Skip header and navigation

Refine By

5 records – page 1 of 1.

An IC-PCR method for detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in natural surface waters in Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature190044
Source
J Microbiol Methods. 2002 Aug;50(3):299-303
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2002
Author
Ruska Rimhanen-Finne
Ari Hörman
Pilvi Ronkainen
Marja Liisa Hänninen
Author Affiliation
Department of Food and Environmental Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, P.O. Box 57, 00014 University of Helsinki, Finland. Ruska.rimhanen@helsinki.fi
Source
J Microbiol Methods. 2002 Aug;50(3):299-303
Date
Aug-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Cryptosporidium parvum - genetics - immunology - isolation & purification
Finland
Fresh Water - microbiology
Giardia lamblia - genetics - immunology - isolation & purification
Humans
Immunomagnetic Separation - methods
Oocytes - immunology
Polymerase Chain Reaction - methods
Water Microbiology
Abstract
We developed an immunocapture-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for simultaneous detection of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and Giardia intestinalis cysts in surface water. Using primer pairs Cry9/Cry15 and LaxA/LaxB for Cryptosporidium and Gdh1/Gdh4 for Giardia, the sensitivity of the entire detection procedure (dealing with concentration, separation, DNA purification and PCR amplification) was at the level of 50-100 oocysts and cysts. Of 54 surface water samples, 4 were positive for Cryptosporidium and 1 for Giardia. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were detected for the first time in surface water in Finland.
PubMed ID
12031580 View in PubMed
Less detail

Molecular epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis outbreaks and transmission in British Columbia, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature201260
Source
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1999 Jul;61(1):63-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1999
Author
C S Ong
D L Eisler
S H Goh
J. Tomblin
F M Awad-El-Kariem
C B Beard
L. Xiao
I. Sulaiman
A. Lal
M. Fyfe
A. King
W R Bowie
J L Isaac-Renton
Author Affiliation
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
Source
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1999 Jul;61(1):63-9
Date
Jul-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Antibodies, Monoclonal
British Columbia - epidemiology
Cryptosporidiosis - epidemiology - genetics - transmission
Cryptosporidium parvum - genetics
DNA Primers - chemistry
DNA, Helminth - chemistry
Disease Outbreaks
Electrophoresis, Agar Gel
Feces - parasitology
Fluorescent Antibody Technique
Humans
Microscopy, Fluorescence
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Polymorphism, Genetic - genetics
Water Microbiology
Abstract
Isolates from 25 (13 sporadic and 12 outbreak) cryptosporidiosis cases, 24 of which were from British Columbia, Canada, were characterized using nested polymerase chain reaction amplification of the polymorphic internal transcribed spacer 1 locus. Two predominant Cryptosporidium parvum genotypes were found. Twelve (8 sporadic and 4 outbreak) isolates amplified with the cry7/cry21 primer pair and 12 (5 sporadic and 7 outbreak) isolates amplified with the cry7/cryITS1 primer pair. Multi-locus gene analysis using sequence polymorphisms on 3 other loci, i.e., the thrombospondin-related adhesion protein gene, the dihydrofolate reductase gene, and the 18S rRNA gene on 8 (4 outbreak and 4 sporadic) isolates showed non-random association among the human and animal alleles of the 4 different C. parvum gene loci. Associations between these 2 parasite genotypes and different routes of cryptosporidiosis transmission such as zoonotic, anthroponotic, and waterborne transmission were studied using municipal population and agricultural information, as well as detection of C. parvum oocysts in municipal drinking water specimens of the residential communities of sporadic and outbreak cases.
PubMed ID
10432058 View in PubMed
Less detail

Molecular typing of Cryptosporidium parvum associated with a diarrhoea outbreak identifies two sources of exposure.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature93958
Source
Epidemiol Infect. 2008 Aug;136(8):1147-52
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2008
Author
Mattsson J G
Insulander M.
Lebbad M.
Björkman C.
Svenungsson B.
Author Affiliation
Department of Parasitology (SWEPAR), National Veterinary Institute and Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
Source
Epidemiol Infect. 2008 Aug;136(8):1147-52
Date
Aug-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Child, Preschool
Cryptosporidium parvum - genetics - isolation & purification
DNA, Protozoan - genetics
Diarrhea - parasitology
Disease Outbreaks
Feces - parasitology
Humans
Microsatellite Repeats
Oocysts
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Sweden - epidemiology
Swimming Pools
Abstract
An outbreak of cryptosporidiosis associated with exposure to outdoor swimming-pool water affected an estimated 800-1000 individuals. PCR products were obtained from faecal specimens from 30 individuals who tested positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts. RFLP and sequencing analyses showed that all individuals were infected with Cryptosporidium parvum. Among the infected individuals, five had just swum in an adjacent indoor pool during the same period, and had no identified contact with individuals linked to the outdoor pool. With the use of subgenotyping based on analysis of three mini- and microsatellite loci, MS1, TP14, and GP15, we could identify two sources of exposure. One subtype was associated with the outdoor pool and another with the indoor pool. These data demonstrate that the use of mini- and microsatellite loci as markers for molecular fingerprinting of C. parvum isolates are valuable in the epidemiological investigation of outbreaks.
PubMed ID
17961283 View in PubMed
Less detail

