Centre for Behavioural Research and Program Evaluation, Lyle S Hallman Institute, Room 1717A, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, N2L 3G1. firstname.lastname@example.org
To conduct an exploratory, comparative study of the utilisation and effectiveness of tobacco cessation quitlines among aboriginal and non-aboriginal Canadian smokers.
Population based quitlines that provide free cessation information, advice and counselling to Canadian smokers.
First time quitline callers, age 18 years of age and over, who called the quitline between August 2001 and December 2005 and who completed the evaluation and provided data on their ethnic status (n = 7082).
Demographic characteristics and tobacco behaviours of participants at intake and follow-up; reasons for calling; actions taken toward quitting, and 6-month follow-up quit rates.
7% of evaluation participants in the time period reported aboriginal origins. Aboriginal participants were younger than non-aboriginals but had similar smoking status and level of addiction at intake. Concern about future health and current health problems were the most common reasons aboriginal participants called. Six months after intake aboriginals and non-aboriginals had taken similar actions with 57% making a 24-hour quit attempt. Quit rates were higher for aboriginals than non-aboriginals, particularly for men. The 6-month prolonged abstinence rate for aboriginal men was 16.7% compared with 7.2% for aboriginal women and 9.4% and 8.3% for non-aboriginal men and women, respectively.
This exploratory analysis showed that even without targeted promotion, aboriginal smokers do call Canadian quitlines, primarily for health related reasons. We also showed that the quitlines are effective at helping them to quit. As a population focused intervention, quitlines can reach a large proportion of smokers in a cost efficient manner. In aboriginal communities where smoking rates exceed 50% and multiple health risks and chronic diseases already exist, eliminating non-ceremonial tobacco use must be a priority. Our results, although exploratory, suggest quitlines can be an effective addition to aboriginal tobacco cessation strategies.
Cites: N Engl J Med. 2002 Oct 3;347(14):1087-9312362011
Given the increase in the number of abortions being performed in hospitals throughout the United States and Canada, there is an obvious need for counseling programs for these patients. The authors describe one such program, and emphasize the importance of close working relationships between the counselors and their supervising staff.
INTRODUCTION: Poisoning is a common cause of emergency visits and hospital admission in Western countries. The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence and type of toxic exposures presenting to emergency medical facilities in Iceland. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was prospective and included all patients with confirmed or suspected poisoning presenting to hospitals and rural medical centers providing emergency services in Iceland during the twelve-month period from April 2001 until March 2002. RESULTS: A total of 1,121 toxic exposures were documented representing an incidence of 3.91 cases per 1,000 inhabitants per year. The female to male ratio was 1.23. The majority of exposures (56.7%) occurred in the patient's home, 60% were deliberate, 72% had drugs and/or alcohol as their main cause, and 11% involved illicit drugs. Exposures to chemicals other than drugs were usually unintentional. CONCLUSION: Toxic exposures requiring emergency medical care are common in Iceland. Self-poisonings by ingestion of prescription drugs and/or alcohol accounted for the majority of cases.
Data were collected by telephone interviews with 178 mothers of full-term patients in a NICU (neonatal intensive care unit) concerning advice on facilitation of the initiation of breastfeeding. The main advice to the first author as a nurse in the NICU concerned the environment, advice on breastfeeding, distance between units, work organization and nurse behaviour. The advice to other mothers of patients centred on persistence, physical contact with the infant, and not to let nurses take over maternal role functions. The data were structured into themes and categories, classified by one author and two research assistants according to Roy's adaptation theory, and analysed for degree of interrater agreement. The overall agreement of classification was high, reaching 92.5%. It was easily applied by nurses after a brief introduction and proved useful for structuring interview data. It also contributed to clarification of nurse behaviour and division of roles between nurses and mothers. As the four adaptation modes showed considerable overlap, this kind of classification seems inadvisable for application to the assessment of patient/parent situations in the nursing process. For use in a clinical setting, the theory needs the addition of the interactive aspect of nurse and patient/family role functions, and may then be used as a framework for the development of assessment tools.
