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Changes in CHD "risk factors" and cerebrovascular death rates in Iceland 1967-1984.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature55526
Source
Pages 466-468 in H. Linderholm et al., eds. Circumpolar Health 87. Proceedings of the Seventh International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Umeå, Sweden, 1987. Arctic Medical Research. 1988;47 Supp 1.
Publication Type
Article
Date
1988
  1 document  
Author
Olafsson, O.
Sigfússon, N.
Sigfusson, N.
Davidsson, D.
Björnsson, O.J.
Bjornsson, O.J.
Author Affiliation
The Icelandic Heart Preventive Clinic and Directorate, General of Public Health in Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland
Source
Pages 466-468 in H. Linderholm et al., eds. Circumpolar Health 87. Proceedings of the Seventh International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Umeå, Sweden, 1987. Arctic Medical Research. 1988;47 Supp 1.
Date
1988
Language
English
Geographic Location
Iceland
Publication Type
Article
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
Alaska Medical Library
Keywords
Cerebrovascular Disorders - mortality
Coronary Disease - mortality
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Humans
Hypertension - mortality
Iceland - epidemiology
Incidence
Male
Risk factors
PubMed ID
3272663 View in PubMed
Documents
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[Evaluation of thromboprophylactic therapy at Landspítali - The National University Hospital of Iceland; a cross-sectional study on acute wards].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature123914
Source
Laeknabladid. 2012 Jun;98(6):341-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2012
Author
Hallgerdur Lind Kristjansdottir
Gudny Stella Gudnadottir
Sigridur Bara Fjalldal
Hulda Rosa Thorarinsdottir
Agnar Bjarnason
Oskar Einarsson
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, Landspitali - University Hospital. hallgerdur.lind@gmail.com
Source
Laeknabladid. 2012 Jun;98(6):341-6
Date
Jun-2012
Language
Icelandic
Geographic Location
Iceland
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Fibrinolytic Agents - administration & dosage
Guideline Adherence
Hospital Units
Hospitals, University - standards
Humans
Iceland
Male
Middle Aged
Patient Safety
Physician's Practice Patterns - standards
Practice Guidelines as Topic
Treatment Outcome
Venous Thromboembolism - prevention & control
Abstract
Venous thromboembolic disease is a serious and often fatal complication following hospital admission. Studies show that thromboprophylactic therapy for this condition is often underutilized. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of thromboprophylactic therapy at Landspítali - The University Hospital of Iceland in adult patients admitted to acute wards.
On 2 December 2009 hospital charts of admitted patients on acute wards were reviewed and assessed for appropriate thromboprophylactic treatment according to the 2008 guidelines from The American College of Chest Physicians. The results were compared to those of other countries from the multinational Endorse study from 2008.
251 patient were included of whom 47% were considered at risk for venous thromboembolic disease. Of those 57% received appropriate thromboprophylactic treatment or 78% of surgical and 26% of medical patients.
Adherence to clinical guidelines for thromboprophylactic treatment at surgical wards of Landspítali - The National University Hospital of Iceland was good and well above the average compared to the results of the Endorse study. Performance on the medical wards was on the other hand below average. Our results show that application of thromoboprophylactic treatment at Landspítali could be improved and thereby enhance patient safety.
PubMed ID
22647441 View in PubMed
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Gatekeeping and referrals to cardiologists: general practitioners' views on interactive communications.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature114557
Source
Scand J Prim Health Care. 2013 Jun;31(2):79-82
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2013
Author
Steinar Bjornsson
Johann A Sigurdsson
Alma Eir Svavarsdottir
Gunnar Helgi Gudmundsson
Author Affiliation
Efstaleiti Primary Health Care Centre, Reykjavik, Iceland. steinarbjorns@gmail.com
Source
Scand J Prim Health Care. 2013 Jun;31(2):79-82
Date
Jun-2013
Language
English
Geographic Location
Iceland
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Attitude of Health Personnel
Cardiology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Family Practice
Female
Gatekeeping - standards
Humans
Iceland
Interdisciplinary Communication
Male
Middle Aged
Questionnaires
Rural Population
Urban Population
Abstract
Referrals to specialists have not been compulsory in Iceland since 1984. In 2006, referrals were again required for patients to receive reimbursement for part of the cost of appointments with cardiologists. The aim of this study was to explore GPs' attitudes to the referral system and possible professional gain by interactive communications.
