Alaska Medical Library - From: Fortuine, Robert et al. 1993. The Health of the Inuit of North America: A Bibliography from the Earliest Times through 1990. University of Alaska Anchorage. Citation number 2610.
Most patients with symptomatic acute myocardial infarction (AMI), the leading cause of death in western industrialized nations, use the emergency department (ED) as their point of entry. Yet, one identified barrier to early recognition of patients with AMI is ED overcrowding. In this paper, the author presents a quality improvement model that applies Lean Six Sigma guidelines to the clinical setting.
It has been suggested that household crowding may constitute an environmental risk factor for schizophrenia. The present population-based cohort study explores the associations of childhood family size and living conditions to schizophrenia.
The cohort comprised people born at Helsinki University Central Hospital from 1924 to 1933, who went to school in the city and were still living in Finland in 1971. Prospectively gathered data from birth and school health records of these 7086 individuals were collected and linked to the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register.
Ninety-eight cases of schizophrenia were identified in the cohort. Number of siblings at school start was significantly associated with schizophrenia when adjusted for sex and age of mother. Number of siblings was negatively correlated with body mass index at age 7. Childhood household crowding, defined as number of people per room, and total number of rooms in household were not significantly associated with schizophrenia.
Our study indicates that the total number siblings in household during childhood is of greater importance than childhood number of inhabitants per room. Subjects who originated from families with many children had been leaner, which may imply that childhood nutritional factors partly is the mediating factor between number of siblings and schizophrenia. Other possible underlying mechanisms of the associations found include infectious and psychological factors.
We sought to determine the perceptions of physicians staffing rural emergency departments (EDs) in southwestern Ontario with respect to factors affecting patient care in the domains of physical resources, available support and education.
A confidential 30-item survey was distributed through ED chiefs to physicians working in rural EDs in southwestern Ontario. Using a 5-point Likert scale, physicians were asked to rate their perception of factors that affect patient care in their ED. Demographic and practice characteristics were collected to accurately represent the participating centres and physicians.
Twenty-seven of the 164 surveys distributed were completed (16% response rate). Responses were received from 13 (81.3%) of the 16 surveyed EDs. Most of the respondents (78%) held CCFP (Certificant of the College of Family Physicians) credentials, with no additional emergency medicine training. Crowding from inpatient boarding, and inadequate physician staffing or coverage in EDs were identified as having a negative impact on patient care. Information sharing within the hospital, access to emergent laboratory studies and physician access to medications in the ED were identified as having the greatest positive impact on patient care. Respondents viewed all questions in the domain of education as either positive or neutral.
Our survey results reveal that physicians practising emergency medicine in southwestern Ontario perceive crowding as the greatest barrier to providing patient care. Conversely, the survey identified that rural ED physicians perceive information sharing within the hospital, the availability of emergent laboratory studies and access to medications within the ED as having a strongly positive impact on patient care. Interestingly, our findings suggest that physicians in rural EDs view their access to education as adequate, as responses were either positive or neutral in regard to access to training and ability to maintain relevant skills.
Emergency department (ED) overcrowding continues to be a well-publicized problem in a number of countries. In British Columbia, a province in Canada, an ED pay-for-performance (ED P4P) program was initiated in 2007 to create financial incentives for hospitals to reduce patients' ED length of stay (ED LOS). This study's objectives are to determine if the ED P4P program is associated with decreases in ED LOS, and to address the ED P4P program's limitations.
We analyze monthly hospital-level ED LOS time data since the inception of the financial incentives. Since the ED P4P program was phased in at different hospitals from different health authorities over time, hospitals' data from only two regional health authorities are included in the study.
We find association between the implementation of ED P4P and ED LOS time data. However, due to the lack of control data, the findings cannot demonstrate causality. Furthermore, our findings are from hospitals in the greater Vancouver area only.
BC's ED P4P was introduced to create incentives for hospitals to reduce ED LOS by providing incremental incentive funding. Available data indicate that the ED P4P program is associated with mixed successes in reducing ED LOS among participating hospitals.
Burrows dug by albino rats were compared with those of wild Norway rats in an outdoor pen and in observation chambers in the laboratory. Burrows, in terms of measurements, configurations, or sequential development, were indistinguishable in wild and domestic rats. Burrowing for both wild and domestic rats was unaffected by raising in outdoor burrows, by availability of nesting material, or by pregnancy. Prior experience in burrowing did make it more efficient in a second trial, which suggests that learning may have a limited role in what appears to be a behavior with a strong genetic basis. Feralization of domestic rats in the outdoor pen was especially productive in answering claims of degeneracy in these animals: Albino rats were hardy throughout climatic extremes, they maintained a stable population for two years, they constructed and lived in burrows, and they showed a vaiety of wild-type behaviors.
The trend toward operating Canadian hospitals at full capacity necessitates in some settings the transfer of patients from one hospital's emergency department (ED) to another hospital for admission, due to lack of bed availability at the first hospital. Our objectives were to determine how many and which patients are transported, to measure how much time is spent in the peri-transport process and to document any morbidity or mortality associated with these periods of transitional care.
In this retrospective, observational health records review, we obtained health records during February, June and October 2002 for patients evaluated in any 1 of 3 adult EDs from a single Canadian city and subsequently transferred for admission to 1 of the other 2 hospitals. Data included the reason for transport, admitting service, transport process times and administration of key medications (asthma, cardiac, diabetes, analgesic or antibiotics).
Five hundred and thirteen records of transported patients were reviewed, and 507 were evaluated. Of those, 372 (73.4%) transfers were capacity-related and 135 (26.6%) were transferred for specialty services. Of the capacity transports, 219 (58.9%) were admissions for psychiatry and 123 (33.1%) for medicine. Median wait time at the first hospital was 6.7 hours, being longest for psychiatric patients. Thirty patients (8.1%) missed 1 or more doses of a key medication in the peri-transport process, and 8 (2.2%) missed 2 or more.
Overcrowding of hospitals is a significant problem in many Canadian EDs, resulting in measurable increases in lengths of stay. Transfers arranged to other facilities for admission further prolong lengths of stay. Increased boarding times can result in missed medications, which may increase patient morbidity. Further study is needed to assess the need for capacity transfers and the possible risk to patients associated with periods of transitional care.
To examine whether catch-up growth during childhood modifies the increased risk of death from coronary heart disease that is associated with reduced intrauterine growth.
Follow up study of men whose body size at birth was recorded and who had an average of 10 measurements taken of their height and weight through childhood.
3641 men who were born in Helsinki University Central Hospital during 1924-33 and who went to school in Helsinki.
Hazard ratios for death from coronary heart disease.
Death from coronary heart disease was associated with low birth weight and, more strongly, with a low ponderal index at birth. Men who died from coronary heart disease had an above average body mass index at all ages from 7 to 15 years. In a simultaneous regression the hazard ratio for death from the disease increased by 14% (95% confidence interval 8% to 19%; P
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