The purpose of this study is to compare the value of statistical life (VSL) estimates for traffic, drowning, and fire accidents. Using a choice experiment in a mail survey of 5,000 Swedish respondents we estimated the willingness to pay for risk reductions in the three accidents. In the experiment respondents were asked a series of questions, whether they would choose risk reducing investments where type of accident, cost of the investment, the risk reduction acquired, and the baseline risk varied between questions. The VSLs for fire and drowning accidents were found to be about 1/3 lower than that for traffic accidents. Although respondents worry more about traffic accidents, this alone cannot explain the difference in VSL estimates. The difference between fire and drowning accidents was not found to be statistically significant.
A survey conducted in 2004 by the All-Ukrainian Network of People Living with HIV found that HIV-related rights violations are widespread in Ukrainian society, and that many people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) are ignorant of the provisions of HIV/AIDS-related legislation.
Two recent surveys reveal that people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHIV) continue to suffer discrimination in the workplace from both colleagues and employers. Findings from the surveys, which were commissioned by the Coalition des organismes communautaires Québecois de lutte contre le sida (COCQ-SIDA), were released in November 2009.
The WHO MONICA Project (Multinational Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease) was initiated in 1982. The purpose was to evaluate to what extent mortality trends could be explained by changes over time in the population load of conventional cardiovascular risk factors. To test this hypothesis, time trends in cardiovascular event rates have been correlated with trends in levels of risk factors in 35- to 64-year-old men and women in 38 populations. In most MONICA populations, the study has covered a period of 10 years or more.
All acute myocardial infarction and stroke events have been registered in a population-based setting in Norrbotten and Västerbotten counties from 1985 and onwards. The total population is approximately 510000 inhabitants. In the frame of the WHO MONICA Project, the same strict criteria have been used in all years. Another part of the MONICA Project is population risk factor surveys. In Northern Sweden the first survey took place in 1986 and the following surveys were performed in 1990, 1994, and 1999, including the age group 25-74 years (the first two surveys were of the age range 25-64 years).
From 1985 to 2000, in total 18105 suspected stroke events, aged 25-74 years, were scrutinized and validated at the central stroke office in Northern Sweden. Of these, 13908 were found to fulfil the MONICA criteria of an acute stroke. During the period 1985 to 1998, in total 13228 cases of suspected acute myocardial infarction, aged 25-64 years, were registered. Of these, 8744 fulfilled the MONICA criteria for acute myocardial infarction. In the four surveys, in total 9000 randomly selected men and women were invited for survey. Of these 6952 (77%) participated in the surveys.
From 1985 and onwards, the WHO MONICA project has been going on in Northern Sweden. During the whole time the same strict WHO criteria have been followed.