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16S rDNA sequencing of valve tissue improves microbiological diagnosis in surgically treated patients with infective endocarditis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature134307
Source
J Infect. 2011 Jun;62(6):472-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2011
Author
Martin Vondracek
Ulrik Sartipy
Ewa Aufwerber
Inger Julander
Dan Lindblom
Katarina Westling
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Microbiology, Karolinska University Hospital and Department of Clinical Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
J Infect. 2011 Jun;62(6):472-8
Date
Jun-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Bacteria - classification - genetics - isolation & purification
Bacteriological Techniques - methods
DNA, Bacterial - chemistry - genetics
DNA, Ribosomal - chemistry - genetics
Endocarditis - diagnosis - microbiology - surgery
Female
Heart Valves - microbiology
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
RNA, Ribosomal, 16S - genetics
Sensitivity and specificity
Sequence Analysis, DNA - methods
Sweden
Abstract
The aim was to evaluate 16S rDNA sequencing in heart valves in patients with infective endocarditis undergoing surgery.
Fifty-seven patients with infective endocarditis were examined in this prospective study by analysing heart valves with 16S rDNA sequencing and culturing methods and comparing the results to blood cultures. As controls, heart valves from 61 patients without any signs of endocarditis were examined.
All together 77% of the endocarditis patients were positive for 16S rDNA, 84% had positive blood cultures and 23% had positive cultures from heart valves, whereas only 16% of the cultures from heart valves were concordant with results from blood cultures or 16S rDNA. Concordant results between 16S rDNA sequencing and blood cultures were found in 75% patients. All controls were negative for 16S rDNA. In 4 out of 9 patients with negative blood cultures, the aetiology was established by 16S rDNA alone, i.e. viridans group streptococci.
In this Swedish study, 16S rDNA sequencing of valve material was shown to be a valuable addition in blood culture-negative cases. The value of heart valve culture was low. Molecular diagnosis using 16S rDNA sequencing should be recommended in patients undergoing valve replacement for infective endocarditis.
PubMed ID
21601285 View in PubMed
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Alloscardovia omnicolens gen. nov., sp. nov., from human clinical samples.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature162515
Source
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2007 Jul;57(Pt 7):1442-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2007
Author
Geert Huys
Marc Vancanneyt
Klaas D'Haene
Enevold Falsen
Georges Wauters
Peter Vandamme
Author Affiliation
Laboratory of Microbiology, Ghent University, K. L. Ledeganckstraat 35, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium. geert.huys@UGent.be
Source
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2007 Jul;57(Pt 7):1442-6
Date
Jul-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Actinobacteria - classification - genetics - isolation & purification - metabolism
Aerobiosis
Bacterial Proteins - genetics
Bacterial Typing Techniques
Base Composition
Belgium
Chaperonin 60 - genetics
Cluster analysis
DNA Fingerprinting
DNA, Bacterial - chemistry - genetics
DNA, Ribosomal - chemistry - genetics
Fermentation
Genes, rRNA
Genotype
Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections - microbiology
Humans
Molecular Sequence Data
Norway
Nucleic Acid Hybridization
Phylogeny
Polymerase Chain Reaction
RNA, Bacterial - genetics
RNA, Ribosomal, 16S - genetics
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid
Sweden
Abstract
The taxonomic position of 12 isolates tentatively assigned to the genus Bifidobacterium on the basis of a limited phenotypic characterization was examined. The isolates were collected between 1978 and 2005 in Belgium, Sweden and Norway, and originated from various human clinical samples, including urine, blood, urethra, oral cavity, tonsil, and abscesses of lung and aortic valve. On the basis of band number and clustering analysis, repetitive DNA element-based PCR fingerprinting using the BOXA1R and (GTG)(5) primers indicated that the clinical isolates represented a taxon probably not belonging to the genus Bifidobacterium. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities revealed that the isolates were most closely affiliated to Parascardovia denticolens LMG 18312(T) (93.0-93.2 %), Scardovia inopinata LMG 18313(T) (92.9-93.1 %) and other members of the Bifidobacteriaceae, indicating that the isolates belong to a novel genus within that family. This observation was further substantiated by the results of partial sequencing of the heat-shock protein 60 gene (hsp60) and determination of the DNA G+C contents (47.3-48.3 mol%). Members of the novel taxon can be phenotypically distinguished from S. inopinata, P. denticolens and Gardnerella vaginalis by the ability to grow on agar under aerobic conditions and on the basis of positive reactions for acid production from L-arabinose, raffinose, salicin and D-xylose. Unambiguous phenotypic differentiation from Aeriscardovia aeriphila and Bifidobacterium species may be difficult, so phenotypic analyses should be complemented by molecular methods. The values for DNA-DNA binding among four members of the novel genus were in the range of 89-100 %, indicating that the strains should be considered as a single novel species of a novel genus, for which the name Alloscardovia omnicolens gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Alloscardovia omnicolens is CCUG 31649(T) (=LMG 23792(T)).
