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The 1% of the population accountable for 63% of all violent crime convictions.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature259131
Source
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2014 Apr;49(4):559-71
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2014
Author
Falk, O
Wallinius, M
Lundström, S
Frisell, T
Anckarsäter, H
Kerekes, N
Source
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2014 Apr;49(4):559-71
Date
Apr-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aggression - psychology
Criminals - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Male
Mental Disorders - epidemiology - psychology
Middle Aged
Registries
Risk factors
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology
Sweden
Violence - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Population-based studies on violent crime and background factors may provide an understanding of the relationships between susceptibility factors and crime. We aimed to determine the distribution of violent crime convictions in the Swedish population 1973-2004 and to identify criminal, academic, parental, and psychiatric risk factors for persistence in violent crime.
The nationwide multi-generation register was used with many other linked nationwide registers to select participants. All individuals born in 1958-1980 (2,393,765 individuals) were included. Persistent violent offenders (those with a lifetime history of three or more violent crime convictions) were compared with individuals having one or two such convictions, and to matched non-offenders. Independent variables were gender, age of first conviction for a violent crime, nonviolent crime convictions, and diagnoses for major mental disorders, personality disorders, and substance use disorders.
A total of 93,642 individuals (3.9%) had at least one violent conviction. The distribution of convictions was highly skewed; 24,342 persistent violent offenders (1.0% of the total population) accounted for 63.2% of all convictions. Persistence in violence was associated with male sex (OR 2.5), personality disorder (OR 2.3), violent crime conviction before age 19 (OR 2.0), drug-related offenses (OR 1.9), nonviolent criminality (OR 1.9), substance use disorder (OR 1.9), and major mental disorder (OR 1.3).
The majority of violent crimes are perpetrated by a small number of persistent violent offenders, typically males, characterized by early onset of violent criminality, substance abuse, personality disorders, and nonviolent criminality.
Notes
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PubMed ID
24173408 View in PubMed
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Assessing violence risk and psychopathy in juvenile and adult offenders: a survey of clinical practices.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature145664
Source
Assessment. 2010 Sep;17(3):377-95
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2010
Author
Jodi L Viljoen
Kaitlyn McLachlan
Gina M Vincent
Author Affiliation
Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada. jviljoen@sfu.ca
Source
Assessment. 2010 Sep;17(3):377-95
Date
Sep-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Antisocial Personality Disorder - classification - epidemiology
Canada - epidemiology
Criminals - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Female
Forensic Psychiatry - statistics & numerical data
Health Care Surveys
Humans
Intelligence Tests
Juvenile Delinquency - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Male
Middle Aged
Predictive value of tests
Psychological Tests
Psychometrics
Risk assessment
United States - epidemiology
Violence - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Young Adult
Abstract
This study surveyed 199 forensic clinicians about the practices that they use in assessing violence risk in juvenile and adult offenders. Results indicated that the use of risk assessment and psychopathy tools was common. Although clinicians reported more routine use of psychopathy measures in adult risk assessments compared with juvenile risks assessments, 79% of clinicians reported using psychopathy measures at least once in a while in juvenile risk assessments. Extremely few clinicians, however, believe that juveniles should be labeled or referred to as psychopaths. Juvenile risk reports were more likely than adult reports to routinely discuss treatment and protective factors, and provide recommendations to reevaluate risk. The implications of these findings are discussed.
PubMed ID
20124429 View in PubMed
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Association of traumatic brain injury with criminality in adolescent psychiatric inpatients from Northern Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature124651
Source
Psychiatry Res. 2012 Dec 30;200(2-3):767-72
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-30-2012
Author
Saku Luukkainen
Kaisa Riala
Matti Laukkanen
Helinä Hakko
Pirkko Räsänen
Author Affiliation
University of Oulu, Department of Psychiatry, P.O. BOX 5000, 90014 University of Oulu, Finland.
