The 2 Ã? 2 model of perfectionism posits that the 4 within-person combinations of self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism (i.e., pure SOP, mixed perfectionism, pure SPP, and nonperfectionism) can be distinctively associated with psychological adjustment. This study examined whether the relationship between the 4 subtypes of perfectionism proposed in the 2 Ã? 2 model (Gaudreau & Thompson, 2010) and academic outcomes (i.e., academic satisfaction and grade-point average [GPA]) differed across 2 sociocultural groups: Asian Canadians and European Canadians. A sample of 697 undergraduate students (23% Asian Canadians) completed self-report measures of dispositional perfectionism, academic satisfaction, and GPA. Results replicated most of the 2 Ã? 2 model's hypotheses on ratings of GPA, thus supporting that nonperfectionism was associated with lower GPA than pure SOP (Hypothesis 1a) but with higher GPA than pure SPP (Hypothesis 2). Results also showed that mixed perfectionism was related to higher GPA than pure SPP (Hypothesis 3) but to similar levels as pure SOP, thus disproving Hypothesis 4. Furthermore, results provided evidence for cross-cultural differences in academic satisfaction. While all 4 hypotheses were supported among European Canadians, only Hypotheses 1a and 3 were supported among Asian Canadians. Future lines of research are discussed in light of the importance of acknowledging the role of culture when studying the influence of dispositional perfectionism on academic outcomes.
OBJECTIVE: The present study examined the prevalence of panic disorder with or without agoraphobia according to DSM-IV criteria in the Swedish general population. METHOD: Data were obtained by means of a postal survey administrated to 1000 randomly selected adults. The panic disorder module of the World Health Organization's Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was included in the survey. RESULTS: 12-month prevalence was estimated at 2.2 % (CI 95 % 1.02 % - 3.38 %). There was a significant sex difference, with a greater prevalence for women (5.6 %) compared to men (1 %). CONCLUSION: The Swedish panic disorder prevalence is relatively consistent with findings in most other parts of the western world.
When clinical guidelines affect large numbers of individuals or substantial resources, it is important to understand their benefits, harms and costs from a population perspective. Many countries' dyslipidemia guidelines include these perspectives.
To compare the effectiveness and efficiency of the 2003 and 2006 Canadian dyslipidemia guidelines for statin treatment in reducing deaths from coronary artery disease (CAD) in the Canadian population.
The 2003 and 2006 Canadian dyslipidemia guidelines were applied to data from the Canadian Heart Health Survey (weighted sample of 12,300,000 people), which includes information on family history and physical measurements, including fasting lipid profiles. The number of people recommended for statin treatment, the potential number of CAD deaths avoided and the number needed to treat to avoid one CAD death with five years of statin therapy were determined for each guideline.
Compared with the 2003 guidelines, 1.4% fewer people (20 to 74 years of age) are recommended statin treatment, potentially preventing 7% more CAD deaths. The number needed to treat to prevent one CAD death over five years decreased from 172 (2003 guideline) to 147 (2006 guideline).
From a population perspective, the 2006 Canadian dyslipidemia recommendations are an improvement of earlier versions, preventing more CAD events and deaths with fewer statin prescriptions. Despite these improvements, the Canadian dyslipidemia recommendations should explicitly address issues of absolute benefit and cost-effectiveness in future revisions.
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Cites: Heart. 2005 Dec;91 Suppl 5:v1-5216365341
Cites: BMJ. 2006 Mar 18;332(7542):659-6216543339
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Comment In: Can J Cardiol. 2008 Aug;24(8):62118697284
Symbolic healing is a complex phenomenon that is still relatively poorly understood. This paper documents a process of symbolic healing which is occurring in Canadian penitentiaries, and which involves Aboriginal offenders in cultural awareness and educational programs. The situation is compounded, however, by the existence of offenders from diverse Aboriginal cultural backgrounds with differing degrees of orientation to Aboriginal and Euro-Canadian cultures. Participants must first receive the necessary education to allow them to identify with the healing symbols so that healing may ensue, and both the healers and the patients must engage in a process of redefining their cultures in search of a common cultural base.
