Given the high rates for substance use among women and men of childbearing age, perinatal and early childhood home-visiting programs serving tribal communities must consider how they will address substance-use problems among the families they support. In this study, we explored the approaches to identifying and addressing family-based substance-use problems that were implemented by nine home-visiting programs serving American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities that are funded through the federal Tribal Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program (Tribal MIECHV). These programs demonstrated a high awareness of substance-use problems and took concrete action to address them above and beyond that included in the home-visiting model they used. All nine programs reported that they provided substance-use preventive services and screened for substance-use problems. While all programs referred to substance-use treatment programs when needed, in six programs the home visitor provided substance-use services. Through Tribal MIECHV, the intense need for substance-use education, assessment, service delivery, and referral in many AI/AN communities is pushing the home-visiting field forward to address this increasingly critical issue for low-income families across the United States and the world.
Indigenous Americans (i.e., Native/American Indians, AK natives, Pacific Islanders) have consistently volunteered for military service at greater rates than any other ethnic group, including the majority culture, since the early days of the country. This article is an introduction to the special section which includes a number of outstanding papers that provide an innovative and compelling effort to overcome the challenges of casualties from war and render effective and culturally informed care. These manuscripts describe culturally appropriate considerations of suicide (O'Keefe), family involvement and access to care (Whealin), and telehealth for treatment of rural Native veterans (Goss). Challenging and complex treatment needs call for equally mindful and competent approaches. These authors and providers present compelling examples of addressing these needs in working with our Wounded Warriors. (PsycINFO Database Record
The research that underlies evidence-based practices is often based on relatively homogenous study samples, thus limiting our ability to understand how the study findings apply in new situations as well as our understanding of what might need to be adapted. In a preliminary effort to address those gaps, the requirements for the Tribal Maternal Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program (MIECHV) included the expectation that grantees design and implement rigorous evaluations to address local priorities and to help build the knowledge base regarding the use of evidence-based home-visiting programs in tribal communities. A priority that emerged across many Tribal MIECHV grantees was to determine the added benefit of the cultural adaptations that they were making to their home-visiting programs. While there is literature to describe recommended processes for making cultural adaptations to evidence-based programs themselves, there are very few guidelines for evaluating these adaptations. In this article, we review the varied evaluation approaches utilized by Tribal MIECHV grantees and provide three case examples of how evaluators and tribal communities worked together to articulate evaluation questions and choose appropriate and feasible evaluation designs. The lessons derived from these Tribal MIECHV evaluation experiences have implications for the role of the evaluator in diverse communities across the country evaluating home visiting and other evidence-based practices in settings characterized by unique cultural contexts.
This paper may be beneficial for those family members who are seriously thinking about placing an elder relative into a nursing home, assisted living facility, pioneer's home or long term care facility. Family members would want to know that they are placing a loved one into the hands of a culturally competent facility and work force. Policy makers and administrators could equally benefit from knowing
more about cultural and historical trauma among those who are or about to be placed into long-term care facilities. This knowledge can translate into
easing institutional care for elders who may have experienced trauma in their youth. These traumas will be identified and discussed for inclusion in a
facility's in-take needs assessment.
A growing body of research indicates that cross-cultural competence in nurses can improve migrant patients' health-related outcomes, but little is known about the potential benefits of cross-cultural competence on the nurses' own well-being.
To examine whether cross-cultural competence (empathy, skills, positive attitudes, and motivation) is associated with perceived time pressure at work, psychological distress, and sleep problems among registered nurses in Finland, and whether there are differences in these potential associations between native and foreign-born nurses.
The present cross-sectional study was based on a sample of 212 foreign-born nurses licensed to practice in Finland and a random sample of 744 native Finnish nurses. Data were collected with a questionnaire and analyzed using multiple linear regression and structural equation modeling (SEM).
Of all four dimensions of cross-cultural competence, only empathy was associated with perceived time pressure (ß = -0.13, p = .018), distress (ß = -0.23, p .05).
Cross-cultural empathy may protect against perceived time pressure, distress, and sleep problems in both native and foreign-born nurses. Thus, the promotion of this component of cross-cultural competence among nursing personnel should be encouraged.
