The aim was to evaluate 16S rDNA sequencing in heart valves in patients with infective endocarditis undergoing surgery.
Fifty-seven patients with infective endocarditis were examined in this prospective study by analysing heart valves with 16S rDNA sequencing and culturing methods and comparing the results to blood cultures. As controls, heart valves from 61 patients without any signs of endocarditis were examined.
All together 77% of the endocarditis patients were positive for 16S rDNA, 84% had positive blood cultures and 23% had positive cultures from heart valves, whereas only 16% of the cultures from heart valves were concordant with results from blood cultures or 16S rDNA. Concordant results between 16S rDNA sequencing and blood cultures were found in 75% patients. All controls were negative for 16S rDNA. In 4 out of 9 patients with negative blood cultures, the aetiology was established by 16S rDNA alone, i.e. viridans group streptococci.
In this Swedish study, 16S rDNA sequencing of valve material was shown to be a valuable addition in blood culture-negative cases. The value of heart valve culture was low. Molecular diagnosis using 16S rDNA sequencing should be recommended in patients undergoing valve replacement for infective endocarditis.
The taxonomic position of 12 isolates tentatively assigned to the genus Bifidobacterium on the basis of a limited phenotypic characterization was examined. The isolates were collected between 1978 and 2005 in Belgium, Sweden and Norway, and originated from various human clinical samples, including urine, blood, urethra, oral cavity, tonsil, and abscesses of lung and aortic valve. On the basis of band number and clustering analysis, repetitive DNA element-based PCR fingerprinting using the BOXA1R and (GTG)(5) primers indicated that the clinical isolates represented a taxon probably not belonging to the genus Bifidobacterium. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities revealed that the isolates were most closely affiliated to Parascardovia denticolens LMG 18312(T) (93.0-93.2 %), Scardovia inopinata LMG 18313(T) (92.9-93.1 %) and other members of the Bifidobacteriaceae, indicating that the isolates belong to a novel genus within that family. This observation was further substantiated by the results of partial sequencing of the heat-shock protein 60 gene (hsp60) and determination of the DNA G+C contents (47.3-48.3 mol%). Members of the novel taxon can be phenotypically distinguished from S. inopinata, P. denticolens and Gardnerella vaginalis by the ability to grow on agar under aerobic conditions and on the basis of positive reactions for acid production from L-arabinose, raffinose, salicin and D-xylose. Unambiguous phenotypic differentiation from Aeriscardovia aeriphila and Bifidobacterium species may be difficult, so phenotypic analyses should be complemented by molecular methods. The values for DNA-DNA binding among four members of the novel genus were in the range of 89-100 %, indicating that the strains should be considered as a single novel species of a novel genus, for which the name Alloscardovia omnicolens gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Alloscardovia omnicolens is CCUG 31649(T) (=LMG 23792(T)).
Three Bordetella pertussis typing methods, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), and multi-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) were compared using a collection of Swedish strains. Of the three typing methods used, PFGE was found to be the most discriminatory. MLVA and MLST were less discriminatory, but may be valuable for strain discrimination when culture is not possible as they are based on PCR. The combination of MLVA/MLST was found to be equally discriminatory as PFGE and should therefore also be considered. The relationship between predominant lineages in Sweden and The Netherlands, characterized by the PFGE type BpSR11 and the allele for the pertussis toxin promoter ptxP3, respectively, was investigated. Linkage was found between the PFGE type BpSR11 and ptxP3 in that all BpSR11 strains carried ptxP3. On the other hand ptxP3 was found in several other PFGE-types. The presence of the ptxP3 allele in different genetic backgrounds may indicate horizontal gene transfer within B. pertussis or homoplasy. Alternatively, this observation may be due to convergence of PFGE types.
The attitudes and behaviors of chiropractors regarding table disinfection have not yet been investigated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate (1) the bacterial contaminants present on treatment tables in private chiropractic clinics, (2) the effectiveness of the paper barrier in preventing bacterial deposition, and (3) chiropractors' attitudes and practices regarding table disinfection.
Defined portions of treatment tables from 14 private clinics in Alberta, Canada were sampled for the presence of bacteria. Growth characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequencing were used for bacterial identification. In addition, a 12-item survey was administered to southern Alberta chiropractors (n = 79; 81% response rate) inquiring about their attitudes and behaviors regarding table disinfection.
