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A 6-month prospective study of hospital-acquired bacteremia in Copenhagen county.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature34967
Source
Scand J Infect Dis. 1996;28(6):601-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
1996
Author
A G Jensen
A. Kirstein
I. Jensen
J. Scheibel
F. Espersen
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Microbiology, Herlev University Hospital, Denmark.
Source
Scand J Infect Dis. 1996;28(6):601-8
Date
1996
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Bacteremia - epidemiology - etiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Community-Acquired Infections - epidemiology
Comparative Study
Cross Infection - epidemiology - etiology
Denmark - epidemiology
Drug Resistance, Microbial
Female
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Male
Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Middle Aged
Prospective Studies
Abstract
During a 6-month period, 892 positive blood cultures were detected in the Copenhagen County hospitals. 302 (34%) were regarded as contaminations, and of the remaining cases 419 (71%) were community-acquired and 171 (29%) hospital-acquired, giving incidence rates of 6.8/1,000 admissions and 2.8/1,000 admissions, respectively. Both frequency and rate of hospital-acquired bacteremia were lower compared to most other studies. E. coli was more commonly found in community-acquired infections, while coagulase-negative staphylococci were the organisms most often considered as a contaminant. The main causative organisms in hospital-acquired infections were S. aureus (n = 37) and E. coli (n = 34). The proportion of polymicrobial bacteremias in this study was lower compared to most other studies (8%). E. coli from hospital-acquired infections were resistant to ampicillin in 42% of cases, but other Enterobacteriaceae showed higher percentage of resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. S. aureus was penicillin-resistant in 92% of cases, but no methicillin-resistant strains were isolated. The frequency of antibiotic resistance was low compared to reports from other countries. A total of 136 hospital-acquired cases were followed prospectively. 61% of the patients were male and 46% were > or = 60 years of age. Most patients had predisposing diseases, 90% had foreign body and/or recent surgery performed, and 74 (54%) had an intraveneous catheter. The portal of entry was known in 132 (97%) of the cases, the most common being the urinary tract (42%), followed by an intravenous catheter (30%). The prevalence of urinary tract catheters gave an increased number of cases with E. coli bacteremia. The mortality was 16%.
PubMed ID
9060064 View in PubMed
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8th Annual Toronto Critical Care Medicine Symposium, 30 October-1 November 2003, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature181450
Source
Crit Care. 2004 Feb;8(1):58-66
Publication Type
Conference/Meeting Material
Date
Feb-2004
Author
Jeff Granton
John Granton
Author Affiliation
Programme Director, Critical Care Medicine Programme, University of Toronto, Canada. john.Granton@uhn.on.ca
Source
Crit Care. 2004 Feb;8(1):58-66
Date
Feb-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Conference/Meeting Material
Keywords
Blood Transfusion - adverse effects - utilization
Critical Care
Cross Infection - epidemiology
Humans
Intensive Care Units
Ontario - epidemiology
Respiration, Artificial
Sepsis - therapy
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome - epidemiology
Terminal Care
Notes
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PubMed ID
14975048 View in PubMed
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A 12-month fever surveillance study in a veterans' long-stay institution.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature238375
Source
J Am Geriatr Soc. 1985 Sep;33(9):590-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1985
Author
T P Finnegan
T W Austin
R D Cape
Source
J Am Geriatr Soc. 1985 Sep;33(9):590-4
Date
Sep-1985
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Bacterial Infections - complications
Cross Infection - epidemiology
Epidemiologic Methods
Female
Fever - epidemiology - etiology - mortality
Hospital Bed Capacity, 100 to 299
Hospitals, Veterans
Humans
Length of Stay
Male
Ontario
Abstract
This report describes a 12-month fever surveillance survey in a 258-bed veterans long-term care institution. There were 128 episodes of fever (one episode per 24 patient-months); 114 were studied. Lower respiratory tract infections were most frequent, 36 (32%), with 26 (23%) urinary tract infections. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most common pathogen in the chest infections and Proteus mirabilis the most common of the urinary tract infections. In 40 (35%) there was no evidence of a lower respiratory tract, urinary tract, or other bacterial infection. Most recovered rapidly, many with no specific treatment. There was a 16% mortality associated with the febrile episodes.
PubMed ID
4031336 View in PubMed
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A 13-year survey of bacteraemia due to beta-haemolytic streptococci in a Danish county.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature35255
Source
J Med Microbiol. 1995 Jul;43(1):63-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1995
Author
B. Kristensen
H C Schønheyder
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Microbiology, Aalborg Hospital, Denmark.