Source
Psychiatry Res. 2012 Dec 30;200(2-3):767-72
Date
Dec-30-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Brain Injuries - epidemiology - psychology
Child
Crime - psychology
Criminals - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Inpatients - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Male
Prevalence
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
Violence - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
The association of traumatic brain injuries (TBI) with criminality, substance-related disorders and conduct disorders has mainly been studied in adult populations. In our study we examine the association in an adolescent population. We used a population-based clinical sample of 508 psychiatric inpatient adolescents from Northern Finland. The prevalences of TBI and criminality were 26 (5.1%) and 85 (16.7%), respectively. The information on TBI was acquired from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register and on criminality from the Legal Register Center. DSM-IV diagnoses were obtained by interviewing the subjects using the semi-structured Schedule for Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children, Present and Lifetime (K-SADS-PL). Adolescents with TBI had significantly more often committed crimes compared to adolescents without TBI (53.8% vs. 14.7%, respectively). Prevalences of both violent crimes (42.9% vs. 9.1%) and non-violent crimes (29.4% vs. 6.8%) were also higher in the TBI group. TBI during childhood and adolescence increased the risk of any criminality 6.8-fold (95% 3.0-15.2), conduct disorder 5.7-fold (95% 2.1-15.4) and concomitant criminality and conduct disorder 18.7-fold (95% 4.3-80.1). Our results suggest that clinicians working with mentally ill adolescents who have experienced head injuries should be aware of the increased risk for delinquency and violent tendencies occurring later in the adolescents' lives.
PubMed ID
22560660 View in PubMed
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Borderline personality disorder: Prevalence and psychiatric comorbidity among male offenders on probation in Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature272221
Source
Compr Psychiatry. 2015 Oct;62:63-70
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2015
Author
Dan Wetterborg
Niklas Långström
Gerhard Andersson
Pia Enebrink
Source
Compr Psychiatry. 2015 Oct;62:63-70
Date
Oct-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Antisocial Personality Disorder - epidemiology
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - epidemiology
Borderline Personality Disorder - epidemiology
Case-Control Studies
Comorbidity
Criminals - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Depressive Disorder, Major - epidemiology
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
Humans
Male
Prevalence
Self-Injurious Behavior
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology
Sweden - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severely disabling condition, associated with substantially increased risk of deliberate self-harm and, particularly in men, also with interpersonal violence and other criminal behavior. Although BPD might be common among prison inmates, little is known about prevalence and psychiatric comorbidity in probationers and parolees.
In 2013, a consecutive sample of 109 newly admitted adult male offenders on probation or parole in all three probation offices of Stockholm, Sweden, completed self-report screening questionnaires for BPD and other psychiatric morbidity. Participants scoring over BPD cut-off participated in a psychiatric diagnostic interview.
We ascertained a final DSM-5 BPD prevalence rate of 19.8% (95% CI: 12.3-27.3%). The most common current comorbid disorders among subjects with BPD were antisocial personality disorder (91%), major depressive disorder (82%), substance dependence (73%), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (70%), and alcohol dependence (64%). Individuals diagnosed with BPD had significantly more current psychiatric comorbidity (M=6.2 disorders) than interviewed participants not fulfilling BPD criteria (M=3.6). Participants with BPD also reported substantially more symptoms of ADHD, anxiety and depression compared to all subjects without BPD.
BPD affected one fifth of probationers and was related to serious mental ill-health known to affect recidivism risk. The findings suggest further study of possible benefits of improved identification and treatment of BPD in offender populations.
PubMed ID
26343468 View in PubMed
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Child maltreatment and adult violent offending: population-based twin study addressing the 'cycle of violence' hypothesis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature128085
Source
Psychol Med. 2012 Sep;42(9):1977-83
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2012
Author
M. Forsman
N. Långström
Author Affiliation
Centre for Violence Prevention, Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. mats.forsman@ki.se
Source
Psychol Med. 2012 Sep;42(9):1977-83
Date
Sep-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Adult Survivors of Child Abuse - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Case-Control Studies
Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)
Criminals - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Female
Gene-Environment Interaction
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Odds Ratio
Social Environment
Sweden
Twins, Dizygotic - genetics - psychology
Twins, Monozygotic - genetics - psychology
Violence - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Associations between child maltreatment and adult violence, often termed the 'cycle of violence', are well documented. However, the nature of such links after appropriate control for confounding remains uncertain. We aimed to determine whether child maltreatment causes adult violent offending or whether suggested links are due to genetic or family environment confounding.
A total of 18 083 20- to 47-year-old twins from the Swedish population-based Study of Twin Adults: Genes and Environment (STAGE) participated. We linked information on self-reported child maltreatment with national register data on convictions for adult crime. We used a case-control design to elucidate associations among unrelated individuals and also conducted within-discordant twin pair analyses to estimate the influence of familial confounding on this association.
The odds ratio (OR), adjusted for age, sex and education, for violent offending in maltreated children grown up versus unrelated controls was 1.98 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.52-2.57]. However, the association decreased to 1.18 (95% CI 0.62-2.25) when maltreated children were compared to their non-maltreated twins, suggesting substantial confounding by genetic or family environmental factors (within-twin OR1.00). Familial confounding was also pronounced for the association between child maltreatment and any offending.
