It has been unclear which human-attribute concepts are most universal across languages. To identify common-denominator concepts, we used dictionaries for 12 mutually isolated languages-Maasai, Supyire Senoufo, Khoekhoe, Afar, Mara Chin, Hmong, Wik-Mungkan, Enga, Fijian, Inuktitut, Hopi, and Kuna-representing diverse cultural characteristics and language families, from multiple continents. A composite list of every person-descriptive term in each lexicon was closely examined to determine the content (in terms of English translation) most ubiquitous across languages. Study 1 identified 28 single-word concepts used to describe persons in all 12 languages, as well as 41 additional terms found in 11 of 12. Results indicated that attribute concepts related to morality and competence appear to be as cross-culturally ubiquitous as basic-emotion concepts. Formulations of universal-attribute concepts from Osgood and Wierzbicka were well-supported. Study 2 compared lexically based personality models on the relative ubiquity of key associated terms, finding that 1- and 2-dimensional models draw on markedly more ubiquitous terms than do 5- or 6-factor models. We suggest that ubiquitous attributes reflect common cultural as well as common biological processes.
The evidence-based practice profile (EBP(2)) questionnaire assesses students' self-reported knowledge, behaviour and attitudes related to evidence-based practice. The aim of this study was to translate and cross-culturally adapt EBP(2) into Norwegian and to evaluate the reliability, validity and responsiveness of the Norwegian version.
EBP(2) was translated and cross-culturally adapted using recommended methodology. Face validity and feasibility were evaluated in a pilot on bachelor students and health and social workers (n = 18). Content validity was evaluated by an expert panel. Nursing students (n = 96), social educator students (n = 27), and health and social workers (n = 26) evaluated the instrument's measurement properties. Cronbach's alpha was calculated to determine internal consistency. Test-retest reliability was evaluated using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and standard error of measurement (SEM). Discriminative validity was assessed by independent sample t test. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed to assess the structural validity of a five-factor model (Relevance, Sympathy, Terminology, Practice and Confidence) using the comparative fit index (CFI) and the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA). A priori hypotheses on effect sizes and P values were formulated to evaluate the instrument's responsiveness.
The forward-backward translation was repeated three times before arriving at an acceptable version. Eleven of 58 items were re-worded. Face validity and content validity were confirmed. Cronbach's alpha was 0.90 or higher for all domains except Sympathy (0.66). ICC ranged from 0.45 (Practice) to 0.79 (Terminology) and SEM from 0.29 (Relevance) to 0.44 (Practice). There was a significant mean difference between exposure and no exposure to EBP for the domains Relevance, Terminology and Confidence. The CFA did not indicate an acceptable five-factor model fit (CFI = 0.69, RMSEA = 0.09). Responsiveness was as expected or better for all domains except Sympathy.
The cross-culturally adapted EBP(2)-Norwegian version was valid and reliable for the domains Relevance, Terminology and Confidence, and responsive to change for all domains, except Sympathy. Further development of the instrument's items are needed to enhance the instruments reliability for the domains Practice and Sympathy.
Canadian practice and research with children and adults with learning disabilities are described and analyzed. After an examination of the historical basis for current practice, the societal and cultural factors affecting education of children with learning disabilities, services for adults, and research are discussed. It was found that policy and legislation regarding special education vary considerably from province to province, and identification practices and service delivery models vary even within provinces. The fact that Canada has two official languages (English and French), a large multicultural community, and a Native population with special needs often arising from poverty has an impact on the education of children with learning disabilities and on sample description in research. Although school-age children are relatively well served, services for preschool children and adults with learning disabilities are minimal. The positive features of Canadian service delivery are that most programs are publicly funded, decision making tends to be nonadversarial and collaborative, and the needs of the whole child are typically considered.
Informal verbal interaction is the core matrix for human social life. A mechanism for coordinating this basic mode of interaction is a system of turn-taking that regulates who is to speak and when. Yet relatively little is known about how this system varies across cultures. The anthropological literature reports significant cultural differences in the timing of turn-taking in ordinary conversation. We test these claims and show that in fact there are striking universals in the underlying pattern of response latency in conversation. Using a worldwide sample of 10 languages drawn from traditional indigenous communities to major world languages, we show that all of the languages tested provide clear evidence for a general avoidance of overlapping talk and a minimization of silence between conversational turns. In addition, all of the languages show the same factors explaining within-language variation in speed of response. We do, however, find differences across the languages in the average gap between turns, within a range of 250 ms from the cross-language mean. We believe that a natural sensitivity to these tempo differences leads to a subjective perception of dramatic or even fundamental differences as offered in ethnographic reports of conversational style. Our empirical evidence suggests robust human universals in this domain, where local variations are quantitative only, pointing to a single shared infrastructure for language use with likely ethological foundations.