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A 5-year follow-up study of adolescents who sought treatment for substance misuse in Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature107628
Source
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2014 May;23(5):347-60
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2014
Author
Sheilagh Hodgins
Sara Lövenhag
Mattias Rehn
Kent W Nilsson
Author Affiliation
Maria-Ungdom Research Centre, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2014 May;23(5):347-60
Date
May-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior - psychology
Antisocial Personality Disorder - diagnosis - epidemiology
Comorbidity
Crime - psychology
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Male
Mental Disorders - epidemiology
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
Parents
Patient Acceptance of Health Care - statistics & numerical data
Poverty - statistics & numerical data
Prevalence
Residence Characteristics
Risk factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Substance Abuse Treatment Centers
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology - psychology - therapy
Sweden - epidemiology
Urban Population
Violence - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Previous studies have shown that substance misuse in adolescence is associated with increased risks of hospitalizations for mental and physical disorders, convictions for crimes, poverty, and premature death from age 21 to 50. The present study examined 180 adolescent boys and girls who sought treatment for substance misuse in Sweden. The adolescents and their parents were assessed independently when the adolescents first contacted the clinic to diagnose mental disorders and collect information on maltreatment and antisocial behavior. Official criminal files were obtained. Five years later, 147 of the ex-clients again completed similar assessments. The objectives were (1) to document the prevalence of alcohol use disorders (AUD) and drug use disorders (DUD) in early adulthood; and (2) to identify family and individual factors measured in adolescence that predicted these disorders, after taking account of AUD and DUD in adolescence and treatment. Results showed that AUD, DUD, and AUD + DUD present in mid-adolescence were in most cases also present in early adulthood. Prediction models detected no positive effect of treatment in limiting persistence of these disorders. Thus, treatment-as-usual provided by the only psychiatric service for adolescents with substance misuse in a large urban center in Sweden failed to prevent the persistence of substance misuse. Despite extensive clinical assessments of the ex-clients and their parents, few factors assessed in mid-adolescence were associated with substance misuse disorders 5 years later. It may be that family and individual factors in early life promote the mental disorders that precede adolescent substance misuse.
PubMed ID
23989597 View in PubMed
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Adolescent use of illicit drugs and adult offending: a Swedish longitudinal study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature163047
Source
Drug Alcohol Rev. 2007 Jul;26(4):397-403
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2007
Author
Marlene Stenbacka
Håkan Stattin
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health Sciences, Stockholm Addiction Centre, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden. marlene.stenbacka@sll.se
Source
Drug Alcohol Rev. 2007 Jul;26(4):397-403
Date
Jul-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior - psychology
Adult
Crime - psychology
Criminology
Humans
Juvenile Delinquency - psychology
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Registries
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Street Drugs
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology - psychology
Sweden - epidemiology
Time Factors
Abstract
The main aim of this study was to examine the role of illicit drug use before the age of 18 years in developing a criminal career. The study included 7577 18-year-old men conscripted for military service in Stockholm County in 1969/1970. At enrolment they answered questions regarding alcohol and illicit drug use, social background, behavioural factors and health. Data on adult and adolescent criminality were obtained from official registers from the age of 15 to the age of 43. Subjects with self-reported drug use were registered significantly more often (p
PubMed ID
17564875 View in PubMed
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Advancing paternal age and offspring violent offending: a sibling-comparison study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature122731
Source
Dev Psychopathol. 2012 Aug;24(3):739-53
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2012
Author
Ralf Kuja-Halkola
Yudi Pawitan
Brian M D'Onofrio
Niklas Långström
Paul Lichtenstein
Author Affiliation
Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, P.O. Box 281, Stockholm 171 77, Sweden. ralf.kuja-halkola@ki.se
Source
Dev Psychopathol. 2012 Aug;24(3):739-53
Date
Aug-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Bipolar Disorder - epidemiology - genetics
Crime - psychology
Criminals - psychology
Fathers
Humans
Male
Paternal Age
Registries
Risk
Risk factors
Schizophrenia - epidemiology - genetics
Siblings - psychology
Sweden
Violence - psychology
Abstract
Children born to older fathers are at higher risk to develop severe psychopathology (e.g., schizophrenia and bipolar disorder), possibly because of increased de novo mutations during spermatogenesis with older paternal age. Because severe psychopathology is correlated with antisocial behavior, we examined possible associations between advancing paternal age and offspring violent offending. Interlinked Swedish national registers provided information on fathers' age at childbirth and violent criminal convictions in all offspring born from 1958 to 1979 (N = 2,359,921). We used ever committing a violent crime and number of violent crimes as indices of violent offending. The data included information on multiple levels; we compared differentially exposed siblings in within-family analyses to rigorously test causal influences. In the entire population, advancing paternal age predicted offspring violent crime according to both indices. Congruent with a causal effect, this association remained for rates of violent crime in within-family analyses. However, in within-family analyses, we found no association with ever committing a violent crime, suggesting that factors shared by siblings (genes and environment) confounded this association. Life-course persistent criminality has been proposed to have a partly biological etiology; our results agree with a stronger biological effect (i.e., de novo mutations) on persistent violent offending.