PubMed ID
17625172 View in PubMed
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Analysis of Swedish Bordetella pertussis isolates with three typing methods: characterization of an epidemic lineage.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature149892
Source
J Microbiol Methods. 2009 Sep;78(3):297-301
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2009
Author
A. Advani
H G J Van der Heide
H O Hallander
F R Mooi
Author Affiliation
Department of bacteriology, Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control (SMI), S-171 82 Solna, Sweden. reza.advani@smi.se
Source
J Microbiol Methods. 2009 Sep;78(3):297-301
Date
Sep-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alleles
Bacterial Typing Techniques - methods
Bordetella pertussis - classification - genetics - isolation & purification
Cluster analysis
DNA Fingerprinting - methods
DNA, Bacterial - chemistry - genetics
Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field - methods
Humans
Minisatellite Repeats
Molecular Epidemiology - methods
Molecular Sequence Data
Polymerase Chain Reaction - methods
Sensitivity and specificity
Sequence Analysis, DNA - methods
Sweden - epidemiology
Whooping Cough - epidemiology - microbiology
Abstract
Three Bordetella pertussis typing methods, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), and multi-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) were compared using a collection of Swedish strains. Of the three typing methods used, PFGE was found to be the most discriminatory. MLVA and MLST were less discriminatory, but may be valuable for strain discrimination when culture is not possible as they are based on PCR. The combination of MLVA/MLST was found to be equally discriminatory as PFGE and should therefore also be considered. The relationship between predominant lineages in Sweden and The Netherlands, characterized by the PFGE type BpSR11 and the allele for the pertussis toxin promoter ptxP3, respectively, was investigated. Linkage was found between the PFGE type BpSR11 and ptxP3 in that all BpSR11 strains carried ptxP3. On the other hand ptxP3 was found in several other PFGE-types. The presence of the ptxP3 allele in different genetic backgrounds may indicate horizontal gene transfer within B. pertussis or homoplasy. Alternatively, this observation may be due to convergence of PFGE types.
PubMed ID
19577594 View in PubMed
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An investigation of bacterial contamination on treatment table surfaces of chiropractors in private practice and attitudes and practices concerning table disinfection.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature137451
Source
Am J Infect Control. 2011 Feb;39(1):56-63
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2011
Author
Aaron A Puhl
Christine J Reinhart
Nathan J Puhl
L Brent Selinger
H Stephen Injeyan
Author Affiliation
Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College, 6100 Leslie Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Am J Infect Control. 2011 Feb;39(1):56-63
Date
Feb-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alberta
Ambulatory Care Facilities
Attitude of Health Personnel
Bacteria - classification - genetics - isolation & purification
Chiropractic
DNA, Bacterial - chemistry - genetics
DNA, Ribosomal - chemistry - genetics
Disinfection - utilization
Environmental Microbiology
Equipment and Supplies - microbiology
Health Services Research
Humans
Private Practice
Questionnaires
RNA, Ribosomal, 16S - genetics
Abstract
The attitudes and behaviors of chiropractors regarding table disinfection have not yet been investigated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate (1) the bacterial contaminants present on treatment tables in private chiropractic clinics, (2) the effectiveness of the paper barrier in preventing bacterial deposition, and (3) chiropractors' attitudes and practices regarding table disinfection.
Defined portions of treatment tables from 14 private clinics in Alberta, Canada were sampled for the presence of bacteria. Growth characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequencing were used for bacterial identification. In addition, a 12-item survey was administered to southern Alberta chiropractors (n = 79; 81% response rate) inquiring about their attitudes and behaviors regarding table disinfection.
Respondents favored the idea of table disinfection (84%), but only 62% had a routine disinfection protocol. Table sampling revealed the presence of a number of bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, which were recovered from 3 separate clinics. The paper covering on table headpieces was an effective barrier to bacteria.
Chiropractors have a positive attitude regarding disinfection; however, the risk of infection from treatment tables remains. Modification of the positioning of facial piece paper may be indicated, along with increased emphasis on disinfection.