Respondents favored the idea of table disinfection (84%), but only 62% had a routine disinfection protocol. Table sampling revealed the presence of a number of bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, which were recovered from 3 separate clinics. The paper covering on table headpieces was an effective barrier to bacteria.
Chiropractors have a positive attitude regarding disinfection; however, the risk of infection from treatment tables remains. Modification of the positioning of facial piece paper may be indicated, along with increased emphasis on disinfection.
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a well-known cause of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia. The purpose of this study was to assess the cause and extent of the outbreak of pneumonia which occurred among military recruits following a 1-week hard encampment in Finland. We also assessed the carriage rate and molecular characteristics of the S. pneumoniae isolates. All pneumococcal isolates were studied for antibiotic susceptibility, serotyped, genotyped by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and the presence of pneumococcal rlrA pilus islet was detected. The genotype results defined by MLST corresponded with the serotype results. S. pneumoniae serotype 7F, ST2331, seemed to be associated with an outbreak of pneumonia and nasopharyngeal carriage among 43 military recruits. Of the 43 military recruits, five (12%) were hospitalized with pneumonia and two (40%) of them were positive for S. pneumoniae serotype 7F, ST2331 by blood culture. Eighteen (42%) of the 43 men were found to be positive for S. pneumoniae by nasopharyngeal culture, and nine (50%) of them carried pneumococcal serotype 7F, ST2331. The outbreak strain covered 55% of all the pneumococcal findings. Outbreaks of invasive pneumococcal disease seem to occur in a crowded environment such as a military training facility even among previously healthy young men.
Staphylococcus aureus has become a frequent coloniser of the intestinal tract of infants, but the health effects of such colonisation are not clear. In this study, the antibiotic resistance patterns of 116 S. aureus strains from the commensal intestinal microflora were determined. The strains were obtained from 81 Swedish infants who had been followed with regular stool samples and registration of antibiotic usage during their first year of life. The faecal population levels of the individual strains and the duration of their persistence in the microflora had been determined previously. The prevalence of antibiotic resistance among the 116 strains was modest: methicillin, 0%; penicillin G, 78%; erythromycin A, 3%; tetracycline, 2%; clindamycin, 0.9%; and fusidic acid, 0.9%. Colonisation by antibiotic-resistant strains was unrelated to antibiotic consumption by individual infants. Antibiotic-resistant strains were as capable of persisting in the intestinal microflora and reaching high faecal population levels as fully susceptible strains. No strain lost or acquired resistance during the colonisation period. Thus, antibiotic-resistant strains of S. aureus seem to be as fit for competition in the large bowel microflora as susceptible strains, even in the absence of selective pressure from antibiotics. This may aggravate the ecological consequences of antibiotic resistance development.
The antimicrobial activity of mecillinam, nitrofurantoin, temocillin and fosfomycin and comparative analysis of resistance patterns in a nationwide collection of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in Norway 2010-2011.
The prevalence of extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli in Norway has been steadily increasing during the last 10-15 years as part of a global pandemic. ESBL producers frequently express co-resistance to other important antimicrobial drug classes, limiting therapeutic options. This has led to regained interest in older antimicrobial agents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of mecillinam, nitrofurantoin, temocillin and fosfomycin, as well as to perform a comparative analysis of resistance patterns in a nationwide collection of ESBL-producing E. coli.
A nationwide collection of all 105 clinical isolates of ESBL-producing E. coli from the Norwegian Organisation for Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance (NORM) during 2010-2011 was analyzed. Detection and identification of ESBL-encoding genes were performed by PCR and sequencing for confirmation of ESBL variants of blaTEM and blaSHV (2010) or microarray (2011). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) or MIC correlates were determined using MIC gradient tests or VITEK 2, respectively. Comparative analysis of resistance patterns was performed.
All isolates were susceptible to fosfomycin, temocillin (urinary tract breakpoint) and meropenem. For mecillinam and nitrofurantoin, 6% and 9% of the isolates, respectively, were non-susceptible. A high level of susceptibility was also observed for amikacin (95%). In contrast, the non-susceptibility proportions to ampicillin (100%), cefotaxime (97%), ceftazidime (77%), aztreonam (87%), gentamicin (42%), tobramycin (52%), ciprofloxacin (76%) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (71%) were higher.
