Regular vaccination against poliomyelitis was started in 1960 with oral polio vaccine (OPV). Since 1992 a trivalent OPV has been administered in five doses within a nationwide vaccination campaign. The immunization coverage varies between 96.8% and 98.2% after 4 OPV doses, reaching 98.0% to 98.9% after the fifth dose. No case of indigenous poliomyelitis has been reported in the Czech Republic since the second half of 1960. In 2001, 3,230 sera were tested for the presence of antibodies against poliovirus of types 1, 2 and 3 using a virus neutralization microassay. The prevalence rates of antibodies vary between 96.0% and 100% for types 1 and 2 and between 95.1% and 100% for type 3, with the exception of the highest age group, in which the prevalence rates of antibodies against poliovirus of all three types are 92.2%.
BACKGROUND: According to the WHO, insufficient attention is devoted to the problem of accident while more than one half of the death in children of 1 to 14 years of age in industrialized countries are caused by accidents. METHODS AND RESULTS: Nationwide statistical data from the Czech Republic have been evaluated and compared with those of selected European countries and the USA. In the years 1991-1993 average of 151 children died in the Czech Republic in the age group of 5- to 9-year olds. In 68 of them the cause of death was an injury that in almost half of the cases was due to a traffic accident. The trend in the mortality of children of the same age was assessed comparing the averages for 1950-1952 and 1991-1993. The overall mortality decreased by 68% while the greatest decline was in non-accident causes (75%). Mortality due to accidents decreased by 55% and that caused by motor vehicles by only 19%. The lowest mortality due to accidents was found in Sweden. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that mortality due to accidents and poisonings in younger school children in the Czech Republic is higher than, e.g. in Austria and Sweden. In order to be able to elaborate a draft of appropriate and effective preventive measures, it is necessary to obtain further information on accidents and poisonings in children that have not ended fatally.
Authors investigated, cross-nationally, the factors, including demographic, psychiatric (including cognitive), physical, and behavioral, determining whether older people take their prescribed medication. Older adults are prescribed more medication than any other group, and poor adherence is a common reason for non-response to medication.
Researchers interviewed 3,881 people over age 65 who receive home care services in 11 countries, administering a structured interview in participants' homes. The main outcome measure was the percentage of participants not adherent to medication.
In all, 12.5% of people (N=456) reported that they were not fully adherent to medication. Non-adherence was predicted by problem drinking (OR=3.6), not having a doctor review their medication (OR=3.3), greater cognitive impairment (OR=1.4 for every one-point increase in impairment), good physical health (OR=1.2), resisting care (OR=2.1), being unmarried (OR=2.3), and living in the Czech Republic (OR=4.7) or Germany (OR=1.4).
People who screen positive for problem drinking and who have dementia (often undiagnosed) are less likely to adhere to medication. Therefore, doctors should consider dementia and problem drinking when prescribing for older adults. Interventions to improve adherence in older adults might be more effective if targeted at these groups. It is possible that medication-review enhances adherence by improving the doctor-patient relationship or by emphasizing the need for medications.
The aim of the study was to assess the relationships between individual-level dietary intakes of antioxidant vitamins C, E and beta-carotene with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in three Central and Eastern European (CEE) populations.
Data from the Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors in Eastern Europe cohort study were used. At the baseline survey, between 2002 and 2005, 28,945 men and women aged 45-69 years were examined in Novosibirsk (Russia), Krakow (Poland) and seven Czech towns. Deaths in the cohorts were identified through mortality registers. Cox regression was used to estimate the association between vitamin consumption and all-cause, cardiovascular (CVD) disease and cancer mortality.
In multivariable-adjusted analyses, there were no clear inverse associations between antioxidant vitamin intakes and mortality, although in some groups, several hazard ratios (HRs) were significant. For example, in men, compared with the lowest quintile of vitamin C intake, all-cause mortality in the third and fourth quintiles was lower by 28 % (HR 0.72; 95 % CI 0.61-0.85) and by 20 % (HR 0.80; 95 % CI 0.68-0.95), respectively. CVD mortality was lower by 35 % (HR 0.65; 95 % CI 0.50-0.84) and by 23 % (HR 0.77; 95 % CI 0.59-0.99) in third and fourth quintile of vitamin C intake, respectively. In women, the third and fourth quintiles of dietary intake of vitamin E were associated with reduced risk of all-cause death by 33 % (HR 0.67; 95 % CI 0.53-0.84) and by 23 % (HR 0.77; 95 % CI 0.61-0.97), respectively. Consumption of vitamin C, vitamin E and beta-carotene was not related to CVD mortality in women and to cancer mortality in either gender.
This large prospective cohort study in CEE populations with low prevalence of vitamin supplementation did not find a strong, dose-response evidence for protective effects of antioxidant vitamin intake.
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Psychosocial factors at work are thought to influence health partly through health behaviours.
To examine the association between effort-reward imbalance and job control and several alcohol related measures in three eastern European populations.
A cross-sectional study was conducted in Novosibirsk (Russia), Krakow (Poland), and Karvina (Czech Republic). The participants completed a questionnaire that included effort-reward at work, job control, and a number of sociodemographic variables. Annual alcohol intake, annual number of drinking sessions, the mean dose of alcohol per drinking session, and binge drinking (> or =80 g of ethanol in one session at least once a week) were based on graduated frequencies in the questionnaire. Data were also available on problem drinking (> or =2 positive answers on CAGE questionnaire) and negative social consequences of drinking. All male participants in full employment (n = 694) were included in the present analyses.
