BACKGROUND: The mean wheal diameter >/= 3 mm is the usual criterion for positive skin prick test (SPT) reaction to dust mites. The study assessed the accuracy of this SPT criterion with respect to specific IgE values of above 0.35 kUA/l (+ sIgE). METHODS: Specific IgE (ImmunoCAP, Pharmacia AB Diagnostics, Uppsala, Sweden) and standard SPT to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (DP) and farinae (DF), Lepidoglyphus destructor (LD) and Tyrophagus putrescentiae (TP) (ALK, Hørsholm, Denmark) were performed in a random sample of 457 subjects, of whom 273 men (mean age 35.3 +/- 11.0 years) and 184 women (mean age 37.9 +/- 9.5 years). Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test, regression analysis and discriminant analysis. RESULTS: When the mean wheal diameter of >/= 3 mm was considered positive (+ SPT), the correlation between + SPT and + sIgE was 0.47 for DP (P
Antibody cross-reactivity to the influenza A(H3N2) variant virus recently reported in the United States, was investigated in Norwegian sera. Seroprevalence was 40% overall, and 71% in people born between 1977 and 1993. The most susceptible age groups were children and people aged around 50 years. The high immunity in young adults is likely to be due to strong priming infection with similar viruses in the 1990s. More research is needed to explain the poor immunity in 45?54 year-olds.
During the last decade, cases of the fish parasite Anisakis simplex infection and allergy in human have increased in countries with high fish consumption. Our aim was to perform an extended seroprevalence study of anti-IgE antibodies against this parasite in Norway, one of the high fish-consuming countries. At the Department of Immunology and Transfusion Medicine and the Laboratory of Clinical Biochemistry, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway, two main groups of anonymized serum samples were collected; the first (n = 993) from recently recruited blood donors (designated 'BDO') and the second (n = 414) from patient with total IgE levels =1000 kU/l (designated 'IGE+'). The sera were analysed by the ImmunoCAP(®) method for total IgE and IgE antibodies against A. simplex, house dust mite (HDM), shrimp, cod, crab, brine shrimp and shrimp tropomyosin. The A. simplex positive sera were further tested by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method, which uses 2 recombinant (r) major allergens, rAni s 1 and rAni s 7 as target antigens. SDS-PAGE and Western immunoblotting analyses were also performed. Whereas the prevalences by ImmunoCAP(®) were 0.4% and 16.2% in the BDO and IGE+ groups, respectively, analyses with recombinant allergens showed only 0.0% and 0.2%. Cross-reactivity and immunoblotting analyses suggested that most of the ImmunoCAP(®) positive sera were probably false-positive due to cross-sensitization to shrimp and HDM. However, positivity due to other A. simplex antigens should also be considered. Compared with other high fish-consuming countries, we observed a very low seroprevalence of anti-Anisakis IgE antibodies in a Norwegian population.
The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and its derivatives are powerful tools used in research, in the clinic, and in many other analytical and quality control settings. In general, ELISAs are robust, reproducible and reliable. However, a number of pitfalls of ELISAs have been described over the years. The issue of rheumatoid factor (RF), autoantibodies against the Fc portion of IgG, is well recognized (yet often forgotten), as are problems arising from heterophilic antibodies induced by external antigens that cross-react with self-antigens. A few years ago focus was on human anti-mouse antibodies (HAMA) concomitant with the increased use of mouse monoclonal antibody therapy, a problem that is now diminishing due to development of humanized antibodies. Issues pertaining to food antigens or environmentally encountered antigens are less recognized. We report a recently encountered example of the latter resulting in interference in a solid-phase sandwich assay. Due to the set-up employing a monoclonal rat IgG for capture and a monoclonal rat IgM for development the interference had to be human antibodies reacting with rat light-chain. Out of 102 Danish Caucasian blood donors we found a prevalence of anti-rat kappa light chain antibodies of close to 40% (39/102, defined as at least 2-fold elevated measurements), with around 6% (6/102) having very high levels (defined as at least 4-fold elevated measurements), yielding significantly higher measurements in the assay designed to measure the complement component MAp19 in serum samples. The interference could be blocked by the addition of rat immunoglobulin to the sample buffer. An individual, who had been followed over time, demonstrated a periodic increase of interfering antibodies, highlighting that it is an independently varying parameter and thereby a variable interference in assays. Our results highlight a major pitfall of potential relevance to many sandwich-type assays, as well as an approach to rectify such problems.
It was previously shown that the second extracellular loop of cardiovascular G-protein-coupled receptors is an antigenic target for pharmacologically active autoantibodies in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. To extend these observations to cover patients with the same disease from different geographical origins or to patients with other cardiac diseases, peptides corresponding to the sequences of the second extracellular loops of the human M2 muscarinic receptors and beta adrenoceptors were used as antigens in an enzyme immunoassay. Sera from patients from Sweden and Japan with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM, n = 32), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM, n = 23), malignant essential hypertension (MEH, n = 11), malignant secondary hypertension (MSH, n = 10), and sera from healthy blood donors (HBD, n = 49) were tested. Sera from patients with DCM recognized the muscarinic receptor peptide in 38% of cases and the beta 1 adrenoceptor peptide in 31% of cases. In 50% of the positive patients, autoantibodies against both peptides coexisted as shown by competition experiments using both peptides as inhibitors. In HCM patients, there was a lower frequency of autoantibodies but with a higher but not significant predominance against the M2 peptide. No autoantibodies were detected in sera from patients with MEH or MSH. Autoantibodies against the M2 muscarinic receptors, affinity-purified from positive patients, displayed pharmacological activity as demonstrated by changes in the affinity and number of radioligand binding sites. In contrast, antibodies purified from positive HBD had no effect. These results confirm that autoantibodies displaying pharmacological activity against G-protein-coupled cardiovascular receptors are mainly restricted to patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy and that different autoantibody populations are responsible for the recognition of the different receptors.
