To investigate the adequacy of undergraduate ophthalmology education in Canada in comparison with the International Council of Ophthalmology (ICO) guidelines.
First-year residents who had graduated from Canadian medical schools.
Eligible residents were invited to participate in an online survey in 2007. Data were categorized by demographic variables, and basic statistics were done.
Responses were obtained from 386 of the 1425 individuals (27.0%) contacted. The majority (64.0%) stated they had "too little" or "no exposure" to ophthalmology in medical school. The majority (76.2%) of respondents stated that they had had 1 week or less of overall exposure to ophthalmology. Sufficient exposure to several ICO core subspecialty areas was reported, including lens/cataract (81.1%) and cornea/external diseases (81.6%); however, some areas did not receive adequate time allocation, such as vitreoretinal disease (41.9%). Similarly, competency was obtained in certain ICO examination skills, including assessment of visual acuity (83.3%) and pupillary reflexes (90.7%) but was not achieved for other skills, such as fundoscopy (52.3%), slit-lamp examination (44.8%), and intraocular pressure assessment (19.9%). When asked whether sufficient ophthalmology knowledge and skills had been obtained during medical school, only 42.9% and 25.9% agreed, respectively.
Undergraduate ophthalmology training in Canada contains gaps in certain key areas. Developing a national, standardized curriculum could ensure that medical students acquire competency in the ophthalmology knowledge and skills required for future clinical practice.
Comment In: Can J Ophthalmol. 2009 Oct;44(5):499-50119789578
To achieve the goal of adequately preparing graduating nurses for entry into practice, an undergraduate clinical nursing curriculum was enhanced by including an interventional radiology clinical rotation. The author describes the basics of this experience and the planning steps prior to implementation, including hospital approval, preceptor selection, and evaluation of the overall clinical experience.
Although it is important to assess the effectiveness of programs, courses, and teaching methods to ensure that goals are being achieved, it is very difficult to evaluate the impact of fundamental changes in a whole curriculum. This paper reviews measures that have been used in the past in dentistry and medicine for evaluating academic programs: curriculum guidelines; competency documents; discussion and focus groups; competency examinations; board examinations; oral comprehensive examinations; student, alumni, and patient satisfaction surveys; evaluation by instructors; and clinical productivity. We conclude that, since no standard method exists, several tools should be used to obtain a multidimensional assessment.
Significant differences in basic life support skills including cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation (CPR-D) were detected when nurses working in one Finnish and one Swedish hospital were tested using an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). The purpose of this study was to use OSCE test in assessing guideline based CPR-D skills of newly qualified nurses. The CPR-D skills of newly qualified registered nurses studying in Halmstad University (n = 30), Sweden, Helsinki Metropolia University of Applied Sciences (n = 30), and Finland were assessed using an OSCE which was built up with a case of cardiac arrest with ventricular fibrillation as the initial rhythm. The Angoff average, 32.47, was calculated as cutoff point to pass the test. Forty-seven percent of the students in the Swedish group (mean score 32.47/49, range 26-39, SD 3.76) and 13% of the students in the Finnish group (mean score 23.80/49, range 13-35, SD 4.32) passed the OSCE (P
Given the link between poverty and health, nurses, in their work in hospitals and in the community, often come into contact with people who are poor. To be effective care providers, nurses must have an adequate understanding of poverty and a positive attitude toward people who are poor. This study examined attitudes toward poverty among baccalaureate nursing students (N = 740) at three Canadian universities. Students' attitudes were neutral to slightly positive. Personal experiences appeared to have an important influence on the development of favorable attitudes. The findings point to several considerations for nursing curricula. Students should not only be provided with classroom opportunities for critical exploration of poverty and its negative effects on individuals and society, but also have clinical learning experiences that bring them face-to-face with people who are poor, their health concerns, and the realities of their circumstances. Thoughtful critique of poverty-related issues and interpersonal contact may be effective strategies to foster attitude change.
This study describes the basic biological and physiological knowledge and skills of graduating nurse students in Finland against the requirement of their being able to practice safely and effectively in intensive care. The study describes also their interest and willingness to work in intensive care. Measurements were based on the Basic Knowledge Assessment Tool (BKAT-5) developed by Toth in the United States. The sample consisted of 130 nursing students graduating in December 2001 and January 2002. The data were analysed statistically. The students were most knowledgeable in the areas of appropriate precautions, living will and medical calculation, followed by neurology and endocrinology. Scores were poorest for pulmonary, gastrointestinal and cardiovascular knowledge. Intensive care studies and the desire to work in intensive care correlated significantly with the respondents' basic intensive care knowledge. It is important for nursing education to concentrate on developing those areas of intensive care studies where the performance of students is weakest.
To determine the level of agreement among the Bone and Joint Decade Undergraduate Curriculum Group (BJDUCG) core curriculum recommendations for musculoskeletal (MSK) conditions targeted for undergraduate medical education and what the physicians and surgeons of Canada thought to be important at the postgraduate level of education.
An 80-item questionnaire was developed. A cross-sectional survey of educators representing 77 Canadian accredited academic programs representing 6 disciplines in medicine that manage patients with MSK conditions was completed. Histograms, Kruskal-Wallis, and principal component analyses were computed.
In total, 164/175 (94%) respondents participated in the study. All 80 curriculum items received a mean score of at least 3.0/4.0. Sixty-four out of 80 items were ranked to be at least 3.5/4.0, and 35 items were ranked to be at least 3.8/4.0, suggesting that these items may be core content for all disciplines.
The World Health Organization declared the years 2000 to 2010 as The Bone and Joint Decade. The main goal is to improve the quality of life for people with MSK disorders worldwide. One aim of the BJD is to increase education of healthcare providers at all levels. The BJDUCG established a set of core curriculum recommendations for MSK conditions. Our study gives reliable statistical evidence of agreement among what the BJDUCG recommended for an MSK core curriculum for medical schools and what the physicians and surgeons of Canada thought to be important for residency education in several disciplines.
To evaluate the adequacy of Canadian ophthalmology residency programs in achieving the competencies outlined by the International Council of Ophthalmology (ICO) and to assess residents' satisfaction with their training programs.
Canadian residents enrolled in the final 2 years of English and French ophthalmology programs, as well as recent graduates from 2005 to 2008.
Graduates and eligible residents were invited to participate in the 43-item survey during the autumn of 2008. Data were categorized by demographic variables, and basic statistics were done.
Of the 99 individuals surveyed, 40 (40%) responded, representing 26 current residents and 14 graduates. The vast majority (85%) of respondents were satisfied with their residency program. Clinic-based training was generally rated satisfactorily; however, respondents reported insufficient exposure to low-vision rehabilitation (77.5%), refraction and glasses prescription (65%), and neuro-ophthalmology (45%). Respondents were similarly satisfied with their surgical experiences, most of them (>60%) rating case volume, complexity, and variety as satisfactory or better. However, many stated that they had insufficient exposure to extracapsular cataract extraction (72.5%), refractive surgery (72.5%), and orbital surgery (57.5%). Of the graduates surveyed, all passed their Royal College licensing examinations on the first attempt and felt that residency adequately prepared them for the examinations. They reported insufficient training in certain nonclinical areas, such as practice management, and staffing and administration skills.
Canadian ophthalmology residents express high levels of satisfaction with their residency training programs. Although most programs appear to adequately address most ICO core objectives, certain curriculum modifications are required.