The first survey carried out in Finland specifically to study men's violence against women showed that partner violence is quite common in Finland and it is directed especially toward young women. The statistical findings don't support the idea that violence has become more widespread in Finland. Life situation factors that are usually viewed as making women vulnerable to spousal violence, such as having children, cohabiting, low educational level, and financial dependency on the male partner, failed to explain partnership violence against women in Finland as such, too. The author's objective is to find out whether meanings of violence have changed and whether this could be one reason why young women report in a survey such cases of violence that other women would not. This could explain why violence in partnerships is so common among young women in Finland.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the underreporting of violence and aggression on the Staff Observation Aggression Scale-Revised (SOAS-R) when compared to a simpler assessment: the Aggression Observation Short Form (AOS). During a period of one year, two open and two closed wards gathered data on both the SOAS-R and the AOS for all of their patients. The 22-item SOAS-R is to be filled out after each violent episode. The 3-item AOS is to be filled out during each shift and should also record the absence of violence. The SOAS-R registered 703 incidents and the AOS registered 1,281 incidents. The agreement between the SOAS-R and the AOS was good (kappa = 0.65, 95% CI = 0.62-0.67). Among the 1,281 AOS episodes, 51% were also registered on the SOAS-R. For the 176 AOS episodes with harm, 42% were also registered on the SOAS-R. We found 44% missing registrations on the AOS, primarily for open wards and for patients with short admission lengths. Standard instruments such as the SOAS-R underreport aggressive episodes by 45% or more. Underreporting can be reduced by introducing shorter instruments, but it cannot be completely eliminated.
To compare self-reported (SR) medication use and pharmacy data for major psychoactive medications and three classes of medications used for different indications, and to determine the socio-economic factors associated with the congruence.
Postal questionnaire data collected in 1997 were compared with the register of the Social Insurance Institution of Finland on the reimbursed prescriptions purchased during 1997. Altogether 7625 subjects were included in this study. Drugs were categorized according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) system.
Kappa values were 0.77, 0.68, 0.84, 0.92 and 0.55 for antipsychotics, antidepressants, antiepileptics, antidiabetics and beta-blocking agents, respectively. Prevalence-adjusted and bias-adjusted kappa values were almost perfect (0.98-1.00). Reliability of antipsychotics use was better for married subjects than for those who were not married; and of antidepressants use for highly educated and married subjects than for those who were less educated and were not married. Altogether 414 (5.4%) responders and 285 (7.1%) non-responders had used at least one of the selected medications.
Agreement between the SR and pharmacy data was moderate for psychoactive medication use. Even though data collected by postal questionnaire may underestimate the prevalence of medication use due to non-participation it can be assumed accurate enough for study purposes.
The Canadian Study of Health and Aging is a multicenter, population-based cohort study of dementia with a sample of 10,263 participants aged 65 or over. Field work began in 1991, and a follow-up study was undertaken in 1996-97. The present article describes the origins and objectives of the study, provides an overview of its design, organization, and data collection methods, and offers a brief summary of the main results.
We investigated the self-report hypertension variables in the CSHA, recorded in the screening questionnaire and the Self-Administered Risk Factor (SARF) questionnaire. The two questions showed high agreement (phi coefficient 0.83). Each was modestly but significantly associated with other simultaneous reports of heart disease and stroke, and with subsequent mortality. Only the SARF asked questions about treatment; controlling for treatment effects, five-year survival was longest among those with no hypertension and no treatment (mean survival time 1,645 days; 95% CI 1,632 to 1,658), and shortest for those with no reported hypertension who were receiving "antihypertensive" medications presumably prescribed for other cardiovascular disease (mean survival time 1,496 days; 95% CI 1,457 to 1,535). The SARF questions incorporating high blood pressure and treatment appear preferable to assess the risks associated with hypertension.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the beliefs about medicines among pharmacy employees. A further aim was to analyse whether these beliefs were associated with any background characteristics, such as age, professional category or medication use. METHOD: The study subjects were pharmacy employees at 24 community pharmacies in Göteborg, Sweden. The participating pharmacies had a total of 372 employees (pharmacists, dispensing pharmacists, and pharmacy technicians). Data was collected at the weekly pharmacy information meetings with a questionnaire comprising background questions and the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ). The general part of the BMQ was used. For each statement in the BMQ, respondents marked their degree of agreement on a five-point Likert scale (1=strongly disagree, 2=disagree, 3=uncertain, 4=agree and 5=strongly agree). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The three subscales of BMQ General: General Harm, General Overuse and General Benefit. RESULTS: The majority of the 292 respondents were dispensing pharmacists. More than half of the respondents were aged 45 years or older and had worked in a pharmacy for 20 years or more. Compared to the other professional categories, a higher proportion of dispensing pharmacists stated that they currently used traditional medicines. The pharmacy employees had a mean score for General Benefit of 4.31 and a mean score for General Harm of 1.81. Pharmacists and dispensing pharmacists in general regarded medicines as somewhat more beneficial, whereas pharmacy technicians viewed medicines as slightly more harmful. Those who had worked in a pharmacy for 30-34 years regarded medicines as less harmful compared to those who had worked 0-4 years. Compared to non-users, current users of prescription drugs regarded medicines as more beneficial. When controlling for background characteristics, no confounders were detected for any of the three subscales (ANCOVA analyses). CONCLUSION: Results of the study of 292 Swedish pharmacy employees show that they regard medicines as beneficial rather than harmful and that there are differences in beliefs between the professional categories. However, the reasons for these differences remain unclear. Nevertheless, the positive beliefs among pharmacy employees may have an impact on the communication with clients and, eventually, clients' adherence to medicines.
There is evidence for an increase in adult asthma prevalence. Several retrospective studies have shown an increase in asthma incidence by year of birth, consistent with an increasing trend in asthma incidence. The validity of this retrospective approach is unknown. Retrospective and prospective asthma incidence by year of birth were compared in the same community, during the same time period, from two independent studies; a cohort study and a cross-sectional study in Western Norway. In the prospective study, subjects without asthma were followed from 1985-1996/1997. In the retrospective study in 1998, subjects reported the age at which the disease started. Analyses of incident asthma in the period 1985-1996 were compared between the studies. The retrospective analysis showed a large increase in asthma incidence by year of birth, with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.9 comparing those born in 1969 with those born in 1927. The prospective study showed the opposite, with an OR of 0.2 comparing those born in 1969 with those born in 1927. There was only a 20% difference in the cumulative incidence of asthma. To conclude, retrospective estimates of trends in asthma incidence are likely to be severely biased by differential recall.
In 1992, Berkel and colleagues reported in the Journal the results of their study of the potential association of breast augmentation and breast cancer. The study reported that women who had breast augmentation had a significantly lower subsequent risk of breast cancer (P