Comparison of the clinical significance and allergenic cross-reactivity of Blomia kulagini (B. kulagini) and Lepidoglyphus destructor (L. destructor) was made on sera from Sweden and Brazil using the radio-allergo-sorbent test (RAST) and the RAST inhibition technique. RAST-positive sera were obtained from 53 allergic Swedish farmers and 31 allergic subjects from Brazil who were positive to B. kulagini and/or L. destructor. B. kulagini was shown to be a common cause of sensitization especially in Brazil. There was a fairly high correlation between positive RAST results to L. destructor and B. kulagini based on sera from both Sweden and Brazil. The highest RAST scores were found against L. destructor in Swedish sera and against B. kulagini in Brazilian sera. The RAST inhibition studies showed that the L. destructor extract was able to inhibit the B. kulagini system (a positive RAST to B. kulagini allergen disc) in Swedish but not in Brazilian sera. In contrast, the B. kulagini extract was only able to inhibit the L. destructor system in sera from Brazil and not in sera from Sweden. This study shows that results obtained with RAST inhibition are not entirely dependent on the overall specificity of the IgE antibodies in the patient's sera, since the more subtle specificity of the primarily sensitizing allergen will dominate. Thus, conclusions drawn regarding allergenic cross-reactivity are dependent on the populations tested, and conclusions on the existence or absence of cross-reactivity, e.g. between two species of mites may be contradictory.
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is a well-known cause of sporadic and epidemic food-borne gastroenteritis. A low infectious dose, approximately 10 microorganisms, is sufficient to cause disease that may lead to hemolytic-uremic syndrome. The objective of this study was to compare the performances of an in-house real-time PCR, a commercial enzyme immunoassay (EIA) (Premier EHEC; Meridian Bioscience), and culture on sorbitol MacConkey agar for the detection of STEC in a tertiary care pediatric hospital. Of 632 stool samples tested, 21 were positive for STEC. All were detected by PCR, 6 were detected by EIA, and only 5 O157 STEC isolates were identified by culture. Among the 15 specimens falsely negative by EIA, there were 9 Stx1, 2 Stx2, and 4 Stx1 and Stx2 STEC isolates. The latter group included 2 O157 STEC isolates that would have been missed if only EIA had been performed. To our knowledge, this is the first prospective study performed in a pediatric hospital which demonstrates the superiority of PCR over EIA for the detection of STEC. We conclude that PCR is specific and more sensitive than EIA. PCR should be considered for routine use in clinical settings where molecular detection facilities are available. Its lower limit of detection, equivalent to the infectious dose, is an obvious advantage for patient care and public health surveillance.
Cites: J Infect Dis. 2002 Jan 1;185(1):74-8411756984
Cross-reactive antibody to swine influenza A(H3N2) subtype virus in children and adults before and after immunisation with 2010/11 trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in Canada, August to November 2010.
In pre- and post-immunisation sera from children (17-120 months-old) and adults (20-59 years-old) immunised with 2010/11 trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine, we assessed age-related patterns of sero-susceptibility and vaccine-induced cross-reactive antibodies to a representative swine H3N2 (swH3N2) and a related ancestral human H3N2 (A/Sydney/5/1997) influenza virus. Few children but a greater proportion of adults showed pre-immunisation haemagglutination inhibition titres =40 to either virus. Titres increased with age among children but decreased in adults. Fewer than 20% showed a four-fold rise in antibody titres to either virus following immunisation. Further investigation is warranted to guide ongoing risk assessment and response to emerging swine H3N2 viruses.
IgE-antibody reactivity to boiled Atlantic shrimp (Pandalus borealis) and German cockroach (Blattella germanica) of sera from 89 patients, sensitive to one or the other, was investigated with an enzymatic immunoassay for specific IgE detection (CAP-FEIA System, Pharmacia, Sweden). IgE serum levels to both antishrimp and anticockroach allergens were found to be positive in 76 of the 89 (85.4%) tested sera. A positive anticockroach IgE was very rare in the absence of detectable antishrimp IgE (five of 89 sera). Linear regression analysis on antishrimp and anti-German cockroach IgE levels-log plot revealed a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.73. Inhibition experiments showed that boiled Atlantic shrimp extract inhibited CAP with German cockroach, and vice versa. Immunoblotting showed the strongest IgE binding for both allergenic extracts between 30 and 43 kDa. By blot inhibition, the binding capacity of German cockroach was totally abolished by Atlantic shrimp extract, while German cockroach extract only partially IgE binding to Atlantic shrimp. Cross-reactivity exists between shrimp, an important food allergen, and German cockroach, which has an increasing role in allergic asthma. It could be important to determine the clinical significance of cross-allergy to both allergens, in which exposures occur in different ways.