Source
J Med Microbiol. 1995 Jul;43(1):63-7
Date
Jul-1995
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Bacteremia - epidemiology - microbiology
Cardiovascular Diseases - complications
Child
Child, Preschool
Cross Infection - epidemiology - microbiology
Denmark - epidemiology
Diabetes Complications
Female
Hemolysis
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Middle Aged
Recurrence
Skin Diseases, Bacterial - complications
Streptococcal Infections - epidemiology - microbiology
Streptococcus - classification - isolation & purification
Streptococcus agalactiae - classification - isolation & purification
Streptococcus pyogenes - classification - isolation & purification
Urinary Tract Infections - complications
Abstract
During 1981-1993, 229 episodes of bacteraemia due to beta-haemolytic streptococci of groups A, B, C and G were diagnosed in the County of Northern Jutland, Denmark. The annual rates for bacteraemia were quite constant during the 13-year period for each streptococcal group. Group A streptococcal (GAS) bacteraemia was the most frequent, comprising 1.4% of all bacteraemias. The incidence of GAS bacteraemia was 1.8/100,000/year in children 60 years old. With the notable exception of group B streptococcal (GBS) bacteraemia in neonates, beta-haemolytic streptococci of groups B, C (GCS) and G (GGS) were isolated mostly from elderly patients. Except for GBS bacteraemia in neonates, approximately one-third of the bacteraemias in each group was nosocomially acquired. Predisposing factors included operative procedures in GAS and GCS bacteraemia, and diabetes mellitus in GBS bacteraemia. The skin was the most common primary focus in GAC, GCC and GGS bacteraemias, whereas the urinary tract was the commonest focus in GBS bacteraemia in adults. The mortality rates in GAS, GCS, GGS, and adult GBS bacteraemia were 23%, 16%, 17% and 19%, respectively. Of the 23 fatal cases of GAS bacteraemia, 57% died within 24 h after blood cultures had been obtained.
PubMed ID
7608958 View in PubMed
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14-Year Survey in a Swedish County Reveals a Pronounced Increase in Bloodstream Infections (BSI). Comorbidity - An Independent Risk Factor for Both BSI and Mortality.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature283680
Source
PLoS One. 2016;11(11):e0166527
Publication Type
Article
Date
2016
Author
Martin Holmbom
Christian G Giske
Mats Fredrikson
Åse Östholm Balkhed
Carina Claesson
Lennart E Nilsson
Mikael Hoffmann
Håkan Hanberger
Source
PLoS One. 2016;11(11):e0166527
Date
2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Anti-Bacterial Agents - therapeutic use
Bacteremia - drug therapy - epidemiology - microbiology - mortality
Candidiasis - drug therapy - epidemiology - microbiology - mortality
Community-Acquired Infections
Comorbidity
Cross Infection - epidemiology - microbiology
Female
Fungemia - drug therapy - epidemiology - microbiology - mortality
Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections - drug therapy - epidemiology - microbiology - mortality
Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections - drug therapy - epidemiology - microbiology - mortality
Health Surveys
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Multivariate Analysis
Retrospective Studies
Risk factors
Survival Analysis
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
we assessed the incidence, risk factors and outcome of BSI over a 14-year period (2000-2013) in a Swedish county.
retrospective cohort study on culture confirmed BSI among patients in the county of Östergötland, Sweden, with approximately 440,000 inhabitants. A BSI was defined as either community-onset BSI (CO-BSI) or hospital-acquired BSI (HA-BSI).
of a total of 11,480 BSIs, 67% were CO-BSI and 33% HA-BSI. The incidence of BSI increased by 64% from 945 to 1,546 per 100,000 hospital admissions per year during the study period. The most prominent increase, 83% was observed within the CO-BSI cohort whilst HA-BSI increased by 32%. Prescriptions of antibiotics in outpatient care decreased with 24% from 422 to 322 prescriptions dispensed/1,000 inhabitants/year, whereas antibiotics prescribed in hospital increased by 67% (from 424 to 709 DDD per 1,000 days of care). The overall 30-day mortality for HA-BSIs was 17.2%, compared to 10.6% for CO-BSIs, with an average yearly increase per 100,000 hospital admissions of 2 and 5% respectively. The proportion of patients with one or more comorbidities, increased from 20.8 to 55.3%. In multivariate analyses, risk factors for mortality within 30 days were: HA-BSI (2.22); two or more comorbidities (1.89); single comorbidity (1.56); CO-BSI (1.21); male (1.05); and high age (1.04).
this survey revealed an alarming increase in the incidence of BSI over the 14-year study period. Interventions to decrease BSI in general should be considered together with robust antibiotic stewardship programmes to avoid both over- and underuse of antibiotics.
Notes
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PubMed ID
27835663 View in PubMed
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25- to 30-nm virus particle associated with a hospital outbreak of acute gastroenteritis with evidence for airborne transmission.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature233035
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 1988 Jun;127(6):1261-71
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1988
Author
L A Sawyer
J J Murphy
J E Kaplan
P F Pinsky
D. Chacon
S. Walmsley
L B Schonberger
A. Phillips
K. Forward
C. Goldman
Author Affiliation
Division of Viral Diseases, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333.
