The objective was to investigate the relationship between possible disaster stressors and subsequent health problems among tourists experiencing the 2004 South-East Asia tsunami. A cross-sectional study was performed as a postal survey concerning the experiences of the disaster exposure in retrospect and the presence of psychological symptoms (GHQ-28) in Norwegian tsunami victims 6 months post disaster. The strongest predictors of health complaints were danger of death, witness impressions, and bereavements. Aggravated outcomes were also seen in those who helped others in the acute phase or had sole responsibility for children when the tsunami struck. Having a family member or close friend who was injured was reversely associated with health problems. Women reported more psychological distress than men, but the difference disappeared with increasing degree of danger exposure. Dose-response relationships to psychological distress were found for single exposure factors as well as for the cumulative effects of being exposed to several exposure variables.
On June 19, 1998, Alaskan governor Tony Knowles vetoed legislation that would have made it a felony to knowingly expose a person to HIV. Senate Bill 17 would have made criminal transmission of HIV a Class B felony, carrying a penalty of up to 10 years in prison and a fine up to $50,000. The legislation would have applied to those who knowingly expose others to HIV through sex or needle-sharing without informing their partners. The bill also would have made it illegal for people who know they are HIV positive to donate organs, semen, or ova.
To identify youth behaviour with regards to injury prevention, to assess the awareness of severity and susceptibility to brain and spinal cord injury, and to evaluate the impact of the Think First Saskatchewan school visit program on students' knowledge of brain and spinal cord injury prevention.
A controlled, pre- and post-test design, self-report questionnaire was administered to 1,257 grade 6 and 7 students. Descriptive statistics and chi-square were used for data analysis. P-values less than 0.05 were considered significant.
Saskatchewan youth participate in activities that put them at risk for brain and spinal cord injury. The Think First Saskatchewan school visit program statistically improved self-reported knowledge of the students receiving the Think First message.
Think First Saskatchewan is a brain and spinal cord injury prevention program that significantly improves youth knowledge pertaining to injury prevention. Further evaluation of the program to include a more delayed survey of retention of knowledge, changes to behaviour, and reduction of brain and spinal cord injury are necessary.
Psychiatric, psychosocial and medicolegal issues related to 34 arsonists and 50 controls are described. Arson was most frequently committed by males who suffered from personality disorder, mental retardation or depressive neurosis. Poor school and work records also characterized their background when compared to the control forensic psychiatric patients. The offence more frequently occurred within a one mile radius of their own home in residential property. Revenge or a "cry for help" was the most frequent motivation for the firesetting activity.
Area-level socioeconomic conditions are associated with epidemic rates of viral hepatitis and HIV amongst urban injection drug users (IDUs), but whether specific socioeconomic markers are uniformly related to IDU outcomes across different urban environments is unclear. We evaluated whether injection behaviour is differentially related to neighbourhood socioeconomic characteristics for IDUs in inner city vs. surrounding urban areas.
The study population was 468 active IDUs on the Island of Montréal. Neighbourhoods were represented as 500m radius buffers around individual IDU dwelling places. High-risk injection behaviour (HRIB) was defined dichotomously. Relations between neighbourhood socioeconomic disadvantage (percentage households below low-income cutoff), neighbourhood educational attainment (percentage adults with university degree), and HRIB were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Stratified analyses were conducted for inner city IDUs (n=219), and those in surrounding areas (n=249).
Similar proportions of IDUs in inner city and surrounding areas reported HRIB. Neighbourhood socioeconomic characteristics were not associated with HRIB for IDUs in surrounding areas. For inner city IDUs, those in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods were more likely to practice HRIB (OR 4.34; 95% CI 1.15-16.35). Conversely, inner city IDUs residing in lower educational attainment neighbourhoods had a lower odds of HRIB (OR 0.41; 95% CI 0.21-0.80).
HRIB did not vary according to urban environment but for inner-city IDUs was differentially related to socioeconomic markers. Associations between HRIB and neighbourhood socioeconomic disadvantage and lower educational attainment, positive and negative, respectively, indicate that adverse socioeconomic circumstances are not related to a uniformly greater likelihood of HRIB.
The association of perinatal events, childhood epilepsy, and central nervous system trauma with juvenile delinquency was studied prospectively in a geographically defined population of 5966 males in northern Finland. Those who had obtained a criminal record up to the age of 22 years, totalling 355, or 6.0%, were defined as delinquents. The incidence of delinquency was not increased in males with a birth weight less than 2500 g or greater than 4000 g, preterm births
To examine associations between health risk behaviours and suicidal ideation and attempts in Canadian adolescents aged 12 to 13 years. Young adolescents think about and attempt suicide. However, most existing research on suicide has been conducted on individuals aged 15 years and older.
The present study examined a nationally representative Canadian sample of adolescents aged 12 to 13 years (n=2090). Health risk behaviours included disruptive (shoplifting, physical fighting, damaging property, fighting with a weapon, carrying a knife, and gambling), sexual (petting below the waist and sexual intercourse), and substance use behaviours (smoking cigarettes, consuming alcohol, marijuana or hash, and glue or solvents). Unadjusted and adjusted (for all significant health risk behaviour and psychiatric symptoms) models were tested.
All health risk behaviours were common among male and female adolescents. In unadjusted models, almost all health risk behaviours were associated with suicidal ideation and attempts among adolescent boys. In adjusted models, only damaging property, sexual intercourse, and smoking cigarettes remained statistically associated with suicidal ideation, while smoking cigarettes and using marijuana or hash remained statistically associated with suicide attempts among adolescent boys. All health risk behaviours were statistically associated with suicidal ideation and attempts among female adolescents in unadjusted models. In adjusted models, only carrying a knife remained statistically associated with suicidal ideation, while shoplifting and gambling remained statistically associated with suicide attempts among adolescent girls.
Health risk behaviours among young adolescents are associated with suicidal ideation and attempts among young adolescents. Recognizing health risk behaviours among young adolescents may be one means of understanding who among them is at increased risk of suicidality.
A study of attitudes towards mental patients was made using a questionnaire developed by Lehtinen and Väisänen. Five hundred and fourteen persons from different parts of Finland filled in the questionnaire. The attitudes were generally positive, although, as in other studies, the attitudes of those older and less educated were more negative compared with the other groups. This result was interpreted as a generational effect, which will vanish as the educational level of the population increases. The questionnaire also included questions about the attitudes and behaviour of 'other people'. The attitudes of 'other people' were thought to be very negative compared with one's own attitudes.