PubMed ID
21281886 View in PubMed
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An outbreak of pneumonia associated with S. pneumoniae at a military training facility in Finland in 2006.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature149725
Source
APMIS. 2009 Jul;117(7):488-91
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2009
Author
Anni Vainio
Outi Lyytikäinen
Reetta Sihvonen
Tarja Kaijalainen
Laura Teirilä
Merja Rantala
Pirkko Lehtinen
Pekka Ruuska
Anni Virolainen
Author Affiliation
National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland. anni.vainio@thl.fi
Source
APMIS. 2009 Jul;117(7):488-91
Date
Jul-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Antibodies, Bacterial - blood
DNA, Bacterial - chemistry - genetics
Disease Outbreaks
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Immunoenzyme Techniques
Male
Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Military Personnel
Nasopharynx - microbiology
Pneumonia, Pneumococcal - blood - epidemiology - microbiology
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Serotyping
Streptococcus pneumoniae - genetics - isolation & purification
Young Adult
Abstract
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a well-known cause of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia. The purpose of this study was to assess the cause and extent of the outbreak of pneumonia which occurred among military recruits following a 1-week hard encampment in Finland. We also assessed the carriage rate and molecular characteristics of the S. pneumoniae isolates. All pneumococcal isolates were studied for antibiotic susceptibility, serotyped, genotyped by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and the presence of pneumococcal rlrA pilus islet was detected. The genotype results defined by MLST corresponded with the serotype results. S. pneumoniae serotype 7F, ST2331, seemed to be associated with an outbreak of pneumonia and nasopharyngeal carriage among 43 military recruits. Of the 43 military recruits, five (12%) were hospitalized with pneumonia and two (40%) of them were positive for S. pneumoniae serotype 7F, ST2331 by blood culture. Eighteen (42%) of the 43 men were found to be positive for S. pneumoniae by nasopharyngeal culture, and nine (50%) of them carried pneumococcal serotype 7F, ST2331. The outbreak strain covered 55% of all the pneumococcal findings. Outbreaks of invasive pneumococcal disease seem to occur in a crowded environment such as a military training facility even among previously healthy young men.
PubMed ID
19594488 View in PubMed
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Antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus aureus colonising the intestines of Swedish infants.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature58241
Source
Clin Microbiol Infect. 2004 Oct;10(10):890-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2004
Author
E. Lindberg
I. Adlerberth
A E Wold
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Bacteriology, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden. erika.lindberg@microbio.gu.se
Source
Clin Microbiol Infect. 2004 Oct;10(10):890-4
Date
Oct-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Anti-Bacterial Agents - pharmacology
Bacterial Proteins - chemistry - genetics
Cohort Studies
DNA, Bacterial - chemistry - genetics
Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial - genetics
Feces - microbiology
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Intestinal Diseases - microbiology
Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Staphylococcal Infections - microbiology
Staphylococcus aureus - drug effects - genetics - isolation & purification - metabolism
Sweden
Abstract
Staphylococcus aureus has become a frequent coloniser of the intestinal tract of infants, but the health effects of such colonisation are not clear. In this study, the antibiotic resistance patterns of 116 S. aureus strains from the commensal intestinal microflora were determined. The strains were obtained from 81 Swedish infants who had been followed with regular stool samples and registration of antibiotic usage during their first year of life. The faecal population levels of the individual strains and the duration of their persistence in the microflora had been determined previously. The prevalence of antibiotic resistance among the 116 strains was modest: methicillin, 0%; penicillin G, 78%; erythromycin A, 3%; tetracycline, 2%; clindamycin, 0.9%; and fusidic acid, 0.9%. Colonisation by antibiotic-resistant strains was unrelated to antibiotic consumption by individual infants. Antibiotic-resistant strains were as capable of persisting in the intestinal microflora and reaching high faecal population levels as fully susceptible strains. No strain lost or acquired resistance during the colonisation period. Thus, antibiotic-resistant strains of S. aureus seem to be as fit for competition in the large bowel microflora as susceptible strains, even in the absence of selective pressure from antibiotics. This may aggravate the ecological consequences of antibiotic resistance development.