Cross-sectional questionnaire survey. SETTING, SUBJECTS, AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: This is part of a larger study in 2007 on referrals from GPs to cardiologists. A questionnaire was sent to all working GPs in Iceland (n = 201 and responsible for 307 000 inhabitants) regarding the referral process, reasons for referrals, how often a response letter was received, and GPs' attitudes to the referral system. Responses from doctors working in rural areas were compared with those working in Reykjavik and nearby urban areas.
The response rate was 63% (126 answers). The mean age of participants was 51; 89% were GP specialists and 60% worked in Reykjavik and nearby urban areas. Almost all respondents (98%) thought that report letters from cardiologists were helpful; 64% (95% confidence interval 53-73) thought that the recently introduced referral system did increase useful information that was beneficial to their patients. There was a statistically significant difference between colleagues working in rural areas and those working in Reykjavik and nearby urban areas regarding several aspects of the referral process.
A referral system increases the flow of information and mutual communications between general practitioners and specialists to the benefit of the patients. The geographical location of the health care centre may be of importance regarding the value of the referrals.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23607368 View in PubMed
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The impact of economic factors on migration considerations among Icelandic specialist doctors: a cross-sectional study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature105568
Source
BMC Health Serv Res. 2013;13:524
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Ingunn Bjarnadóttir Solberg
Kristinn Tómasson
Olaf Aasland
Reidar Tyssen
Author Affiliation
Department of Behavioural Sciences in Medicine, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, P,O,B, 1111 Blindern, 0317 Oslo, Norway. i.b.solberg@studmed.uio.no.
Source
BMC Health Serv Res. 2013;13:524
Date
2013
Language
English
Geographic Location
Iceland
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Attitude of Health Personnel
Cost Control - economics
Cross-Sectional Studies
Data Collection
Economic Recession - statistics & numerical data
Emigration and Immigration - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Iceland - epidemiology
Job Satisfaction
Male
Medicine - statistics & numerical data
Middle Aged
Physicians - economics - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Globalization has facilitated the employability of doctors almost anywhere in the world. In recent years, the migration of doctors seems to have increased. However, we lack studies on doctors' migration from developed countries. Because the economic recession experienced by many countries might have affected the migration of doctors, research on this topic is important for the retention of doctors. Iceland was hit hard by the economic recession in 2008. Therefore, we want to explore how many specialist doctors in Iceland have considered migrating and whether economic factors at work and in private life, such as extensive cost-containment initiatives at work and worries about personal finances, are related to doctors' migration considerations.
In 2010, all doctors in Iceland registered with the Icelandic Medical Association were sent an electronic cross-sectional survey by email. The 467 specialists who participated in this study represent 55% of all specialist doctors working in Iceland. Information on doctors' contemplation of migration was available from responses to the question: "Have you considered moving and working abroad?" The predictor variables in our logistic regression model are perceived cost-containment initiatives at work, stress related to personal finances, experience of working abroad during vacations, job dissatisfaction, job position, age, and gender.
Sixty-three per cent of Iceland's specialist doctors had considered relocation abroad, 4% were moving in the next year or two, and 33% had not considered relocating. Logistic regression analysis shows that, controlling for age, gender, job position, job satisfaction, and experience of working abroad during vacations, doctors' migration considerations were significantly affected by their experiences of cost-containment initiatives at work (odds ratio (OR)?=?2.0, p?