In Thailand, where abortion is still illegal, abortion services (health services) outside Bangkok, and outside hospitals or clinics, are provided by non-physician practitioners. In the studies reported here, those practitioners were interviewed in 1978 and 1981 about their methods and the characteristics of their clients. The first study revealed that massage is the method most widely used by rural practitioners and that uterine injection with different solutions comes second. The second study was in agreement with these findings. The health consequences of these induced abortions were studied by interviewing the clients of the rural practitioners in 1980 and 1981. In Sweden, where abortion has been legal for quite a long time, all women who need an abortion have access to safe and convenient health services throughout the country.
It is important to understand the correlates of physical activity (PA) to influence policy and create environments that promote PA among preschool children. We compared preschoolers' PA in Swedish and in US settings and objectively examined differences boys' and girls' indoor and outdoor PA regarding different intensity levels and sedentary behavior.
Accelerometer determined PA in 50 children with mean age 52 months, (range 40-67) was recorded during preschool time for 5 consecutive weekdays at 4 sites. The children wore an Actigraph GTIM Monitor.
Raleigh preschool children, opposite to Malmö preschoolers spent significantly more time indoors than outdoors (P
OBJECTIVE: A survey was conducted to estimate the acceptability of the controlled drinking goal among treatment services in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, and to compare results with similar surveys carried out elsewhere. METHOD: Of all identified alcohol treatment services (N = 295) in NSW, 179 (61%) responded to a mailed questionnaire with useable returns. RESULTS: Nearly three-quarters of respondents endorsed controlled drinking but half of these reported allocating less than 25% of their clients to this goal. Community-based services and alcohol treatment units were significantly more likely to endorse controlled drinking than were residential or private facilities. Community-based services and alcohol treatment units were also more likely to base the appropriateness of controlled drinking on professional experience and research evidence, whereas residential and private facilities relied more on the disease model or agency policy in making this determination. Respondents with tertiary qualifications were more likely to endorse controlled drinking than those without such qualifications, and these respondents were more likely to be found in community-based services and alcohol treatment units. CONCLUSIONS: The results show widespread support for the controlled drinking goal among NSW alcohol treatment services. This is similar to the reported status of controlled drinking in Britain and Norway and stands in marked contrast to the comparative reluctance of treatment services in North America to endorse the controlled drinking goal.
The present study was conducted to provide a nationwide survey of acceptance of nonabstinence goals and related alcoholism treatment practices by Canadian alcoholism treatment services.
A random sample of 335 Canadian alcoholism treatment service agencies were mailed a 4-page questionnaire designed to assess acceptance of moderate drinking as a drinking goal and related alcoholism treatment practices.
Acceptance varied by type of service, with considerably more acceptance by outpatient programs (62%) and mixed inpatient/outpatient programs (43%) than inpatient/detoxification/ correctional facilities (27%) and halfway houses (16%). Two-thirds of the respondents who reported moderate drinking as unacceptable in their own agencies categorically rejected moderation for all alcoholism clients.
Individuals seeking services in Canadian alcoholism treatment agencies are more likely to have a choice of drinking goals if they present to an outpatient program than a residential institution, and Canadian agencies appear more accepting of moderation goals than American programs, but less accepting than British and Norwegian service agencies.
For Canadians under 45, accidents are the leading cause of both death and hospitalization. For the Canadian population as a whole, accidents rank fourth as a cause of death, after cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer and respiratory disease. This article analyzes accident mortality and hospitalization in Canada using age-specific rates, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR), and potential years of life lost (PYLL). The six major causes of accidental death for men are motor vehicle traffic accidents (MVTA), falls, drowning, fires, suffocation and poisoning. For women, the order is slightly different: MVTA, falls, fires, suffocation, poisoning and drowning. From 1971 to 1986, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) for accidents decreased by 44% for men and 39% for women. The largest decrease occurred in the under 15 age group. Accidents accounted for 11.5% of total hospital days in 1985, and 8% of hospital discharges. Because young people have the highest rates of accidental death, potential years of life lost (PYLL) are almost as high for accidents as for cardiovascular disease, although CVD deaths outnumbered accidental deaths by almost five to one in 1985.