Notes
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PubMed ID
22781852 View in PubMed
Less detail

Adverse childhood experiences among women prisoners: relationships to suicide attempts and drug abuse.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature256618
Source
Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2014 Feb;60(1):40-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2014
Author
Christine Friestad
Rustad Åse-Bente
Ellen Kjelsberg
Author Affiliation
1Oslo University Hospital and Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Norway.
Source
Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2014 Feb;60(1):40-6
Date
Feb-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Child
Child Abuse - diagnosis - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Comorbidity
Crime - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Cross-Sectional Studies
Emigrants and Immigrants - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Family Conflict - psychology
Female
Humans
Interview, Psychological
Life Change Events
Likelihood Functions
Norway
Prisoners - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Risk factors
Risk-Taking
Spouse Abuse - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Statistics as Topic
Substance-Related Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Suicide, Attempted - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Women prisoners are known to suffer from an accumulation of factors known to increase the risk for several major health problems. This study examines the prevalence of adverse childhood experiences (ACE) and the relationship between such experiences and suicide attempts and drug use among incarcerated women in Norway.
A total of 141 women inmates (75% of all eligible) were interviewed using a structured interview guide covering information on demographics and a range of ACE related to abuse and neglect, and household dysfunction. The main outcome variables were attempted suicide and adult drug abuse.
Emotional, physical and sexual abuse during childhood was experienced by 39%, 36% and 19%, respectively, and emotional and physical neglect by 31% and 33%, respectively. Looking at the full range of ACE, 17% reported having experienced none, while 34% reported having experienced more than five ACEs. After controlling for age, immigrant background and marital status, the number of ACEs significantly increased the risk of attempted suicide and current drug abuse.
The associations observed between early life trauma and later health risk behaviour indicate the need for early prevention. The findings also emphasize the important role of prison health services in secondary prevention among women inmates.
PubMed ID
23045353 View in PubMed
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American Indian/Alaska Native alcohol-related incarceration and treatment.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature77302
Source
Am Indian Alsk Native Ment Health Res. 2006;13(3):1-22
Publication Type
Article
Date
2006
Author
Feldstein Sarah W
Venner Kamilla L
May Philip A
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131-1161, USA.
Source
Am Indian Alsk Native Ment Health Res. 2006;13(3):1-22
Date
2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Alcoholism - ethnology - rehabilitation
American Native Continental Ancestry Group - ethnology - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Analysis of Variance
Crime - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Male
Mental Health Services - utilization
Middle Aged
New Mexico
Patient Acceptance of Health Care
Rehabilitation - methods
Retrospective Studies
Sex Distribution
United States - epidemiology
Abstract
American Indian/Alaska Natives have high rates of alcohol-related arrests and are overrepresented in justice systems. To understand the relationship between alcohol dependence, treatment, and alcohol-related incarceration, this study queried American Indian/Alaska Natives currently in remission from alcohol dependence. Participants reported receiving 0 to 43 treatment experiences. Moreover, participants had a significantly greater number of alcohol-related incarcerations than all other treatments combined. These findings underline the importance of making alcohol treatment available within criminal justice settings.
