacology
Bacteria - drug effects - growth & development
Biota
Decontamination - methods
Gastrointestinal Tract - microbiology
Humans
Probiotics
Abstract
Health care-associated infections are closely associated with different medical interventions which interrupt the balance of human microbiota. The occasional predominance of opportunistic pathogens may lead to their translocation into the lymph nodes and bloodstream, causing endogenous (primary or secondary) hospital infections. The question is raised as to if there is a possibility for prevention of the imbalance of GI microbiota during medical interventions in critically ill patients. Prophylactic selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD) simultaneously applies three to four different antimicrobials for the suppression of enteric aerobic microbes, which are potentially pathogenic microorganisms. However, there is no convincing evidence that the indigenous beneficial intestinal microbiota are preserved, resulting in reduced mortality of high-risk patients. In this overview, we have evaluated the antimicrobial treatment guidelines of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) for intra-abdominal infections in adults and seniors according to their safety for different Lactobacillus spp. The data from our group and in the literature have shown that all tested lactobacilli strains (nearly one hundred) were insusceptible to metronidazole while different species of lactobacilli of the three fermentation groups expressed particular antibiotic susceptibility to vancomycin, cefoxitin, ciprofloxacin and some new tetracyclines. We have relied on microbial ecology data showing that the GI tracts of adults and the elderly are simultaneously colonised at least with several (four to a maximum of 12) Lactobacillus species expressing variable intrinsic insusceptibility to the aforementioned antimicrobials, according to the provided data in table. This finding offers the possibility of preserving the colonisation of the intestine with some beneficial lactobacilli during antimicrobial treatment in critically ill patients with health care-associated infections. Several probiotic Lactobacillus spp. strains are intrinsically resistant to antimicrobials and can be used during antibacterial therapy, however, their application as an additive to antimicrobial treatment in critically ill patients needs to be investigated in well-designed clinical trials.
Notes
Comment In: Anaerobe. 2012 Jun;18(3):361-222348991
PubMed ID
21787875 View in PubMed
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25 records – page 1 of 3.