The perioperative and long-term risks for living kidney donors are of concern. We have studied donors at the University of Minnesota 20 years or more (mean 23.7) after donation by comparing renal function, blood pressure, and proteinuria in donors with siblings. In 57 donors (mean age 61 [SE 1]), mean serum creatinine is 1.1 (0.01) mg/dl, blood urea nitrogen 17 (0.5) mg/dl, creatinine clearance 82 (2) ml/min, and blood pressure 134 (2)/80 (1) mm Hg. 32% of the donors are taking antihypertensive drugs and 23% have proteinuria. The 65 siblings (mean age 58 [1.3]) do not significantly differ from the donors in any of these variables: 1.1 (0.03) mg/dl, 17 (1.2) mg/dl, 89 (3.3) ml/min, and 130 (3)/80 (1.5) mm Hg, respectively. 44% of the siblings are taking antihypertensives and 22% have proteinuria. To assess perioperative mortality, we surveyed all members of the American Society of Transplant Surgeons about donor mortality at their institutions. We documented 17 perioperative deaths in the USA and Canada after living donation, and estimate mortality to be 0.03%. We conclude that perioperative mortality in the USA and Canada after living-donor nephrectomy is low. In long-term follow-up of our living donors, we found no evidence of progressive renal deterioration or other serious disorders.
Comment In: Lancet. 1992 Nov 28;340(8831):1354-51360068
Kidney transplantation is the optimal treatment for many patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Due to shortage of donor kidneys in Denmark, there is a need to expand the possibilities for donation. At the Odense University Hospital (OUH), we have introduced ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation. We used antigenspecific immunoadsorptions to remove blood group antibodies and anti-CD20 antibody (rituximab) to inhibit the antibody production. The aim of introducing the ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation at the OUH was to increase the rate of living donor kidney transplantation without increasing rejection or mortality rates.
Retrospective evaluation. Eleven patients received ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation. The patients were followed for 3-26 months.
One patient had an antibody-mediated rejection, one patient suffered T-cell-mediated rejection, and one patient died of myocardial infarction with a functioning graft on the third post-operative day. Both rejections were treated effectively. Among the patients, the average serum creatinine level was 128 micromol/l.
The rejection and mortality rates for ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation at the OUH are similar to the results from ABO-compatible kidney transplantations performed at the OUH and at other hospitals.
Ethnic disparities in access to health care and health outcomes are well documented. It is unclear whether similar differences exist between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people with chronic kidney disease in Canada. We determined whether access to care differed between status Aboriginal people (Aboriginal people registered under the federal Indian Act) and non-Aboriginal people with chronic kidney disease.
We identified 106 511 non-Aboriginal and 1182 Aboriginal patients with chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerular filtration rate less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2)). We compared outcomes, including hospital admissions, that may have been preventable with appropriate outpatient care (ambulatory-care-sensitive conditions) as well as use of specialist services, including visits to nephrologists and general internists.
Aboriginal people were almost twice as likely as non-Aboriginal people to be admitted to hospital for an ambulatory-care-sensitive condition (rate ratio 1.77, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.46-2.13). Aboriginal people with severe chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerular filtration rate
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The recently established international cystatin C calibrator makes it possible to develop non-laboratory specific glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimating (eGFR) equations. This study compares the performance of the arithmetic mean of the revised Lund-Malmö creatinine and CAPA cystatin C equations (MEANLM-REV+CAPA), the arithmetic mean of the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation (CKD-EPI) creatinine and cystatin C equations (MEANCKD-EPI), and the composite CKD-EPI equation (CKD-EPICREA+CYSC) with the corresponding single marker equations using internationally standardized calibrators for both cystatin C and creatinine.
The study included 1200 examinations in 1112 adult Swedish patients referred for measurement of GFR (mGFR) 2008-2010 by plasma clearance of iohexol (median 51 mL/min/1.73 m2). Bias, precision (interquartile range, IQR) and accuracy (percentage of estimates ±30% of mGFR; P30) were compared.