In 2006 the overall rates of instrumental deliveries (10%) and cesarean sections (CS) (20%) were high in our unit. We decided to improve quality of care by offering more women a safe and attractive normal vaginal delivery. The target group was primarily nulliparous women at term with spontaneous onset of labor and cephalic presentation.
Implementation of a "nine-item list" of structured organizational and cultural change in Linköping 2006-15. The nine items include monitoring of obstetric results, recruitment of a midwife coordinator, risk classification of women, introduction of three different midwife competence levels, improved teamwork, obstetrical morning round, fetal monitoring skills, obstetrical skills training, and public promotion of the strategy.
The CS rate in nulliparous women at term with spontaneous onset of labor decreased from 10% in 2006 to 3% in 2015. During the same period the overall CS rate dropped from 20% to 11%. The prevalence of children born at the unit with umbilical cord pH
Violence against women is associated with serious health problems, including adverse maternal and child health. Antenatal care (ANC) midwives are increasingly expected to implement the routine of identifying exposure to violence. An increase of Somali born refugee women in Sweden, their reported adverse childbearing health and possible links to violence pose a challenge to the Swedish maternity health care system. Thus, the aim was to explore ways ANC midwives in Sweden work with Somali born women and the questions of exposure to violence.
Qualitative individual interviews with 17 midwives working with Somali-born women in nine ANC clinics in Sweden were analyzed using thematic analysis.
The midwives strived to focus on the individual woman beyond ethnicity and cultural differences. In relation to the Somali born women, they navigated between different definitions of violence, ways of handling adversities in life and social contexts, guided by experience based knowledge and collegial support. Seldom was ongoing violence encountered. The Somali-born women's' strengths and contentment were highlighted, however, language skills were considered central for a Somali-born woman's access to rights and support in the Swedish society. Shared language, trustful relationships, patience, and networking were important aspects in the work with violence among Somali-born women.
Focus on the individual woman and skills in inter-cultural communication increases possibilities of overcoming social distances. This enhances midwives' ability to identify Somali born woman's resources and needs regarding violence disclosure and support. Although routine use of professional interpretation is implemented, it might not fully provide nuances and social safety needed for violence disclosure. Thus, patience and trusting relationships are fundamental in work with violence among Somali born women. In collaboration with social networks and other health care and social work professions, the midwife can be a bridge and contribute to increased awareness of rights and support for Somali-born women in a new society.
The goal of this current descriptive study was to examine the roles and relationships of evaluators with the tribal communities in which they work. First, we describe a participatory community research model with a strong capacity-building component as the standard for assessing successful working partnerships between evaluators, programs, tribes, and tribal organizations. This model serves as a yardstick against which we examine the success and challenges of program-evaluation partnerships. Second, we report on a survey of tribal Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting program leaders and outline their impressions of successes and challenges related to program-evaluation partnerships. Survey participants discussed the importance of working with evaluators who have deep investment in and understanding of the tribal community; respect for cultural relevance and honor for cultural ways; collaboration that includes transparency, trust, and translation of research for community leaders and members; a focus on strength-based design without losing the need to consider challenges; and relationships of mutual trust that can weather addressing stressors when issues of conflict, limited resources, and/or mixed expectations arise.
Research shows that nurses tend to be lacking cultural competence, which may influence treatment and care for ethnic minority patients negatively.
To investigate how Medical Unit nurses and Psychiatric Unit nurses assess their own competency concerning patients with minority backgrounds. The topics covered are: intercultural knowledge, knowledge of medical traditions and differences in illness etiology, symptom assessment, and in-service education and availability of advice. These topics are seen in relation to the nurses' years of work experience.
Three focus group interviews were conducted before the development of a Likert-type questionnaire containing six topics and a total of 35 statements. 145 Medical Unit nurses (90%) and 100 Psychiatric Unit nurses (81%) returned the questionnaire. SPSS was used to analyze the quantitative data; hermeneutic thematic analysis was used for the qualitative data.
Both the Medical Unit nurses and the Psychiatric Unit nurses indicated that knowledge about illness and treatment philosophies other than Western biomedicine was inadequate. The respondents also found symptom assessment difficult, and they were offered little, if any, in-service education. Work experience added little substantive knowledge.
Experience alone does not equip nurses with adequate knowledge for intercultural symptom assessment and culturally competent treatment and care. Formal education, in-service classes, courses, feedback and access to relevant information are needed together with reflection upon clinical practice.