PubMed ID
17602406 View in PubMed
Less detail
Source
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law. 2007;35(4):469-80
Publication Type
Article
Date
2007
Author
Dominique Bourget
Laurie Whitehurst
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychiatry, University of Ottawa. dbourget@rohcg.on.ca
Source
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law. 2007;35(4):469-80
Date
2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Amnesia - etiology - physiopathology
Crime - psychology
Forensic Psychiatry
Humans
Ontario
Psychotic Disorders
Sleep Disorders - complications
Abstract
Amnesia for serious offenses has important legal implications, particularly regarding its relevance in the contexts of competency to stand trial and criminal responsibility. Forensic psychiatrists and other mental health professionals are often required to provide expert testimony regarding amnesia in defendants. However, the diagnosis of amnesia presents a challenge, as claims of memory impairment may stem from organic disease, dissociative amnesia, amnesia due to a psychotic episode, or malingered amnesia. We review the theoretical, clinical, and legal perspectives on amnesia in relation to crime and present relevant cases that demonstrate several types of crime-related amnesia and their legal repercussions. Consideration of the presenting clinical features of crime-related amnesia may enable a fuller understanding of the different types of amnesia and assist clinicians in the medico-legal assessment and diagnosis of the claimed memory impairment. The development of a profile of aspects characteristic of crime-related amnesia would build toward establishing guidelines for the assessment of amnesia in legal contexts.
Notes
Comment In: J Am Acad Psychiatry Law. 2008;36(2):218-2318583698
PubMed ID
18086739 View in PubMed
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An examination of the relationship of homelessness to mental disorder, criminal behaviour, and health care in a pretrial jail population.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature211183
Source
Can J Psychiatry. 1996 Sep;41(7):435-40
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1996
Author
P A Zapf
R. Roesch
S D Hart
Author Affiliation
Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia.
Source
Can J Psychiatry. 1996 Sep;41(7):435-40
Date
Sep-1996
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
British Columbia
Crime - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Homeless Persons - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Male
Mental Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Patient Acceptance of Health Care - statistics & numerical data
Patient Care Team - utilization
Personality Assessment
Prisoners - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Psychotic Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Violence - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
To examine the prevalence of homelessness and its relationship to mental disorder, criminal behaviour, and health care.
Interview and file data were collected for 790 male admissions to a large, pretrial jail facility over a 12-month period.
A significant relationship was found between homelessness and severe mental disorder as well as between homelessness and prior psychiatric history. There were no significant differences found between the homeless and the nonhomeless on the types of crimes for which they were incarcerated or on contact with health care services within the past year.
The findings indicate the need for a link between the jail and community services for homeless individuals.
Notes
Erratum In: Can J Psychiatry 1997 Mar;42(2):212
PubMed ID
8884032 View in PubMed
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An investigation of risk and protective factors in a sample of youthful offenders.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature212030
Source
J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 1996 May;37(4):419-24
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1996
Author
R D Hoge
D A Andrews
L W Leschied
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychology, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada.
Source
J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 1996 May;37(4):419-24
Date
May-1996
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Achievement
Adolescent
Canada
Child
Child of Impaired Parents - psychology
Crime - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Family - psychology
Female
Humans
Juvenile Delinquency - prevention & control - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Male
Peer Group
Personality Assessment
Risk
Social Adjustment
Abstract
The study explored a set of potential risk and protective factors in relation to criminal activity and adjustment with a group of delinquent youths. The results indicated, first, that risk variables reflecting family relationship and parenting problems were associated with heightened rates of re-offending and lower overall adjustment. Second, the presence of protective factors relating to positive peer relations, good school achievement, positive response to authority and effective use of leisure time was associated with more positive outcomes with controls for the risk variables. Third, there was no evidence of interaction between risk and protective factors; the latter operated similarly at low and high levels of risk. These results are discussed in terms of their theoretical and applied significance.
