We surveyed US and Canadian pediatric hospitals about their use of central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) prevention strategies beyond typical insertion and maintenance bundles. We found wide variation in supplemental strategies across hospitals and in their penetration within hospitals. Future studies should assess specific adjunctive prevention strategies and CLABSI rates.
Occurrences of legionellae and nontuberculous mycobacteria were followed in water systems of a tertiary care hospital where nosocomial infections due to the two genera had been verified. The aim was to examine whether their occurrence in the circulating hot water can be controlled by addition of a heat-shock unit in the circulation system, and by intensified cleaning of the tap and shower heads. One hot water system examined had an inbuilt heat-shock system causing a temporary increase of temperature to 80 degrees C, the other was an ordinary system (60 degrees C). The heat-shock unit decreased legionella colony counts in the circulating hot water (mean 35 cfu/l) compared to the ordinary system (mean 3.6 x 10(3) cfu/l). Mycobacteria constantly present in the incoming cold water (mean 260 cfu/l) were never isolated from the circulating hot water. Water sampled at peripheral sites such as taps and showers contained higher concentrations of legionellae, mycobacteria, and mesophilic and Gram-negative heterotrophs than the circulating waters. The shower water samples contained the highest bacterial loads. The results indicate the need to develop more efficient prevention methods than the ones presently used. Prevention of mycobacteria should also be extended to incoming cold water.
The article contains data concerning nosocomial malady and the efficiency of preventive measures. The authors analyse the reasons and the conditions of the increase of hospital-acquired diseases, and show the significance of hospital hygiene.
To obtain accurate data regarding the handwashing behavior and patterns of visits to patients by healthcare workers (HCWs).
All visits by HCWs to selected patient rooms were recorded for 3 days and 2 nights. Additionally, 5 nurses were observed for 1 day each and 2 nurses were observed for 1 night each. Nurses were observed for their entire shifts and all of their activities were recorded.
A general medical ward in a tertiary-care hospital.
Convenience samples of HCWs and patients.
Patients were visited every 25 minutes on average. Monitoring rooms and observing nurses resulted in similar rates of patient visits. The highest level of risk was contact with body fluids in 11% of visits and skin in 40% of visits. The overall rate of handwashing was 46%; however, the rate was higher for visits involving contact with body fluids (81%) and skin (61%). Nurses returned immediately to the same patient 45% of the time. The rate of handwashing was higher for the last of a series of visits to a patient's room (53% vs 30%, P
Comment In: Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2004 Mar;25(3):187-815061406
To evaluate the current use of strategies to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and to identify interventions to target for quality-improvement initiatives.
Cross-sectional national survey.
Canadian intensive care units (ICUs) with at least 8 beds.
Seven hundred and two patients in 66 ICUs in 10 provinces in Canada.
The Canadian Critical Care Trials Group recently developed VAP prevention guidelines. Before these guidelines were disseminated, we documented the extent to which these recommendations were followed in practice by using 3 methods: survey of ICU directors, prospective observation of patients on one day, and retrospective review of patient charts for a 12-day period. According to ICU directors, ventilator circuits were changed only for new patients or if the circuit was soiled in 7 of 66 ICUs (10%), heat and moisture exchangers were used routinely in 53 of 66 ICUs (80%), and closed-suction catheter systems were used in 58 of 66 ICUs (88%). Neither subglottic secretion drainage tubes nor prophylactic antibiotics for VAP were used at all. Of the entire cohort of 702 patients, the average degree of elevation of the head of the bed was 29.9 degrees (range, 0 degrees -90 degrees ) and 22 of 702 (3.1%) were observed to be on a kinetic bed. Of the 459 patients receiving any form of mechanical ventilation, 56 (12.2%) were receiving noninvasive or mask ventilation, 262 (57.1%) were orally intubated, 9 (1.9%) were nasally intubated, and 132 (28.8%) had received a tracheostomy. Of the 423 patients who received nutrition support, 373 (88.2%) received enteral nutrition. Small bowel feeding tubes were used during 16.4% of study days on enteral feeds and sucralfate was prescribed for 1.7% of study days.
Significant opportunities exist to improve VAP prevention practices in Canada. These strategies include decreasing the frequency of ventilator circuit changes, and increasing the use of non-invasive ventilation, subglottic secretion drainage endotracheal tubes, kinetic bed therapy, small bowel feedings, and elevation of the head of the bed.
Disruption of the indigenous gut microflora with overgrowth of gram-negative bacteria and Candida species is common in the critically ill patient. These organisms readily translocate in vitro, which may cause septic complications and organ failure. A synergistic effect between Escherichia coli and C. albicans in polymicrobial infections has been demonstrated. An interaction between these organisms at the mucosal barrier is unknown.
Ca(CO2) monolayers were grown to confluence in a two compartment culture system. E. coli and C. albicans or E. coli alone were added to the apical chambers. Secretory immunoglobulin A was added to half of the apical chambers as well. Cell cultures were incubated for a total of 240 minutes. Basal media were sampled at timed intervals for quantitative culture. Monolayer integrity was confirmed by serial measurement of transepithelial electrical resistance.
Secretory immunoglobulin A decreased bacterial translocation across Ca(CO2) monolayers challenged with E. coli alone. Transepithelial passage of E. coli was significantly increased by coculture of bacteria with C. albicans. Augmentation of bacterial translocation by Candida occurred even in the presence of secretory immunoglobulin A.
Candida colonization of the GI tract may impair mucosal barrier defense against gram-negative bacteria. The clinical role of gut antifungal prophylaxis in protecting against gut derived gram-negative sepsis is speculative.