AACVPR/ACC/AHA 2007 performance measures on cardiac rehabilitation for referral to and delivery of cardiac rehabilitation/secondary prevention services endorsed by the American College of Chest Physicians, American College of Sports Medicine, American Physical Therapy Association, Canadian Association of Cardiac Rehabilitation, European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, Inter-American Heart Foundation, National Association of Clinical Nurse Specialists, Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association, and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons.
Research in traumatic brain injury (TBI) is challenging for several reasons; in particular, the heterogeneity between patients regarding causes, pathophysiology, treatment, and outcome. Advances in basic science have failed to translate into successful clinical treatments, and the evidence underpinning guideline recommendations is weak. Because clinical research has been hampered by non-standardised data collection, restricted multidisciplinary collaboration, and the lack of sensitivity of classification and efficacy analyses, multidisciplinary collaborations are now being fostered. Approaches to deal with heterogeneity have been developed by the IMPACT study group. These approaches can increase statistical power in clinical trials by up to 50% and are also relevant to other heterogeneous neurological diseases, such as stroke and subarachnoid haemorrhage. Rather than trying to limit heterogeneity, we might also be able to exploit it by analysing differences in treatment and outcome between countries and centres in comparative effectiveness research. This approach has great potential to advance care in patients with TBI.
To compare the prevalence of ageism in Canada and the United States, in Canada, the Ageism Survey was published in the CARPnews Report on Ageism, and in the United States, the Survey was administered to a convenience sample and published in the Center Report and Fifty Plus. Most respondents in both countries perceived ageism as frequent, but it was reported more often in Canada than in the United States. If the Ageism Survey is used to measure the prevalence of ageism among various groups and countries, we can develop an "epidemiology of ageism" and begin to reduce ageism.
To replicate a Canada Health Survey (CHS) study that found beer drinking was associated with lower morbidity, National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data for 19,462 persons were used to examine associations between functional disability and beverage specific ethanol consumption. A functional disability index consisting of morbidity and symptom coping events reported for 2 weeks prior to the NHIS interview was constructed. Alcohol consumption was reported for the same period as disability (coincident recall), or for the 2 weeks prior to the respondent's last drink during the past year (antecedent recall). The analysis controlled for confounders using direct standardization and multiple logistic regression. The results of this investigation were not consistent with the CHS study. Former drinkers and antecedent recall drinkers reported greater disability rates than either non-drinkers or coincident recall drinkers. Antecedent recall drinkers exhibiting a preference for beer and wine were, respectively, 40 and 80 percent more likely to be disabled than non-drinkers. Further, this study found no evidence of a protective effect among any subgroup of drinkers. The finding of a significant interaction between alcohol consumption and alcohol recall period suggests that epidemiologic studies should give greater attention to the classification of drinker groups by proximity of alcohol consumption.
Allergists around the world have different practice styles when administering subcutaneous aeroallergen immunotherapy (IT) in peak pollen seasons, especially when changing doses or frequency of IT. The Immunotherapy practice parameters do not specifically address this issue.
Given the paucity of good data about adjustment of allergen immunotherapy during the pollen seasons, we examined whether a significant difference is present in the way allergists administer immunotherapy during allergy seasons.
To quantify the practice styles of allergists who are members of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (AAAAI), a self-reported electronic survey was disseminated in September 2010 with the help of the AAAAI Needs Assessment Committee. The responses were tallied and analyzed according to demographic information.
A total of 1,201 allergists in the AAAAI responded to the survey. Most responders practice in an urban or suburban nonacademic practice in the United States and have been in practice for more than 10 years. The size of their practice was variable. Those in practice for more than 10 years were more likely to adjust the dose and frequency of immunotherapy in pollen seasons.
This survey highlights the differences in the practice styles of AAAAI member allergists, and these differences may be associated with their demographic characteristics. Given the wide variability in how allergists adjust dose and frequency of immunotherapy during pollen seasons, establishing guidelines regarding this routine dilemma might help standardize the delivery of treatment to patients.
We present data on patients' experiences with access to and cost and quality of health services in the United States, Canada, and Germany. In general, patients report favorably about their care. U.S. respondents report more problems with access to care, even controlling for the severe problems of the uninsured. Differences in managed care versus fee-for-service plans in the United States mirror some of the problems observed in international comparisons--access to specialists and tests and waiting times for and quality of some services. Different cost containment strategies have measurable effects on patients' perspectives, particularly among patients who are sicker.