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 1988 Jun;127(6):1261-71
Date
Jun-1988
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Air Microbiology
Cross Infection - epidemiology - microbiology - transmission
Disease Outbreaks
Emergency Service, Hospital
Epidemiologic Methods
Female
Gastroenteritis - epidemiology - microbiology - transmission
Hospital Units
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Norwalk virus - isolation & purification
Ontario
Virion - isolation & purification
Virus Diseases - epidemiology - transmission
Abstract
Between November 1 and 22, 1985, an outbreak of acute, nonbacterial gastroenteritis occurred in a 600-bed hospital in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Illness in 635 of 2,379 (27%) staff was characterized by fatigue, nausea, diarrhea, and vomiting and had a median duration of 24-48 hours. The finding of virus-like particles measuring 25-30 nm in six stool specimens and low rates of seroresponse to Norwalk virus (3/39) and Snow Mountain agent (1/6) suggest that a Norwalk-like virus was responsible for the outbreak. The outbreak was of abrupt onset and high incidence, affecting 79 people in a single day. No common food or water exposure could be identified. The attack rate was greatest (69%) for staff who had worked in the Emergency Room. Of 100 patients and their companions who visited the Emergency Room on November 11-12 for unrelated problems, 33 (33%) developed gastroenteritis 24-48 hours after their visit, versus 0 of 18 who visited the Emergency Room on November 8 (p less than 0.001). An analysis of housekeepers who worked at least once during the period from November 9-13, which included those who became ill during the period of November 9-14, showed that the risk of becoming ill was four times greater for those who visited or walked through the Emergency Room than for those who did not (p = 0.028). These data are consistent with the possibility of the airborne spread of a virus.
PubMed ID
2835899 View in PubMed
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Absence of Nosocomial Transmission of Imported Lassa Fever during Use of Standard Barrier Nursing Methods.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299174
Source
Emerg Infect Dis. 2018 06; 24(6):978-987
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
06-2018
Author
Anna Grahn
Andreas Bråve
Thomas Tolfvenstam
Marie Studahl
Source
Emerg Infect Dis. 2018 06; 24(6):978-987
Date
06-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Communicable Diseases, Imported - epidemiology - transmission - virology
Cross Infection - epidemiology - transmission - virology
Female
Health Personnel
Humans
Lassa Fever - epidemiology - transmission - virology
Lassa virus - classification - genetics - immunology
Male
Middle Aged
Nursing Care - methods
Sentinel Surveillance
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Nosocomial transmission of Lassa virus (LASV) is reported to be low when care for the index patient includes proper barrier nursing methods. We investigated whether asymptomatic LASV infection occurred in healthcare workers who used standard barrier nursing methods during the first 15 days of caring for a patient with Lassa fever in Sweden. Of 76 persons who were defined as having been potentially exposed to LASV, 53 provided blood samples for detection of LASV IgG. These persons also responded to a detailed questionnaire to evaluate exposure to different body fluids from the index patient. LASV-specific IgG was not detected in any of the 53 persons. Five of 53 persons had not been using proper barrier nursing methods. Our results strengthen the argument for a low risk of secondary transmission of LASV in humans when standard barrier nursing methods are used and the patient has only mild symptoms.
PubMed ID
29775178 View in PubMed
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Absenteeism among hospital staff during influenza epidemic.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature238269
Source
CMAJ. 1985 Oct 1;133(7):641
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-1-1985
Author
R A Fralick
Source
CMAJ. 1985 Oct 1;133(7):641
Date
Oct-1-1985
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Absenteeism
Canada
Cross Infection - epidemiology
Disease Outbreaks
Hospitals, Chronic Disease
Hospitals, Special
Humans
Influenza, Human - epidemiology - transmission
Personnel, Hospital
Notes
Cites: Can Med Assoc J. 1984 Sep 1;131(5):449-526467117
PubMed ID
4042030 View in PubMed
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Source
CMAJ. 2004 Sep 14;171(6):549; author reply 550, 552
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-14-2004
Author
John Ruedy
Richard I Ogilvie
Source
CMAJ. 2004 Sep 14;171(6):549; author reply 550, 552
Date
Sep-14-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada - epidemiology
Cross Infection - epidemiology
Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions
Hospitalization
Humans
Medication Errors - statistics & numerical data
Notes
Cites: JAMA. 1972 Oct 2;222(1):50-55068673
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Cites: CMAJ. 2004 Apr 13;170(8):1235-4015078845
Comment On: CMAJ. 2004 Apr 13;170(8):1235-4015078845
PubMed ID
15367443 View in PubMed
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650 records – page 1 of 65.