Notes
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PubMed ID
24350577 View in PubMed
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[Medication use among community-dwelling older Icelanders. Population-based study in urban and rural areas].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature129175
Source
Laeknabladid. 2011 Dec;97(12):675-80
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2011
Author
Arun K Sigurdardottir
Solveig Asa Arnadottir
Elín Díanna Gunnarsdottir
Author Affiliation
arun@unak.is
Source
Laeknabladid. 2011 Dec;97(12):675-80
Date
Dec-2011
Language
Icelandic
Geographic Location
Iceland
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Cross-Sectional Studies
Drug Therapy - statistics & numerical data
Female
Health Behavior
Health Care Surveys
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Humans
Iceland
Independent Living - statistics & numerical data
Male
Polypharmacy
Prescription Drugs - therapeutic use
Questionnaires
Registries
Rural Population - statistics & numerical data
Sex Factors
Urban Population - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
To describe medication use among older community-dwelling Icelanders by collecting information on number of medicine, polypharmacy (>5 medications), and medications by ATC categories. Moreover, to explore the relationship between medication use and various influential factors emphasizing residency in urban and rural areas.
Population-based, cross-sectional study. Participants were randomly selected from the National registry in one urban (n=118) and two rural (n=68) areas.
1) = 65 years old, 2) community-dwelling, 3) able to communicate verbally. Information on medication use was obtained from each person's medication list and interviews. A questionnaire and five standardized instruments were used to assess the potential influencing factors.
On average, participants used 3.9 medications and prevalence of polypharmacy was 41%. Men used 3.5 medications on average and women 4.4 (p=0.018). Compared to rural residents, urban residents had fewer medical diagnoses, better mobility, less pain, and fewer depressive symptoms. By controlling for the effects of these variables, more medications were associated with urban living (p
PubMed ID
22133526 View in PubMed
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[Prevalence of respiratory symptoms and use of asthma drugs are increasing among young adult Icelanders].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature131374
Source
Laeknabladid. 2011 Sep;97(9):463-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2011
Author
Stefan Sigurkarlsson
Michael Clausen
Thorarinn Gislason
David Gislason
Source
Laeknabladid. 2011 Sep;97(9):463-7
Date
Sep-2011
Language
Icelandic
Geographic Location
Iceland
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Anti-Asthmatic Agents - therapeutic use
Asthma - drug therapy - epidemiology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Drug Utilization
Female
Humans
Iceland
Male
Physician's Practice Patterns
Prevalence
Questionnaires
Time Factors
Treatment Outcome
Young Adult
Abstract
In the year 1990 the European Community Respiratory Health Survey I (ECRHS I) demonstrated that the prevalence of these diseases was lowest in Iceland (www.ecrhs.org). In order to compare the prevalence of respiratory symptoms in Reykjavik over time, a new identical cross-sectional study was performed seventeen years later.
Both cohorts, were in the age group 20-44 years and randomly selected from the population in Reykjavik and suburbs. Both answered questionnaires about respiratory symptoms, nasal allergy and use of anti-asthmatic drugs. The second cohort was part of the EuroPrevall study (www.europrevall.org) performed in 2007.
Response rate was lower in 2007 (999 or 43.2%) than in 1990 (2.903 or 80.6%).The prevalence of attacks of asthma increased over time from 2.2% to 6.7% (p
PubMed ID
21911911 View in PubMed
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Retinopathy in old persons with and without diabetes mellitus: the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility--Reykjavik Study (AGES-R).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature129163
Source
Diabetologia. 2012 Mar;55(3):671-80
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2012
Author
E. Gunnlaugsdottir
S. Halldorsdottir
R. Klein
G. Eiriksdottir
B E Klein
R. Benediktsson
T B Harris
L J Launer
T. Aspelund
V. Gudnason
M F Cotch
F. Jonasson
Author Affiliation
University Eye Department, Landspitalinn, 101 Reykjavik, Iceland.
Source
Diabetologia. 2012 Mar;55(3):671-80
Date
Mar-2012
Language
English
Geographic Location
Iceland
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Aging
Albuminuria - complications - physiopathology - urine
Cohort Studies
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - blood - complications - epidemiology - pathology
Diabetic Nephropathies - complications - physiopathology - urine
Diabetic Retinopathy - complications - epidemiology - pathology - physiopathology
Female
Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated - analysis
Humans
Iceland - epidemiology
Macular Edema - complications - epidemiology - pathology
Male
Prevalence
Retina - pathology
Retinal Diseases - complications - epidemiology - pathology - physiopathology
Risk factors
Severity of Illness Index
Abstract
We aimed to describe the prevalence of retinopathy in an aged cohort of Icelanders with and without diabetes mellitus.