PubMed ID
15373882 View in PubMed
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The antimicrobial activity of mecillinam, nitrofurantoin, temocillin and fosfomycin and comparative analysis of resistance patterns in a nationwide collection of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in Norway 2010-2011.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature275227
Source
Infect Dis (Lond). 2016 Feb;48(2):99-107
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2016
Author
Ilya Nikolaevich Zykov
Arnfinn Sundsfjord
Lars Småbrekke
Ørjan Samuelsen
Source
Infect Dis (Lond). 2016 Feb;48(2):99-107
Date
Feb-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Anti-Bacterial Agents - pharmacology
DNA, Bacterial - chemistry - genetics
Escherichia coli - drug effects - enzymology - isolation & purification
Escherichia coli Infections - microbiology
Fosfomycin - pharmacology
Humans
Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Nitrofurantoin - pharmacology
Norway
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Sequence Analysis, DNA
beta-Lactamases - genetics
beta-Lactams - pharmacology
Abstract
The prevalence of extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli in Norway has been steadily increasing during the last 10-15 years as part of a global pandemic. ESBL producers frequently express co-resistance to other important antimicrobial drug classes, limiting therapeutic options. This has led to regained interest in older antimicrobial agents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of mecillinam, nitrofurantoin, temocillin and fosfomycin, as well as to perform a comparative analysis of resistance patterns in a nationwide collection of ESBL-producing E. coli.
A nationwide collection of all 105 clinical isolates of ESBL-producing E. coli from the Norwegian Organisation for Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance (NORM) during 2010-2011 was analyzed. Detection and identification of ESBL-encoding genes were performed by PCR and sequencing for confirmation of ESBL variants of blaTEM and blaSHV (2010) or microarray (2011). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) or MIC correlates were determined using MIC gradient tests or VITEK 2, respectively. Comparative analysis of resistance patterns was performed.
All isolates were susceptible to fosfomycin, temocillin (urinary tract breakpoint) and meropenem. For mecillinam and nitrofurantoin, 6% and 9% of the isolates, respectively, were non-susceptible. A high level of susceptibility was also observed for amikacin (95%). In contrast, the non-susceptibility proportions to ampicillin (100%), cefotaxime (97%), ceftazidime (77%), aztreonam (87%), gentamicin (42%), tobramycin (52%), ciprofloxacin (76%) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (71%) were higher.
Overall, the in vitro susceptibility to nitrofurantoin, fosfomycin, mecillinam and temocillin was high, indicating that these drugs are good options for treating uncomplicated urinary tract infections caused by ESBL-producing E. coli.
PubMed ID
26414659 View in PubMed
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Antimicrobial susceptibility of Swedish, Norwegian and Danish isolates of Clostridium perfringens from poultry, and distribution of tetracycline resistance genes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature56590
Source
Vet Microbiol. 2004 Apr 19;99(3-4):251-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-19-2004
Author
A. Johansson
C. Greko
B E Engström
M. Karlsson
Author Affiliation
Department of Bacteriology, National Veterinary Institute, SE-751 89 Uppsala, Sweden. anders.johansson@sva.se
Source
Vet Microbiol. 2004 Apr 19;99(3-4):251-7
Date
Apr-19-2004
Language
English
Geographic Location
Denmark
Norway
Sweden
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Anti-Bacterial Agents - pharmacology
Base Sequence
Chickens
Clostridium Infections - microbiology - veterinary
Clostridium perfringens - drug effects - isolation & purification
DNA, Bacterial - chemistry - genetics
Female
Microbial Sensitivity Tests - veterinary
Molecular Sequence Data
Polymerase Chain Reaction - veterinary
Poultry Diseases - microbiology
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Tetracycline Resistance - genetics
Turkeys
Abstract
This study was undertaken to determine the in vitro susceptibility of Clostridium perfringens, isolated from poultry to antimicrobials used in poultry production. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of eight antimicrobials, including the ionophoric coccidiostat narasin, was determined for 102 C. perfringens isolates, 58 from Sweden, 24 from Norway and 20 from Denmark. Susceptibility to each antimicrobial compound was determined by broth microdilution. The isolates were obtained from broilers (89), laying hens (9) and turkeys (4), affected by necrotic enteritis (NE) or by C. perfringens associated hepatitis (CPH), and from healthy broilers. All strains, regardless of origin, proved inherently susceptible to ampicillin, narasin, avilamycin, erythromycin and vancomycin. A low frequency of resistance to virginiamycin and bacitracin was also found. Resistance to tetracycline was found in strains isolated in all three countries; Sweden (76%), Denmark (10%) and Norway (29%). In 80% of the tetracycline-resistant isolates, the two resistance genes tetA(P) and tetB(P) were amplified by PCR whereas in 20% only the tetA(P) gene was detected. No tetM gene amplicon was obtained from any of the tetracycline-resistant isolates. The uniform susceptibility to narasin revealed in this study shows that the substance can still be used to control clostridiosis. In this study, C. perfringens also showed a low degree of resistance to most other antimicrobials tested. Despite the small amounts of tetracycline used in poultry, a considerable degree of resistance to tetracycline was found in C. perfringens isolates from Swedish broilers.