Childhood maltreatment was found to be a weak causal risk factor for adult violent offending; hence, reducing maltreatment might decrease violent crime less than previously expected. Instead, considerable familial confounding of the link between child maltreatment and adult violent offending suggests that prevention strategies need to address overlapping genetic and/or family environmental liability for abusive and violent behavior.
PubMed ID
22236772 View in PubMed
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Co-occurring mental health and substance use problems in offenders: implications for risk assessment.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature132713
Source
Psychol Assess. 2012 Mar;24(1):77-87
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2012
Author
Mark A Ruiz
Kevin S Douglas
John F Edens
Natalia L Nikolova
Scott O Lilienfeld
Author Affiliation
Department of Mental Health Law and Policy, Florida Mental Health Institute, University of South Florida, Tampa, USA. mruiz@fmhi.usf.edu
Source
Psychol Assess. 2012 Mar;24(1):77-87
Date
Mar-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aggression - psychology
Canada - epidemiology
Comorbidity
Criminals - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Diagnosis, Dual (Psychiatry)
Female
Humans
Male
Mental Disorders - epidemiology - psychology
Middle Aged
Personality Inventory - statistics & numerical data
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Self Report
Severity of Illness Index
Sex Distribution
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology - psychology
Suicide
Young Adult
Abstract
We undertook a secondary data analysis to study issues relevant to co-occurring mental health and substance disorder in a combined sample of offenders (N = 3,197). Using the Personality Assessment Inventory, we compared the frequency of depressive, traumatic stress, and personality disorder symptom elevations across offenders with and without substance problems, identified the extent to which co-occurring problems were accompanied by risk factors for suicide and aggression, and tested for gender differences. Offenders with substance problems were more likely than others to have increased mental health problems and risk factors for suicide or aggression. Women with substance problems, compared with men, had higher depression, traumatic stress, and borderline features, in addition to lower antisocial features. The frequency with which suicide and aggression risk factors were associated with mental health problems was generally similar across men and women. Measurement issues relevant to co-occurring disorder and risk assessment are discussed.
PubMed ID
21787090 View in PubMed
Less detail

Crime and mortality in a population-based nationwide 1981 birth cohort: Results from the FinnCrime study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature280714
Source
Crim Behav Ment Health. 2017 Feb;27(1):15-26
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2017
Author
Henrik Elonheimo
Lauri Sillanmäki
André Sourander
Source
Crim Behav Ment Health. 2017 Feb;27(1):15-26
Date
Feb-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Cause of Death
Cohort Studies
Crime - statistics & numerical data
Criminals - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Homicide - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Mortality
Police
Registries
Risk
Sex Distribution
Suicide - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Offending is known to be associated with various health problems and premature death, but previous studies on associations between offending and mortality have often been only with men, convicted offenders or highly selected samples. A more sensitive measure of offending may be preferable when trying to understand the extent of health disadvantages among people who offend.
The aim of this paper was to study the associations between investigated offending, death and causes of death in a nationally representative birth cohort.
A broad concept of offending was used such that people who had had any contact with the police because they had been suspected of crime were included. Offending data were obtained from the National Police Register for 5405 men and women born in Finland in 1981, spanning their ages 15-30?years; mortality data were received from Statistics Finland. Offending was classified into four categories by frequency: none, 1-4 different offence contacts, 5-27 and 28 or more. Causes of death were categorised into natural, accidents, suicide or homicide. Of the cohort, 2304 (43%) had offended and 57 (1.1%) had died. Associations between offending, mortality and causes of death were analysed, controlling for parental education level and family structure in childhood.
The mortality rate was higher among offenders than non-offenders, increasing with rising frequency of offending. The most frequent offenders were nearly 30 times more likely to have died by age 30 than non-offenders (odds ratio 28.6, confidence interval 12.1-67.5); risk was higher for female than male offenders. Death among offenders was less likely to be from natural causes.