The study population consisted of 4,994 persons aged = 67 years, who participated in the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study (AGES-R). Type 2 diabetes mellitus was defined as HbA(1c) = 6.5% (>48 mmol/mol). Retinopathy was assessed by grading fundus photographs using the modified Airlie House adaptation of the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study protocol. Associations between retinopathy and risk factors were estimated using odds ratios obtained from multivariate analyses.
The overall prevalence of retinopathy in AGES-R was 12.4%. Diabetes mellitus was present in 516 persons (10.3%), for 512 of whom gradable fundus photos were available, including 138 persons (27.0%, 95% CI 23.2, 31.0) with any retinopathy. Five persons (1.0%, 95% CI 0.3, 2.3) had proliferative retinopathy. Clinically significant macular oedema was present in five persons (1.0%, 95% CI 0.3, 2.3). Independent risk factors for retinopathy in diabetic patients in a multivariate model included HbA(1c), insulin use and use of oral hypoglycaemic agents, the last two being indicators of longer disease duration. In 4478 participants without diabetes mellitus, gradable fundus photos were available for 4,453 participants, with retinopathy present in 476 (10.7%, 95% CI 9.8, 11.6) and clinically significant macular oedema in three persons. Independent risk factors included increasing age and microalbuminuria.
Over three-quarters (78%) of retinopathy cases were found in persons without diabetes and a strong association between microalbuminuria and non-diabetic retinopathy was found. These results may have implications for patient management of the aged.
Notes
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PubMed ID
22134840 View in PubMed
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[Smoking, obesity and education of Icelandic women by rural-urban residence]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature97562
Source
Laeknabladid. 2010 Apr;96(4):259-64
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2010
Author
Laufey Steingrímsdóttir
Elínborg J Olafsdóttir
Lilja Sigrún Jónsdóttir
Rafn Sigurdsson
Laufey Tryggvadóttir
Author Affiliation
laufey@hi.is
Source
Laeknabladid. 2010 Apr;96(4):259-64
Date
Apr-2010
Language
Icelandic
Geographic Location
Iceland
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Chi-Square Distribution
Cross-Sectional Studies
Educational Status
Female
Health Surveys
Humans
Iceland - epidemiology
Logistic Models
Middle Aged
Obesity - epidemiology - etiology
Odds Ratio
Prevalence
Questionnaires
Residence Characteristics
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Rural Population
Smoking - adverse effects - epidemiology
Urban Population
Women's health
Young Adult
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of obesity and the association with smoking and education among young Icelandic women residing within and outside the capital area. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A self-administered questionnaire was sent to 28.000 Icelandic women, 18-45 years-old, in the period November 2004 to June 2005. The sample was randomly selected from The National Registry, response rate being 54.6%. The study was part of a large Nordic population-based cross-sectional study. Logistic regression was used for assessing the odds ratio of obesity (BMI > or = 30) in a multivariate analysis according to smoking and education, taking also into account age and alcohol consumption. The chi-square test was used for comparing percentages. RESULTS: Thirteen percent of women residing in the capital area were obese compared with 21% outside the capital. In the multivariate analysis obesity was increased among women living outside the capital (OR = 1.66; 95% CI 1,50-1,83), among smokers (OR=1,13; 95% CI 1.01-1.28), and among women who did not have university education (OR=1.53; 95%CI 1.36-1.71). Daily smokers within the capital area were more likely to be obese (OR=1.27; 95%CI 1.07-1.49) but not smokers outside the capital (OR=1.0). . CONCLUSIONS: Residence outside the capital area, daily smoking and non-university education are associated with an increased risk of obesity among young Icelandic women. The relationship between these factors is complex and differs between women residing within and outside the capital area.
PubMed ID
20339165 View in PubMed
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