PubMed ID
15066727 View in PubMed
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Bacterial communities in ancient permafrost profiles of Svalbard, Arctic.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289236
Source
J Basic Microbiol. 2017 Dec; 57(12):1018-1036
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Dec-2017
Author
Purnima Singh
Shiv M Singh
Ram N Singh
Simantini Naik
Utpal Roy
Alok Srivastava
Manfred Bölter
Author Affiliation
Birla Institute of Technology and Science (BITS), Pilani-K.K. Birla Goa Campus, Zuarinagar, Goa, India.
Source
J Basic Microbiol. 2017 Dec; 57(12):1018-1036
Date
Dec-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Arctic Regions
Bacteria - classification - genetics
Bacterial Load
Biota
Cluster analysis
DNA, Bacterial - chemistry - genetics
DNA, Ribosomal - chemistry - genetics
Permafrost - microbiology
Phylogeny
RNA, Ribosomal, 16S - genetics
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Svalbard
Abstract
Permafrost soils are unique habitats in polar environment and are of great ecological relevance. The present study focuses on the characterization of bacterial communities from permafrost profiles of Svalbard, Arctic. Counts of culturable bacteria range from 1.50?×?103 to 2.22?×?105 CFU?g-1 , total bacterial numbers range from 1.14?×?105 to 5.52?×?105 cells?g-1 soil. Bacterial isolates are identified through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Arthrobacter and Pseudomonas are the most dominant genera, and A. sulfonivorans, A. bergeri, P. mandelii, and P. jessenii as the dominant species. Other species belong to genera Acinetobacter, Bacillus, Enterobacter, Nesterenkonia, Psychrobacter, Rhizobium, Rhodococcus, Sphingobacterium, Sphingopyxis, Stenotrophomonas, and Virgibacillus. To the best of our knowledge, genera Acinetobacter, Enterobacter, Nesterenkonia, Psychrobacter, Rhizobium, Sphingobacterium, Sphingopyxis, Stenotrophomonas, and Virgibacillus are the first northernmost records from Arctic permafrost. The present study fills the knowledge gap of culturable bacterial communities and their chronological characterization from permafrost soils of Ny-Ålesund (79°N), Arctic.
PubMed ID
28940222 View in PubMed
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Bacterial community analysis of drinking water biofilms in southern Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature268301
Source
Microbes Environ. 2015;30(1):99-107
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Katharina Lührig
Björn Canbäck
Catherine J Paul
Tomas Johansson
Kenneth M Persson
Peter Rådström
Source
Microbes Environ. 2015;30(1):99-107
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Bacteria - classification - genetics - isolation & purification
Biofilms - growth & development
Biota
Cluster analysis
DNA, Bacterial - chemistry - genetics
DNA, Ribosomal - chemistry - genetics
Drinking Water - microbiology
Molecular Sequence Data
Phylogeny
RNA, Ribosomal, 16S - genetics
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Sweden
Abstract
Next-generation sequencing of the V1-V2 and V3 variable regions of the 16S rRNA gene generated a total of 674,116 reads that described six distinct bacterial biofilm communities from both water meters and pipes. A high degree of reproducibility was demonstrated for the experimental and analytical work-flow by analyzing the communities present in parallel water meters, the rare occurrence of biological replicates within a working drinking water distribution system. The communities observed in water meters from households that did not complain about their drinking water were defined by sequences representing Proteobacteria (82-87%), with 22-40% of all sequences being classified as Sphingomonadaceae. However, a water meter biofilm community from a household with consumer reports of red water and flowing water containing elevated levels of iron and manganese had fewer sequences representing Proteobacteria (44%); only 0.6% of all sequences were classified as Sphingomonadaceae; and, in contrast to the other water meter communities, markedly more sequences represented Nitrospira and Pedomicrobium. The biofilm communities in pipes were distinct from those in water meters, and contained sequences that were identified as Mycobacterium, Nocardia, Desulfovibrio, and Sulfuricurvum. The approach employed in the present study resolved the bacterial diversity present in these biofilm communities as well as the differences that occurred in biofilms within a single distribution system, and suggests that next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons can show changes in bacterial biofilm communities associated with different water qualities.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25739379 View in PubMed
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145 records – page 1 of 15.