The goal of these experiments was to test the hypothesis that day length influences anxious- and depressive-like behaviors in reproductively photoperiodic rodents. Male and female Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) were exposed to long (16 h light/day; LD) or short (8 h light/day; SD) photoperiods beginning at the time of weaning (day 18). Two weeks later hamsters were subjected to a series of behavioral tests to quantify anxiety-and depressive-like behaviors. In an elevated plus maze, SD males exhibited longer latencies to enter an open arm, entered fewer open arms, and spent less time exploring open arms relative to LD hamsters. SD males were likewise slower to enter either of the distal arms of a completely enclosed T-maze, and in a hunger-motivated exploratory paradigm SD males were slower to enter an open arena for food as compared to LD males. In a forced-swimming model of behavioral despair, SD males exhibited immobility sooner, more often, and for a greater total amount of time relative to LD males. Total activity levels, aversiveness to light, olfactory function, and limb strength were unaffected by SD, suggesting that the behavioral changes consequent to SD are not attributable to sensory or motor deficits, but rather may arise from changes in general affective state. The anxiogenic and depressive effects of SD were largely absent in female hamsters. Together the results indicate that adaptation to short photoperiods is associated with increased expression of anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors relative to those observed under LD photoperiod conditions.
HLA-DR2 is negatively associated with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). The aim of the present study was to analyze DR2-positive patients among 425 consecutively diagnosed unrelated Swedish children with IDDM and in 367 matched controls. HLA-DRB, -DQA and -DQB were determined by Taq I restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and hybridization with sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes was done for DQA1, DQB1 and DRB1 and DRB5. DR2 was positive in 11/425 patients (3%) and 101/367 (28%) controls (OR 0.07, p
Some indices of the antioxidant status (content of the alpha-tocopherol, reduced glutathione and ascorbic acid, activity of the glutathione reductase and aryl-esterase) and lipid peroxidation processes in the liver, blood serum, and some blood serum lipoprotein fractions of the Golden Syrian hamsters of different sex and age status under high-caloric diet were investigated. It has been shown that the hypercaloric diet leads to a decreaseng of reduced glutathione content and increase of the level of lipid peroxidation products in the liver of experimental animals. The ascorbic acids content in male liver is decreased and in female liver is increased. In the blood serum under hypercaloric nutrition the accumulation of lipid peroxidation products and alpha-tocopherol content a decrease in ApoB-lipoproteins and HDL is observed. Simultaneously the ascorbic acid content is increased in the blood serum of all experimental animals. Activation of free-radical oxidation both in the liver, and blood serum is more significant in males compared with females. The data obtained allow to suppose that atherosclerotic complications of metabolic syndrome development may be connected to the lipoprotein oxidant status infringement.
Murine neuroblastoma (NA-C1300) and baby hamster kidney (BHK-21/C13) cell cultures were infected with the Canadian Arctic strain of rabies virus. Subcultures were passed following incubation for 3 to 4 days at 35 degrees C. The supernatant fluids from the BHK cultures demonstrated increasing infectivity in both NA and BHK cells concomitantly with an increase in the number of parent cells staining with an anti-glycoprotein stain. On the other hand, the supernatant fluids from the NA cultures initially showed higher infectivity in NA cells than in BHK cells. This feature was related to a low production of glycoprotein-staining cells in the parent NA cultures. The reduction of infectivity in NA cells of some NA supernatant fluids (and brain suspensions) by anti-nucleoprotein antibodies suggests that nucleocapsid material is, in some manner, capable of infecting NA cells. Infectivity of this virus strain in experimental mice is also related to the production of glycoprotein and may not be correlated with the degree of infection in NA cell cultures.
Contributions of alkenes to cancer risk from urban air pollution were estimated on the basis of radiation dose equivalent of target dose. The latter was inferred from the incremental carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) level in urban areas, the ratio of epoxide-haemoglobin adducts to COHb levels in smokers and the alkenes/CO level ratios in cigarette smoke and urban air. This model predicts some 200 and 5 cancer cases annually in Sweden from ethene and propene, respectively. This indicates that the risk from alkenes is of the same order of magnitude as that from the particulate fraction of the pollution.
Seven-day cycles in spontaneous activity were found in wild animals (recently trapped Norway rats, chipmunks, ground squirrels, and squirrel monkeys), but not in tame domesticated animals (laboratory Norway rats and hamsters). This 7-day cycle turned out to be a function of emotional reaction of the wild animals to hitherto overlooked slight differences in activities of relevant human beings between weekdays and weekends. Elimination of ability of wild animals to react to slight environment differences by blinding or deafening abolished the 7-day cycles. No definite evidence has been found for the presence of inherent 7-day cycles in animals or man.
Direct tests of the hypothesized total body fat regulatory system have been accomplished by partial surgical lipectomy. This usually results in the restoration of the lipid deficit through compensatory increases in nonexcised white adipose tissue (WAT) masses of ground squirrels, laboratory rats, and mice, as well as Siberian and Syrian hamsters. We challenged this hypothesized total body fat regulatory system by testing the response of Siberian hamsters to 1) lipid deficits [lipectomy; primarily bilateral epididymal WAT (EWAT) removal], 2) lipid surfeits (addition of donor EWAT with no lipectomy), 3) no net change in lipid [EWAT or inguinal WAT (IWAT) lipectomy with the excised fat replaced to a new location (autologous)], 4) lipectomy with the same pad (EWAT lipectomy only) added from a sibling (nonautologous), and 5) sham surgeries for each treatment. Food intake generally was not affected. Body mass was not affected across all treatments. Grafts approximately 3 mo later had normal appearance both macro- and microscopically and were revascularized. The normal lipectomy-induced compensatory increases in nonexcised WAT masses surprisingly were exaggerated with autologous EWAT transplants, but not for autologous IWAT or nonautologous EWAT transplants. There was no compensatory decrease in native WAT masses with nonautologous EWAT additions. Collectively, only lipectomy triggered reparation of the lipid deficit, but the other manipulations did not, suggesting a system biased toward rectifying decreases in lipid or an inability of the hypothesized total body fat regulatory system to recognize WAT transplants.