Combined marker equations were unbiased and had higher precision and accuracy than single marker equations. Overall results of MEANLM-REV+CAPA/MEANCKD-EPI/CKD-EPICREA+CYSC were: median bias -2.2%/-0.5%/-1.6%, IQR 9.2/9.2/8.8 mL/min/1.73 m2, and P30 91.3%/91.0%/91.1%. The P30 figures were about 7-14 percentage points higher than the single marker equations. The combined equations also had a more stable performance across mGFR, age and BMI intervals, generally with P30 =90% and never
To measure blood IL-6, IL-10, creatinine levels, calcium, sodium and potassium in blood and saliva, melatonin in urine of patients with acute coronary syndrome without ST segment elevation for the prediction of the clinical course at the post-hospital stage.
The study included 93 patients with complicated (n = 46) and uncomplicated (n = 47) coronary syndrome without ST segment elevation. Blood IL-6, IL-1, creatinine levels, calcium, sodium and potassium in blood and saliva, melatoni n in urine were determined on days 1-3 after hospitalization. 6-hydroxymelatonin was measured by HPLC in urine collected between 23 p.m. and 8 a.m., melatonin i in urine collected between 8 a.m. and 23 p.m.
Complicated coronary syndrome was associated with increased levels of melatonin (night), blood IL-10 and Na, salivary, Na and Ca while the uncomplicated condition with increased blood melatonin (daytime), IL-6, creatinine, Ca, Na, K, and salivary K. 90 patients were followed up within 12 months after discharge. End-points developed in 36 (40%) of them. Logistic analysis yielded variables and 2 logistic regression equations The data on night melatonin +5 and +4 were included in ROC analysis. The night melatonin +5 values over 0.7453 were associated with increased risk of complications in the post-hospital period (6 months) and values of 0.7453 or lower with the enhanced probability of uncomplicated clinical course. Prognostic sensitivity was estimated at 90%, specificity at -54.39%. The night melatonin +4 values over 0.2903 were associated with increased risk of complications in the post-hospital period (12 months) and values of 0.2903 or lower with the enhanced probability of uncomplicated clinical course. Prognostic sensitivity was estimated at 77.8%, specificity at -59.26%.
The night melatonin +5 and +4 models can be used to predict the clinical course of acute coronary syndrome during 6 and 12 months of the post-hospitalization period.
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and is associated with adverse outcomes. However, the relationship between AKI after CABG and the long-term risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is unknown.
This study included 29 330 patients who underwent primary isolated CABG in Sweden between 2000 and 2008. AKI was classified according to the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) classification: stage 1, >0.3 mg/dL (>26 µmol/L) or 50% to 100% increase; stage 2, 100% to 200% increase; and stage 3, >200% increase from the preoperative to postoperative serum creatinine level. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to calculate hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals for ESRD in AKIN stage 1 and stage 2 to 3. Postoperative AKI occurred in 13% of patients. During a mean follow-up of 4.3±2.4 years, 123 patients (0.4%) developed ESRD, including 50 (1.6%) in AKIN stage 1, 29 (5.2%) in AKIN stage 2 to 3, and 44 (0.2%) without AKI after CABG. After multivariable adjustment, the hazard ratio for ESRD was 2.92 (95% confidence interval, 1.87-4.55) for AKIN stage 1 and 3.81 (95% confidence interval, 2.14-6.79) for AKIN stage 2 to 3.
This nationwide study of patients who underwent CABG found that a small increase in the postoperative serum creatinine level was associated with an almost 3-fold increase in the long-term risk of ESRD after adjustment for a number of confounders, including preoperative renal function.
Acute kidney injury (AKI) after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is associated with early mortality. Its impact on the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) over time and long-term mortality has not been well described.
