A survey of all amateur boxing matches in Denmark was made during a 3 year period. Data was gathered on means by which bouts were ended by the referee or attending physician, such as knock outs or blows to the head. A total of 5272 matches were fought: 3240 were senior matches (over age 19) and 2032 were junior matches (ages 17 to 19). Prophylactic intervention--unlimited length of hand bandage, voluntary use of boxing helmets, and heavier gloves for boxers greater than 149 pounds--did not affect the frequency of matches being stopped because of knock outs or blows to the head.
Comment In: Am J Sports Med. 1990 Sep-Oct;18(5):5612252100
The impact attenuating characteristics of a sample of 81 football helmets used in competitive high school programs were determined using a Hodgson-Wayne State University (WSU) headform and a modified National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment (NOCSAE) test protocol. The helmets, classified by liner type as suspension (37), padded-suspension (22), and padded (22) had been in use for 6 to 8 years. Each was subjected to two consecutive right rear boss impacts from a drop height of 1.5 m, onto a rigid anvil covered with a 45 durometer hardness rubber pad. Analogue signals from a triaxial accelerometer located at the center of gravity of the headform were analogue to digital (A/D) converted at 6060.6 Hz and processed on a Hewlett Packard 9845B minicomputer to yield a resultant acceleration-time curve from which peak acceleration (gpeak) and the Gadd Severity Index (GSI) were determined. The mean gpeak was 205 g for helmets with suspension liners, 165 g for helmets with padded-suspension liners, and 156 g for helmets with padded liners. Twenty-four suspension helmets and five padded or padded-suspension helmets had GSI values greater than 1200. Using a criterion of GSI1500, the failure rate for suspension helmets was 19% compared to 2% for padded and padded-suspension helmets combined. If the criterion chosen was GSI1200, the failure rate for suspension helmets was 65% as opposed to 11% for the padded and padded-suspension helmets combined. Suspension helmets are decidedly inferior under impact conditions to the padded and padded-suspension helmets.
Is it possible to substantially reduce the incidence of injuries related to cycling through the provision of information on helmet wearing? This issue has been investigated in Skaraborg County, Sweden, where 90 percent of all pre-school children now use bicycle helmets. For children under 15, there was an average annual decrease in all bicycle-related injuries of 3.1 percent, equivalent to a decrease of 48 percent over the study period, 1978-93 (for head injuries, 59%). Sweden as a whole showed a reduction of 32 percent in bicycle-related injuries (head injuries, 43%). In Skaraborg, children have been the target of helmet-wearing programs at local and regional levels since 1982, and at national level since 1987. The elderly have not been targeted in helmet-wearing programs; currently, they scarcely wear helmets at all, and showed a significant increase in their injury rate over the period (4.7% annually). The number of concussions sustained by helmet-wearers is estimated to be one-third fewer than that of non-wearers. Comparisons with Australia and some parts of the U.S.A. indicate that, despite the significant decrease in Skaraborg, greater effects might be achievable if information is supplemented by compulsory-helmet-wearing legislation.
The bicycle helmet use rate is still low among teenagers despite the cumulating evidence that bicycle helmets can prevent cyclists from serious injuries and death. The objective of this study was to investigate the usefulness of the Health Belief Model (HBM; Health Education Monographs, 2 (1974) (1), Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB; Ajzen, I. (1988). Attitudes, personality and behavior. Open University Press, Milton Keynes) and Locus of Control model (LC; Psychological Monographs, (1966) (80) in understanding the intention to use bicycle helmet use among bicycle helmet owners.
Data were collected at two schools in Helsinki, Finland. Students (N=965) completed a questionnaire including three social psychological models applied to helmet use. Models were compared by structural equation modeling techniques.
Results showed that the TPB and LC model fitted the data well, whereas fit of the HBM model was lower than the fit of TPB and LC models. All components of TPB and external LC orientation were significantly related to the intention to use a helmet. TPB together with LC model provide a promising theoretical framework for helmet use promotion campaigns. Practical suggestions for future bicycle helmet campaigns were provided.