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[Can fatal head injuries be prevented?].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature174695
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2005 May 19;125(10):1309
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-19-2005

The effects of vehicle mass, speed and safety belt wearing on the causes of death in road traffic accidents.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature240965
Source
Ann Chir Gynaecol. 1984;73(1):14-20
Publication Type
Article
Date
1984
Author
J. Tolonen
O. Kiviluoto
S. Santavirta
P. Slätis
Source
Ann Chir Gynaecol. 1984;73(1):14-20
Date
1984
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Traffic
Automobiles
Craniocerebral Trauma - etiology - mortality - prevention & control
Finland
Humans
Physical Phenomena
Physics
Seat Belts
Wounds and Injuries - etiology - mortality - prevention & control
Abstract
The present investigation was based on the files of the Boards of Traffic Accident Investigation of insurance companies with regard to those fatal motor-car accidents in Finland during the period 1972-1979, where the driver or front seat passenger had died. The analysis concerned a total of 1197 fatalities. In collisions where the other vehicle had been clearly heavier (mass distribution smaller than 1/5) head injuries were significantly (p less than 0.001) more often found as the main cause of death (57.3%) than was the case when colliding vehicles had approximately the same weight (mass distribution 2/3-3/2), in which case head injuries were found in 37.8% of the cases to be the main cause of death. When the speed was over 80 kph , the number of head injuries as the main cause of death increased significantly (p less than 0.001) in collisions where the vehicles had approximately the same weight (mass distribution 2/3-3/2) and in single accidents of motor-cars. The wearing of seat belts had an effect on the distribution of causes of death in single accidents of motor-cars and in collisions where the vehicles had approximately the same weight but did not effect the distribution of causes of death in collisions where the other vehicle was clearly heavier. In single accidents of motor-cars where the victims had not used seat belts, there were more head injuries (54.2%) as the main cause of death than in victims who had used seat belts (head injuries in 36.8% as the main cause of death). In collisions where the vehicles had approximately the same weight, cervical spine injuries were more common causes of death in victims who had used seat belts than in those who had not (21.3%/13.7%). The mechanism of fatal cervical spine injuries in victims who had used seat belts was the rapid bending of the neck due to maximal deceleration in 38% of cases.
PubMed ID
6732152 View in PubMed
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Head and face injuries in bicyclists--with special reference to possible effects of helmet use.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature36524
Source
J Trauma. 1992 Dec;33(6):887-93
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1992
Author
U. Björnstig
M. Oström
A. Eriksson
E. Sonntag-Oström
Author Affiliation
Umeå Accident Analysis Group, University- and Regional Hospital of Umeå, Sweden.
Source
J Trauma. 1992 Dec;33(6):887-93
Date
Dec-1992
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Bicycling - injuries - statistics & numerical data
Brain Injuries - etiology - mortality - prevention & control
Child
Craniocerebral Trauma - etiology - mortality - prevention & control
Facial Injuries - etiology - mortality - prevention & control
Head Protective Devices - statistics & numerical data
Hematoma, Subdural - etiology
Humans
Middle Aged
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Fatal and nonfatal head and face injuries to unhelmeted bicyclists were analyzed to assess the injury-reducing potential of bicycle helmet use. Of the fatally injured, 64% (median age, 55 years) had fatal head and face injuries compared with 38% (median age, 18 years) with head and face injuries in the nonfatal injury group. The fatally injured often had multiple impact points, mostly to the occipital and temporal regions. Brain contusions, most often to the frontal and temporal lobes, were the most common cause of fatal injury, followed by subdural hematomas. In the nonfatal injury group abrasions/lacerations were most common type of injury, followed by cerebral concussions/contusions and superficial contusions. If all types of injuries to bicyclists are taken into account a helmet might have had an injury-reducing effect in two of every five fatal cases and in one of every five nonfatal cases. To increase the helmet use among bicyclists, a law, as in Australia, would be an excellent instrument.
PubMed ID
1474633 View in PubMed
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Nonuse of bicycle helmets and risk of fatal head injury: a proportional mortality, case-control study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature119815
Source
CMAJ. 2012 Nov 20;184(17):E921-3
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-20-2012
Author
Navindra Persaud
Emily Coleman
Dorothy Zwolakowski
Bert Lauwers
Dan Cass
Author Affiliation
Office of the Chief Coroner for Ontario, Toronto, Ont. nav.persaud@utoronto.ca
Source
CMAJ. 2012 Nov 20;184(17):E921-3
Date
Nov-20-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Bicycling - injuries
Child
Craniocerebral Trauma - etiology - mortality - prevention & control
Female
Head Protective Devices - utilization
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Odds Ratio
Ontario - epidemiology
Risk assessment
Young Adult
Abstract
The effectiveness of helmets at preventing cycling fatalities, a leading cause of death among young adults worldwide, is controversial, and safety regulations for cycling vary by jurisdiction. We sought to determine whether nonuse of helmets is associated with an increased risk of fatal head injury.
We used a case-control design involving 129 fatalities using data from a coroner's review of cycling deaths in Ontario, Canada, between 2006 and 2010. We defined cases as cyclists who died as a result of head injuries; we defined controls as cyclists who died as a result of other injuries. The exposure variable was nonuse of a bicycle helmet.
Not wearing a helmet while cycling was associated with an increased risk of dying as a result of sustaining a head injury (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 3.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3-7.3). We saw the same relationship when we excluded people younger than 18 years from the analysis (adjusted OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.4-8.5) and when we used a more stringent case definition (i.e., only a head injury with no other substantial injuries; adjusted OR 3.6, 95% CI 1.2-10.2).
Not wearing a helmet while cycling is associated with an increased risk of sustaining a fatal head injury. Policy changes and educational programs that increase the use of helmets while cycling may prevent deaths.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23071369 View in PubMed
Less detail