We performed a nationwide population-based cohort study in 27,929 patients who underwent a first isolated CABG between 2000 and 2008 in Sweden. Acute kidney injury was divided into three categories based on the absolute increase in postoperative serum creatinine (sCr) concentration compared with the preoperative baseline: stage 1, sCr increase of 0.3 to 0.5mg/dL; stage 2, sCr increase of >0.5 to 1.0mg/dL and stage 3, sCr increase of = 1.0mg/dL.
The overall incidence of postoperative AKI was 13%, 6.3% met the criterion for stage 1, 4.3% for stage 2 and 2.3% for stage 3. During a mean follow-up of 5.0 years, there were 2119 (7.6%) MIs and 4679 (17%) deaths. Multivariable adjusted hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals for MI were 1.35 (1.15 to 1.57), 1.80 (1.53 to 2.13) and 1.63 (1.29 to 2.07), in AKI stages 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The corresponding hazard ratios for all-cause mortality were 1.30 (1.17 to 1.44), 1.65 (1.48 to 1.83) and 2.68 (2.37 to 3.03), respectively.
Our results show that AKI after CABG is associated with an increased long-term risk of MI and death.
to estimate the frequency and severity of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with stroke and the influence of AKI on intra-hospital lethality.
180 patients with stroke. 8 (4.4%) of them died within 24 hr after admission. It was impossible to diagnose AKI in these patients from serum creatinine dynamics. The development of AKI was followed up in the remaining 80 (47.1%) men and 91 (52.9%) women (mean age 66.6 ± 11.2 yr). AKI was diagnosed and classified as recommended by KDIGO (2012).
AKI was documented in 47 (27.3%) patients including 13 (41.9%) and 34 (24.1%) with hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke respectively. Logistic regressive analysis revealed association of in-hospital lethality with AKI (relative risk 2.5; 95%, CI 1.7-3.8) regardless of sex, age, stroke type, duration of the disease prior to hospitalisation, arterial hypertension, and diabetes.
stroke is complicated by AKI in every fourth patient; in combination, they significantly increase intra-hospital lethality.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate acute kidney injury (AKI) with cystatin C following transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) and to assess the impact of postoperative AKI on outcome and late renal function.
A prospective study.
Single, tertiary referral center.
Sixty-eight consecutive patients with severe aortic stenosis and advanced comorbidity.
Blood samples were collected on 4 occasions pre- and postoperatively to determine levels of s-creatinine and cystatin C. Additionally, a sample was collected at followup 12 months postoperatively for the determination of s-creatinine.
The mean preoperative eGFR (s-creatinine) was 67±24 mL/min/1.73 m² compared to 45±21 mL/min/1.73 m² with eGFR (cystatin C) (p
To investigate the prognostic importance of acute kidney injury on early mortality, postoperative stroke, and mediastinitis in patients undergoing a first isolated coronary artery bypass grafting.
7594 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting with information on pre- and postoperative serum-creatinine values were included. Patients were classified using the Acute Kidney Injury Network classification. Odds ratios (OR) for mortality and postoperative complications within 60 days of surgery were calculated after adjustment for confounders separately for stage 1 and for stages 2 and 3 together.
1047 (14%) patients developed acute kidney injury. There were 132 (1.7%) deaths, 103 (1.4%) strokes and 118 (1.6%) cases of mediastinitis during follow-up. Among patients in stage 1 the adjusted odds ratio for death was 4.36 (95% confidence interval 2.83-6.71) and for stage 2 plus 3; 21.5 (12.0-38.6) compared to patients without acute kidney injury. Corresponding OR for stroke were 2.34 (1.43-3.82) and 6.52 (2.97-14.3) and for mediastinitis 2.88 (1.84-4.50) and 4.68 (2.07-10.6), respectively.
Acute kidney injury following coronary artery bypass grafting is related to postoperative mortality, stroke, and mediastinitis. Patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting should be assessed for presence of acute kidney injury postoperatively, in order to predict early prognosis.