Overall, the in vitro susceptibility to nitrofurantoin, fosfomycin, mecillinam and temocillin was high, indicating that these drugs are good options for treating uncomplicated urinary tract infections caused by ESBL-producing E. coli.
This study was undertaken to determine the in vitro susceptibility of Clostridium perfringens, isolated from poultry to antimicrobials used in poultry production. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of eight antimicrobials, including the ionophoric coccidiostat narasin, was determined for 102 C. perfringens isolates, 58 from Sweden, 24 from Norway and 20 from Denmark. Susceptibility to each antimicrobial compound was determined by broth microdilution. The isolates were obtained from broilers (89), laying hens (9) and turkeys (4), affected by necrotic enteritis (NE) or by C. perfringens associated hepatitis (CPH), and from healthy broilers. All strains, regardless of origin, proved inherently susceptible to ampicillin, narasin, avilamycin, erythromycin and vancomycin. A low frequency of resistance to virginiamycin and bacitracin was also found. Resistance to tetracycline was found in strains isolated in all three countries; Sweden (76%), Denmark (10%) and Norway (29%). In 80% of the tetracycline-resistant isolates, the two resistance genes tetA(P) and tetB(P) were amplified by PCR whereas in 20% only the tetA(P) gene was detected. No tetM gene amplicon was obtained from any of the tetracycline-resistant isolates. The uniform susceptibility to narasin revealed in this study shows that the substance can still be used to control clostridiosis. In this study, C. perfringens also showed a low degree of resistance to most other antimicrobials tested. Despite the small amounts of tetracycline used in poultry, a considerable degree of resistance to tetracycline was found in C. perfringens isolates from Swedish broilers.
Faecal contamination is one of the major factors affecting biological water quality. In this study, we investigated microbial taxonomic diversity of faecally polluted lotic ecosystems in Norway. These ecosystems comprise tributaries of drinking water reservoirs with moderate and high faecal contamination levels, an urban creek exposed to extremely high faecal pollution and a rural creek that was the least faecally polluted. The faecal water contamination had both anthropogenic and zoogenic origins identified through quantitative microbial source tracking applying host-specific Bacteroidales 16S rRNA genetic markers. The microbial community composition revealed that Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes (70-90% relative abundance) were the most dominant bacterial phyla, followed by Firmicutes, especially in waters exposed to anthropogenic faecal contamination. The core archaeal community consisted of Parvarchaeota (mainly in the tributaries of drinking water reservoirs) and Crenarchaeota (in the rural creek). The aquatic microbial diversity was substantially reduced in water with severe faecal contamination. In addition, the community compositions diverge between waters with dominant anthropogenic or zoogenic pollution origins. These findings present novel interpretations of the effect of anthropo-zoogenic faecal water contamination on microbial diversity in lotic ecosystems.
Permafrost soils are unique habitats in polar environment and are of great ecological relevance. The present study focuses on the characterization of bacterial communities from permafrost profiles of Svalbard, Arctic. Counts of culturable bacteria range from 1.50?×?103 to 2.22?×?105 CFU?g-1 , total bacterial numbers range from 1.14?×?105 to 5.52?×?105 cells?g-1 soil. Bacterial isolates are identified through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Arthrobacter and Pseudomonas are the most dominant genera, and A. sulfonivorans, A. bergeri, P. mandelii, and P. jessenii as the dominant species. Other species belong to genera Acinetobacter, Bacillus, Enterobacter, Nesterenkonia, Psychrobacter, Rhizobium, Rhodococcus, Sphingobacterium, Sphingopyxis, Stenotrophomonas, and Virgibacillus. To the best of our knowledge, genera Acinetobacter, Enterobacter, Nesterenkonia, Psychrobacter, Rhizobium, Sphingobacterium, Sphingopyxis, Stenotrophomonas, and Virgibacillus are the first northernmost records from Arctic permafrost. The present study fills the knowledge gap of culturable bacterial communities and their chronological characterization from permafrost soils of Ny-Ålesund (79°N), Arctic.