After controlling for age and centre, all indices of alcohol consumption and problem drinking were associated with the effort-reward ratio. Adjustment for material deprivation did not change the results but adjustment for depressive symptoms reduced the estimated effects. Job control was not associated with any of the alcohol related outcomes.
The imbalance of effort-reward at work is associated with increased alcohol intake and problem drinking. The association appears to be partly mediated by depressive symptoms, which might be either an antecedent or a consequence of men's drinking behaviour.
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To assess differences in cognitive functions by year of birth in Russia and the Czech Republic.
A cross-sectional study in the general population of Novosibirsk (Russia) and 6 cities of the Czech Republic recruited random samples of men and women (3,874 Russians, 3,626 Czechs) aged 45-69 years in 2002 (i.e. born in 1933-1957). Word recall, verbal fluency (number of animals named in 1 min) and letter search were assessed in a clinic.
Except letter search in men, we found similar levels of cognitive functioning in Russians and Czechs in the youngest subjects and a steeper association of functioning with year of birth in Russia than in the Czech Republic. For example, the difference in the mean word recall, associated with 10 years difference in year of birth, was 0.9 (SE 0.06) words in Russian men, compared to 0.4 (0.06) words in Czech men; in women, these figures were 0.8 (0.05) and 0.3 (0.05), respectively. For all outcomes, except letter search in men, the interactions between year of birth and country were statistically highly significant, and the differences in the year of birth effects between countries were largely unexplained by socioeconomic indicators and risk factors.
The slope of association between lower cognitive functioning and earlier year of birth is much steeper in Russia than in the Czech Republic. Given that poor cognitive functioning is a risk factor for dementia, long-term follow-up of this cohort and other studies into population rates of cognitive impairment in Russia should be a priority.
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To investigate whether binge drinking pattern influences blood pressure independently from drinking volume or whether it modifies the effect of volume of drinking.
We used cross-sectional data from population samples of 7559 men and 7471 women aged 45-69 years in 2002-05, not on antihypertensive medication, from Russia, Poland and Czech Republic. Annual alcohol intake, drinking frequency and binge drinking (= 100 g in men and = 60 g in women in one session at least once a month) were estimated from graduated frequency questionnaire. Blood pressure was analysed as continuous variables (systolic and diastolic pressure) and a binary outcome (= 140/90 mm Hg).
In men, annual alcohol intake and drinking frequency were strongly associated with blood pressure. The odds ratio of high blood pressure for binge drinking in men was 1.62 (95% CI 1.45-1.82) after controlling for age, country, body mass index, education and smoking; additional adjustment for annual alcohol intake reduced it to 1.20 (1.03-1.39). In women, the fully adjusted odds ratio of high blood pressure for binge drinking was 1.31 (1.05-1.63). Binge drinking did not modify the effect of annual alcohol intake. Consuming alcohol as wine, beer or spirits had similar effects.
The results suggest that the independent long-term effect of binge drinking was modest, that binge drinking did not modify the effect of alcohol intake, and that different alcoholic beverages had similar effects on blood pressure.
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to analyze population values of blood lipid parameters in general populations of Russia, Poland and Czech Republic.
In the frame of international project HAPIEE representative samples of general population were examined in Novosibirsk (Russia), Krakow (Poland) and six centers in the Czech Republic. The analysis included data of 25,469 men and women aged 45-69 years old.
The average levels of total cholesterol (TC), non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were found relatively high in all centers, though average levels of blood triglycerides (TG) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) were within "normal" range. In Novosibirsk mean levels of blood TC and LDL-C in persons of both sexes were obtained the highest among the study participants: 6.3 mmol/ and 4.1 mmol/l, respectively (p
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate the importance of increased use of assisted reproduction technologies (ART) for the fertility trends in the Czech Republic. DATA AND METHODS: Comparative analysis based on demographic and ART data was used. Demographic data have been published by EUROSTAT and the Czech Statistical Office. ART data have collected by ESHRE. FINDINGS: In the 1990s a trend towards later childbearing contributed greatly to the decline in total fertility rate (TFR) in the Czech Republic. Recently, recuperation of delayed births has resulted in the increase of TFR to 1.5 children per woman which is considered to be a critical minimum level. The highest increase in fertility rates occurred in the age group of 35-39, in which the contribution of ART treatments usually is greatest. Moreover, a substantial increase of multiple births has been registered. In 2005 the estimated share of children born after ART in the Czech Republic (3%) was close to countries with the highest share (Nordic countries, Belgium or Slovenia). However, the Czech Republic registered only half the number of ART cycles per million inhabitants than in those countries. Contrary to Nordic countries the Czech Republic faced an extremely low TFR of 1.28 children per woman. As the estimation of average number of cycles suggests, the need for fertility treatment has not been met in the Czech Republic yet. Moreover, due to the continuous postponement of childbearing to higher women s age, demand for ART treatment will be even higher in the near future and will probably result in the need of more than 2 500 cycles per million inhabitants in the Czech Republic. CONCLUSIONS: Spreading of ART is particularly relevant in the countries caught in the low fertility trap as higher impact on fertility trends could be expected. In the Czech Republic there is a chance to get over the critical level of TFR if comprehensive population policy including the improved access to ART based on well-considered strategy with explicit aim to optimize the quality of health care was accepted. However, from the demographic perspective the risk of further delay of childbearing encouraged by ART treatment should be taken into account while making these decisions.