We investigated aberrant p53 expression in 81 cases of cervical intra-epithelial neoplasias (CIN) using a polyclonal antibody CM-1. The presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA was evaluated by in situ and dot blot hybridization. Significant (more than 1% of cells positive) p53 positivity was found in three cases (4%) of which only one contained HPV DNA. In an additional nine cases, occasional p53 staining was found in basal epithelial cells, frequently associated with epithelial hyperplasia and increased subepithelial inflammation. The results show that aberrant p53 expression is an infrequent finding in CIN lesions. It can be seen in lesions both with and without HPV infection. Most importantly, there was no p53 expression in most cases of HPV-negative CIN, suggesting that p53 inactivation is not an obligatory step in the development of cervical dysplasia. However, our findings do not exclude the possibility that p53 mutations can occur later in the course of cervical carcinogenesis.
Paraffin-embedded samples from cervical adenocarcinomas, 19 cases from Irish patients and 19 cases from Swedish patients, were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction for the presence of infection with human papillomavirus (HPV). The results were compared with DNA ploidy, proliferation activity, and p53 and p21/WAF1 expression. The studies were performed to discover whether high-risk HPV infection in adenocarcinomas of the uterine cervix is associated with an increased proliferative activity and genomic instability. The results show that the majority (84.6%) of patients 59 years of age or younger showed HPV infection. The overall prevalence of HPV DNA was 60.5%, with the high-risk types, 16 and 18, the most frequent. HPV-16 had a prevalence of 23.7% (9 of 38), and HPV-18 had a prevalence of 26.3% (10 of 38). The HPV-positive tumors predominantly showed a tetraploid DNA distribution pattern, whereas HPV-negative tumors more frequently showed highly scattered aneuploid DNA profiles. Both HPV-positive and HPV-negative cases displayed high proliferative activity, as indicated by high Ki-67 and cyclin A immunoreactivity. Tumor suppressor gene analysis detected low p53 expression and high p21/WAF1 expression in HPV-positive patients and high p53 expression without simultaneously increased p21/WAF1 (indicative of mutated p53) in HPV-negative cases in the groups of women older than 59 years of age.
The various strains of BKV and JCV exhibit a remarkable degree of heterogeneity in the noncoding region near the origin of DNA replication. It is of great interest, therefore, to characterize the naturally occurring variants as a first step towards the attainment of an understanding of the origin and the biological significance of this hypervariability. In this paper we report the use of polymerase chain reaction for amplification and sequencing of the control regions of BKV and JCV DNAs from urines of AIDS patients, bone marrow transplantation recipients, and other patient groups. Our results support the conclusion that BK(WW) and its variants constitute the most prevalent strain in the human population tested so far. A new strain, designated BK(TU), was isolated from some patients from Norway. Urine inocula containing BK(WW) gave BK(TU) after propagation in cell culture, while BK(TU) did not change the sequence of its control region during the same procedure. The JCV isolates were almost identical with several strains molecularly cloned from the urine reported by Y. Yogo, T. Kitamura, C. Sugimoto, T. Ueki, Y. Aso, K. Hara, and F. Taguchi (J. Virol., 1990, 64, 3139-3143). This archetypal strain may represent the JCV circulating in the human population, from which various regulatory sequences of JCV isolates could have evolved by deletions and amplifications.
Two identical strains of tobacco type TVM have been isolated in the region with 137Cs nuclear contamination with density of 12.6 Cu/km2 recombinant plasmids (pTVM9, pTVM9,5) containing cDNA of complete provirus and C-end sequence of cDNA of specific capsid protein from one of isolated viruses have been obtained. The capsule proteins of isolated strains have the higher 19.5 +/- 1.9 kDa molecular weight than standard TVM strain (17.5 kDa) as to SDS-PAAG electrophoresis data. No differences in distribution of fragments immunoactive to control antiserum have been found when using immunoblot analysis of capsid proteins of isolates and standard strain treated by tripsin. Sequencing analysis of cDNA pTVM9,5 has revealed non-conservative amino acid replacement of serine by tyrosine in position 149 for homologous region of capsid protein of standard TVM strain, which allows to suppose the mediated effect of specific ecological situation on the appearance of such replacement.
Human papillomavirus type 97 (HPV97) DNA was detected in nearly 5% of anal samples collected from HIV-seropositive men living in Montreal, Canada. The rate of detection of HPV97 in the genital tract of Canadian women is unknown. Whether HPV97 is a local epidemic in HIV-seropositive men living in Montreal is also unknown. The prevalence of human papillomavirus type 97 (HPV97) was assessed in cervicovaginal cells from women living in Canada and in anal samples from HIV-seropositive men living in Toronto.