Second outbreak of infection with a rare Cryptosporidium parvum genotype in schoolchildren associated with contact with lambs/goat kids at a holiday farm in Norway.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature256921
Source
Epidemiol Infect. 2014 Oct;142(10):2105-13
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2014
Author
H. Lange
O H Johansen
L. Vold
L J Robertson
I L Anthonisen
K. Nygard
Author Affiliation
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology,Norwegian Institute of Public Health,Oslo,Norway.
Source
Epidemiol Infect. 2014 Oct;142(10):2105-13
Date
Oct-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Animals
Child
Cohort Studies
Cryptosporidiosis - epidemiology - transmission - veterinary
Cryptosporidium parvum - genetics
Disease Outbreaks
Feces - parasitology
Female
Genotype
Goat Diseases - epidemiology - transmission
Goats
Holidays
Humans
Male
Norway - epidemiology
Sheep
Sheep Diseases - epidemiology - transmission
Abstract
In March 2012, a second outbreak of Cryptosporidium parvum affected children following a stay at a holiday farm in Norway; the first outbreak occurred in 2009. We studied a cohort of 145 schoolchildren who had visited the farm, of which 40 (28%) were cases. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in faecal samples from humans, goat kids and lambs. Molecular studies revealed C. parvum subtype IIa A19G1R1 in all samples including human samples from the 2009 outbreak. A dose-response relationship was found between the number of optional sessions with animals and illness, increasing from two sessions [risk ratio (RR) 2·7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·6-11·5] to six sessions (RR 8·0, 95% CI 1·7-37·7). The occurrence of two outbreaks 3 years apart, with the same subtype of C. parvum, suggests that the parasite is established in the farm's environment. We recommend greater emphasis on hand hygiene and routines related to animal contact.
PubMed ID
24308502 View in PubMed
Less detail

Symptomatic and asymptomatic secondary transmission of Cryptosporidium parvum following two related outbreaks in schoolchildren.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature264266
Source
Epidemiol Infect. 2015 Jun;143(8):1702-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2015
Author
Ø H Johansen
K. Hanevik
F. Thrana
A. Carlson
T. Stachurska-Hagen
D. Skaare
L J Robertson
Source
Epidemiol Infect. 2015 Jun;143(8):1702-9
Date
Jun-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Asymptomatic Infections
Child
Cryptosporidiosis - epidemiology - transmission
Cryptosporidium parvum - genetics
Disease Outbreaks
Feces - parasitology
Female
Fluorescent Antibody Technique
Humans
Male
Norway - epidemiology
Protozoan Proteins - genetics
Abstract
Two related outbreaks (in 2009 and 2012) of cryptosporidiosis in Norwegian schoolchildren during a stay at a remote holiday farm provided us with a natural experiment to investigate possible secondary transmission of Cryptosporidium parvum IIa A19G1R1. After the children had returned home, clinical data and stool samples were obtained from their household contacts. Samples were investigated for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts by immunofluorescence antibody test. We found both asymptomatic and symptomatic infections, which are likely to have been secondary transmission. Laboratory-confirmed transmission rate was 17% [4/23, 95% confidence interval (CI) 7·0-37·1] in the 2009 outbreak, and 0% (95% CI 0-16·8) in the 2012 outbreak. Using a clinical definition, the probable secondary transmission rate in the 2012 outbreak was 8% (7/83, 95% CI 4·1-16·4). These findings highlight the importance of hygienic and public health measures during outbreaks or individual cases of cryptosporidiosis. We discuss our findings in light of previous studies reporting varying secondary transmission rates of Cryptosporidium spp.
Notes
Cites: Clin Infect Dis. 2001 Aug 1;33(3):280-811438890
Cites: J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2002 Nov-Dec;49(6):433-4012503676
Cites: Emerg Infect Dis. 2004 Jul;10(7):1241-915324544
Cites: Pediatr Infect Dis. 1986 Sep-Oct;5(5):528-323763417
Cites: Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1987 Mar;36(2):338-423826492
Cites: Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1987 Jun;6(6):532-53615068
Cites: Ann Intern Med. 1994 Mar 15;120(6):500-58311373
Cites: Ann Intern Med. 1994 Sep 15;121(6):467-88053626
Cites: Clin Infect Dis. 1995 Jul;21(1):57-627578760
Cites: J Infect Dis. 1996 Jan;173(1):232-68537664
Cites: Stat Med. 1998 Apr 30;17(8):873-909595617
Cites: Scand J Infect Dis. 2005;37(5):354-6016051572
Cites: J Clin Microbiol. 2005 Aug;43(8):3636-4116081890
Cites: Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006 Mar;72(3):2218-2016517675
Cites: Scand J Infect Dis. 2006;38(9):810-316938738
Cites: Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2007 Apr;101(4):378-8416934303
Cites: BMC Infect Dis. 2008;8:15218976495
Cites: Exp Parasitol. 2010 Jan;124(1):80-919358845
Cites: Scand J Public Health. 2011 May;39(3):287-9521321048
Cites: Clin Infect Dis. 2012 May;54(9):1275-8622412058
Cites: Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2012 Jul;31(7):1501-922057365
Cites: Lancet. 2013 Jul 20;382(9888):209-2223680352
Cites: Res Vet Sci. 2014 Apr;96(2):311-424480390
Cites: Epidemiol Infect. 2014 Oct;142(10):2105-1324308502
PubMed ID
25268811 View in PubMed
Less detail