Caries incidence was assessed in pregnant women in 1998, 2003 an 2008 showing the values to be stable. DMF was almost the same in 1998 and 2003, but in 2008 the rate of "F" (filled) element was significantly higher thus confirming growth in motivation for dental treatment after introduction of private dental practices.
Hereditary factors of arterial hypertension were evaluated genetically and epidemiologically in the study of an isolated population of Dagestan with high inbreeding. High prevalence of arterial hypertension was found. Its highest morbidity was found in native population of Tukhums characterized also by the highest inbreeding.
The epidemiological information on cholera epidemic in Daghestan during the period of June 6 to October 21, 1994, based on the data obtained from 2,327 patients and Vibrio carriers in 184 settlements of 27 regions, 8 towns and 1 housing estate, was collected, systematized and analyzed with the use of the data base (DB). The use of DB made it possible to carry out the surveillance of the level of and dynamics of morbidity and infections rates, to determine the territories of risk, the age and social groups of risk, the active routes and factors of transmission. DB may be used for analyzing of operative and current epidemiological information in cholera and other infections.
[By using a group of patients with atopic dermatitis who live in Dagestan as an example, the authors show the high prevalence of toxoplasmosis among them. This requires new approaches to diagnosing and treating atopic dermatitis to be introduced in this region]
To comparatively study the clinical manifestations, sexual and HLA-B51 associations in patients with Beh?et's disease (BD) in two ethnic groups.
The authors examined 143 patients with the valid diagnosis of BED who were divided into 2 groups: 1) 85 patients, the dwellers of Dagestan (a multiethnic cohort), 63 men and 22 women (mean age 29 +/- 7.4 years); 2) 58 Russian men and women (mean age 33 +/- 11.7 years).
Two major criteria for BD, such as aphthous stomatitis and external genital ulcers, were found with the same frequency. Panuveitis and angiitis of the retina were diagnosed more frequently in the Dagestani population with BD than in the Russians. Out of the minor criteria for BD, the incidence of lower limb deep venous thrombosis was 23% for the Dagestanis versus 3% for the Russians. Arterial thromboses and pulmonary artery aneurysms became causes of death in 4 in 5 men aged 19-23 years from their Dagestani ancestry. HLA B51 (B marker) was found in the dwellers of Dagestan: in 70% of the men and 40% of the women who had BD.
BD runs a more severe course in male patients and is characterized by severe eye diseases and the systematic pattern of the process at young age. Gender-specific and genetic aspects call for further comparative investigations on large ethnic patient cohorts of other ancestries.
The epidemic situation in a remote region of Daghestan at the period of the cholera outbreak in the republic is considered with the use of concrete examples. The analysis of cases of cholera, as well as Vibrio carriership, at the period of August 5 to October 5, 1994, is presented. The territorial and temporal separation of different cases of the disease and Vibrio carriership were indicative of the periodic import of the causative agent to the territory of the town and the region from other places, unfavorable with respect to cholera, without the involvement of the water factor of infection transmission. Timely and complete antiepidemic measures prevented this infection from acquiring the character of developed epidemic.
During the period of epidemic in the Daghestan 51 patients and 27 Vibrio carriers were detected in Makhachkala. A considerable proportion (30.7%) of cholera cases caused by infection imported from regions, unfavorable with respect to cholera, in the presence of pronounced migration of the population was registered. The role of different transmission routes in cases of cholera was as follows: day contacts were responsible for 43.3%, the alimentary route for 28.4% and the water route for 14.9% of cases. The epidemic situation was characterized by a mild and prolonged type of the epidemic process. Mass diseases were prevented by a complex of cholera control measures, among them the emphasis was made on various limitations and prophylactic measures aimed at the rupture of the transmission routes of V. cholerae.