A heightened risk of premature death is the ultimate form of adverse outcome for offenders. Offenders' health is likely to need more attention as part of their overall management, for recidivists in particular. In our study, offenders' only certain criminal justice contact was with the police, so it may be that the police should take a greater role in signposting them towards health services. Offender treatment is needed not only to protect potential victims but also offenders themselves. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
PubMed ID
26307464 View in PubMed
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A description of sexual offending committed by Canadian teachers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature141823
Source
J Child Sex Abus. 2010 Jul;19(4):403-18
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2010
Author
Heather M Moulden
Philip Firestone
Drew A Kingston
Audrey F Wexler
Author Affiliation
University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Source
J Child Sex Abus. 2010 Jul;19(4):403-18
Date
Jul-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Canada
Child
Child Abuse, Sexual - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Child, Preschool
Crime Victims - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Criminals - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Faculty
Female
Humans
Interpersonal Relations
Male
Middle Aged
Professional Misconduct - psychology
Schools
Sexual Behavior - psychology
Students
Abstract
The aim of this investigation was to describe teachers who sexually offend against youth and the circumstances related to these offenses. Archival Violent Crime Linkage Analysis System reports were obtained from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and demographic and criminal characteristics for the offender, as well as information about the victim and offense, were selected for analyses. A descriptive approach was used to analyze the qualitative reports for a group of 113 Canadian sexual offenders between 1995 and 2002. The results provide a description of adult male teachers who offended within their position of trust as well as offense and victim characteristics.
PubMed ID
20672209 View in PubMed
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Diagnosed alcohol dependence and criminal sentencing among British Columbian Aboriginal offenders.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature270981
Source
Drug Alcohol Depend. 2015 Sep 1;154:192-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1-2015
Author
Emily S Rempel
Julian M Somers
John R Calvert
Lawrence C McCandless
Source
Drug Alcohol Depend. 2015 Sep 1;154:192-8
Date
Sep-1-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Alcoholism - diagnosis - epidemiology
British Columbia - epidemiology
Criminals - psychology - statistics & numerical data
European Continental Ancestry Group - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Indians, North American - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Inuits - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Male
Prevalence
Retrospective Studies
Risk factors
Self Report
Young Adult
Abstract
Alcohol use is commonly reported as a short-term criminal risk factor; however there is minimal research on the effects of alcohol dependence on crime. Canadian Aboriginal offenders exhibit both disproportionate crime and alcohol disorder prevalence. This study aims to examine the impact of diagnosed alcohol dependence on Aboriginal ethnicity and criminal sentencing in British Columbia.
We used an administrative linkage database of social, health and justice system variables to develop a retrospective cohort of 70,035 offenders sentenced through courts in British Columbia from 2001-2010. We used a coefficient difference mediation analysis to evaluate the mediating effect of alcohol dependence on the association between self-reported Aboriginal status and sentencing rate.
Aboriginal offenders had 1.92 (95% C.I.: 1.79,2.06) times higher odds of alcohol dependence than Caucasian offenders. Adjustment for health, social and demographic factors resulted in a 27% (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 15%, 33%) reduction in the association of Aboriginal ethnicity on sentencing. Adjustment for alcohol dependence resulted in only a further reduction of 2% (95% CI: -12%, 15%). Although alcohol dependence was associated both with Aboriginal ethnicity and sentencing, it did not have a significant mediating impact on sentencing rate.
Alcohol dependence was not a mediator for the relationship between sentencing rate and Aboriginal ethnicity. However, due to the proportion of offenders diagnosed with alcohol dependence, these results support alcohol misuse as an important public health policy target in this population.
PubMed ID
26183403 View in PubMed
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Driving frequency and Its impact on road rage offending and victimization: a view from opportunity theory.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature107157
Source
Violence Vict. 2013;28(4):602-18
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Mark Asbridge
Jennifer Butters
Author Affiliation
Department of Community Health and Epidemiology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. Mark.Asbridge@dal.ca
Source
Violence Vict. 2013;28(4):602-18
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Traffic - psychology
Adult
Aged
Automobile Driving - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Crime - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Crime Victims - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Criminals - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Interpersonal Relations
Male
Middle Aged
Nova Scotia
Rage
Risk assessment
Risk-Taking
Abstract
Road rage has been described as a key criminal justice and public health concern. Although research attention to this issue has expanded dramatically, most of this work has focused on the identification of predisposing individual factors. It is equally important to begin to assess those factors that may modify the likelihood of road rage including the broader structural opportunities that are connected with the propensity to be involved in a road rage incident. Drawing on opportunity theory, this article examines whether there is a relationship between increased opportunities to be involved in road rage and an increased likelihood of being a road rage victim or offender. The analysis is further extended to specifically test whether this relationship is linear, thereby examining the applicability of the opportunity saturation hypothesis. Using data from the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) Monitor, our findings support both the application of opportunity theory to understanding road rage and the presence of opportunity saturation. Although a clear relationship exists between kilometers driven and experiences of road rage, evidence emerged suggesting there may be a threshold whereby increased opportunities for road rage do not lead to road rage behavior.
PubMed ID
24047042 View in PubMed
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28 records – page 1 of 3.