Cervicovaginal lavages collected from 904 women (678 HIV-seropositive, 226 HIV-seronegative) women living in Canada and anal cells collected from 123 HIV-seropositive men living in Toronto were tested for the presence of HPV97 with PCR. HPV97-positive samples were further tested by PCR-sequencing for molecular variant analysis to assess if all HPV97-positive men were infected with the same strain. All cervicovaginal samples were negative for HPV97. HPV97 was detected in anal samples from 6 HIV-seropositive men (4.9%, 95% confidence interval 2.0-10.5%), of whom five had high-grade and one had low-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia, in addition to 2 to 8 HPV genital genotypes per sample. Four HPV97 variants were defined by four variation sites in the viral control region.
These findings indicate that HPV97 infects in the anal canal of HIV-seropositive men but is not detected in the genital tract of women.
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In this study, we investigated recent sheep pox outbreaks that occurred in Ononsky and Borzunsky regions of Zabajkalskij kray of Russia. The outbreaks involved in 2756 animals of which 112 were infected and 3 were slaughtered. Samples of injured skin of infected sheep were analysed by electron microscopy and CaPV-specific P32 gene amplification. Following sequence analysis of entire P32 gene showed that both specimens were identical to the sequence of several sheep poxvirus isolates from China and India. The close location of China to the last decade's Russian outbreaks suggest that possible future outbreaks in Russia could occur along the border regions with countries where sheep and goat pox are not controlled.
In a Swedish sheep flock comprising 202 ewes and 13 rams, a pair of twin lambs born in the spring of 1990 demonstrated signs of border disease (BD) and were persistently infected (PI) with border disease virus (BDV). Investigation showed that BDV had been introduced in the preceding tupping period 5-6 months earlier by a bought-in ewe which, on the basis of immunoperoxidase- and polymerase chain reaction techniques, was shown to be PI with BDV. Only 7 of the ewes, all of which had been in close contact with the PI ewe, seroconverted during the subsequent gestation. Apart from the PI twin lambs the losses caused by BDV were restricted to 2 barren ewes. The twin lambs, the PI ewe and lambs from the other 4 ewes that seroconverted were removed from the flock. The flock was thereafter free from an ongoing infection with BDV as shown by the absence of seroconversion. In addition, 5 heifers in late pregnancy most probably seroconverted to bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) when kept in close contact with the same PI ewe during the winter of 1989-90. When these heifers were reintroduced to the BVDV-free dairy herd from which they originated, their serum antibody titres ranged between 1:250 and 1:1250. Neither these heifers--not their calves--caused any spread of the infection in the herd, as indicated by the absence of seroconversion in 70 cows. The present investigation shows that in the control of both BDV in sheep and BVDV in cattle, it is important to ensure that the risk of transmission of pestivirus between the 2 species is minimized.
Oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infection prevalence is required to determine optimal vaccination strategies. We systematically reviewed the prevalence of oncogenic cervical HPV infection among Canadian females prior to immunization.
We included studies reporting DNA-confirmed oncogenic HPV prevalence estimates among Canadian females identified through searching electronic databases (e.g., MEDLINE) and public health websites. Two independent reviewers screened literature results, abstracted data and appraised study quality. Prevalence estimates were meta-analyzed among routine screening populations, HPV-positive, and by cytology/histology results.
Thirty studies plus 21 companion reports were included after screening 837 citations and 120 full-text articles. Many of the studies did not address non-response bias (74%) or use a representative sampling strategy (53%). Age-specific prevalence was highest among females aged
Cites: J Immigr Minor Health. 2007 Oct;9(4):323-3417345152
Viruses of the tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) antigenic complex, within the family Flaviviridae, cause a variety of diseases including uncomplicated febrile illness, meningo-encephalitis and haemorrhagic fever. Different wildlife species act as reservoir hosts with ixodid tick species as vectors. TBE virus (TBEV) causes 40-130 cases confirmed serologically in Sweden each year. Characteristics of TBEV strains circulating in Sweden have not been investigated previously and no viral sequence data has been reported. In the present study, virus strains were isolated from serum of patients with clinical symptoms consistent with acute TBEV infection. Serologic characterisation, using a panel of E-specific monoclonal antibodies and cross-neutralisation tests, indicated that the Swedish strains of TBEV, isolated 1958-1994, all belonged to the Western TBEV subtype, which includes the Austrian vaccine strain Neudoerfl. Genetic analysis of a partial E-sequence confirmed this close relationship: all Swedish TBEV strains belonged to the European lineage of the Western TBEV subtype, which includes the previously characterised strains Neudoerfl, Hypr, and Kumlinge. Further, three Swedish strains showed partial E-sequences identical to that of the Finnish Kumlinge strain, ten Swedish strains formed a well-supported separate cluster, whereas four others did not show any real clustering. No apparent correlation was observed in comparison of clinical parameters with genetic data or geographic origin of the strains.