PubMed ID
8735441 View in PubMed
Less detail

Antidepressant use and violent crimes among young people: a longitudinal examination of the Finnish 1987 birth cohort.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289550
Source
J Epidemiol Community Health. 2017 01; 71(1):12-18
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
01-2017
Author
Elina Hemminki
Marko Merikukka
Mika Gissler
Kristian Wahlbeck
Jukka Savolainen
Tiina Ristikari
Mikko Aaltonen
Author Affiliation
THL, Health and Social Care Systems, Helsinki, Finland.
Source
J Epidemiol Community Health. 2017 01; 71(1):12-18
Date
01-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adolescent
Antidepressive Agents - therapeutic use
Crime - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Risk factors
Violence - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
The use of antidepressants, especially selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), has been questioned due to poor efficacy and safety. We examined whether young violent offenders were more likely antidepressant users prior to their first violent offence than other young persons.
The study is a follow-up of children born in Finland in 1987 (n=59 120), linking national registers to each other using personal identity codes. Data on psychotropic drug use came from a register of reimbursed drugs and data on crimes from a register on court convictions (after the age of 14 years). Participants were followed until the age of 18 years, and for some analyses until the end of the follow-up (mean 21 years). To adjust for differences in background characteristics, regression analyses for antidepressant use were made, using the no-conviction group as the reference.
Proportions of young people convicted by the age of 18 years were: 5% of boys (1.7% for violent crimes) and 1% (0.5%) of girls. Antidepressant use (both overall and for SSRIs) prior to violent crime was more common among those convicted than among those without convictions. Among boys with repeated violent crimes, it was also more common than among boys with non-violent crimes. Adjustment for differences in background characteristics decreased the associations between antidepressant use and violent crime, but did not eliminate them.
The results add further evidence for caution in prescribing antidepressants among young persons. It also calls for a reanalysis of violence measures in the original trial data.
PubMed ID
27354489 View in PubMed
Less detail

Antidepressant use and violent crimes among young people: a longitudinal examination of the Finnish 1987 birth cohort.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289708
Source
J Epidemiol Community Health. 2017 01; 71(1):12-18
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
01-2017
Author
Elina Hemminki
Marko Merikukka
Mika Gissler
Kristian Wahlbeck
Jukka Savolainen
Tiina Ristikari
Mikko Aaltonen
Author Affiliation
THL, Health and Social Care Systems, Helsinki, Finland.
Source
J Epidemiol Community Health. 2017 01; 71(1):12-18
Date
01-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adolescent
Antidepressive Agents - therapeutic use
Crime - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Risk factors
Violence - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
The use of antidepressants, especially selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), has been questioned due to poor efficacy and safety. We examined whether young violent offenders were more likely antidepressant users prior to their first violent offence than other young persons.
The study is a follow-up of children born in Finland in 1987 (n=59 120), linking national registers to each other using personal identity codes. Data on psychotropic drug use came from a register of reimbursed drugs and data on crimes from a register on court convictions (after the age of 14 years). Participants were followed until the age of 18 years, and for some analyses until the end of the follow-up (mean 21 years). To adjust for differences in background characteristics, regression analyses for antidepressant use were made, using the no-conviction group as the reference.
Proportions of young people convicted by the age of 18 years were: 5% of boys (1.7% for violent crimes) and 1% (0.5%) of girls. Antidepressant use (both overall and for SSRIs) prior to violent crime was more common among those convicted than among those without convictions. Among boys with repeated violent crimes, it was also more common than among boys with non-violent crimes. Adjustment for differences in background characteristics decreased the associations between antidepressant use and violent crime, but did not eliminate them.
The results add further evidence for caution in prescribing antidepressants among young persons. It also calls for a reanalysis of violence measures in the original trial data.
PubMed ID
27354489 View in PubMed
Less detail

121 records – page 1 of 13.