The objective of this study was to examine access, engagement, and quitting behaviors of American Indian/Alaska Native (AIAN) callers to the California Smokers' Helpline. Telephone counseling is the primary function of the quitline. The overarching theoretical framework for California's quitline is social cognitive theory, although it also utilizes motivational interviewing and cognitive-behavioral strategies.
AIAN (n = 16 089) and White (n = 173 425) California quitline callers from 2009 to 2018 were compared on their characteristics, engagement, and quitting behaviors. Quitline callers responded to a telephone survey at intake. A random selection was called for evaluation 7 months later (White n = 8194, AIAN n = 764). Data from the 2009 to 2017 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) were used as a reference point for AIANs (AIAN n = 1373).
The quitline and CHIS had similar proportions of AIANs (4.6% vs. 4.3%, respectively). AIAN smokers were more likely than White smokers to report physical (53.6% vs. 44.9%) and mental (65.7% vs. 57.8%) health conditions at intake. AIANs were more likely to participate in counseling than White callers (67.1% vs. 65.7%). Among those who received counseling, AIANs had greater odds than White smokers of making a quit attempt (adjusted odds ratio = 1.39 [1.06, 1.81]) and similar odds of quitting for 180 days (adjusted odds ratio = 0.95 [0.69, 1.31]).
Rates of access, engagement, and quitting suggest that individualized quitline counseling was as effective with AIANs as it was with White smokers. Increasing efforts to refer AIANs to existing state quitlines can help more smokers quit.
This study showed that AIAN smokers were well represented among California quitline callers, even without a targeted campaign. It also found that AIAN smokers engaged in quitline services and were as able to quit as their White counterparts were, even after adjusting for other baseline characteristics. One implication is that public health programs can promote quitlines using broad-based campaigns knowing that they will still motivate AIAN smokers to seek help. Another implication is that a standard, individualized counseling protocol delivered by culturally competent quitline staff can effectively help AIAN smokers to quit.
The following study is an evaluation of the Moderate Intensity Family Violence Prevention Program (MIFVPP). The sample consisted of 298 male federal offenders who participated in the MIFVPP while incarcerated or on release within the community. Participants were assessed pre-, mid-, and postprogram using an assessment battery consisting of self-report questionnaires and facilitator-rated evaluation scales. Results of the study found uniform and significant (p
Background: Reproductive life plan counseling (RLPC) is a tool to encourage women and men to reflect upon their reproduction, to avoid unintended pregnancies and negative health behavior that can threaten reproduction. The aim was to evaluate the effect of RLPC among women attending contraceptive counseling. Outcomes were knowledge about fertility and awareness of preconception health, use of contraception, and women's experience of RLPC. Material and methods: Swedish-speaking women, aged 20-40 years, were randomized to intervention group (IG) or control group (CG). Participants (n?=?1,946) answered a questionnaire before and two months after (n?=?1,198, 62%) the consultation. All women received standard contraceptive counseling, and the IG also received the RLPC, i.e. questions on reproductive intentions, information about fertility, and preconception health. Results: Women in the IG increased their knowledge about fertility: age and fertility, chances of getting pregnant, fecundity of an ovum, and chances of having a child with help of IVF. They also increased their awareness of factors affecting preconception health, such as to stop using tobacco, to refrain from alcohol, to be of normal weight, and to start with folic acid before a pregnancy. The most commonly used contraceptive method was combined oral contraceptives, followed by long-acting reversible contraception. Three out of four women (76%) in the IG stated that the RLPC should be part of the routine in contraceptive counseling. Conclusions: Knowledge about fertility and awareness of preconception health increased after the intervention. The RLPC can be recommended as a tool in contraceptive counseling.
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to deficiency of the enzyme 21-hydroxylase (21-OH) is distinguished in classical (C-CAH) and non-classical form (NC-CAH), and it is also one of the most common autosomal recessive inherited disorders in humans. The prevalence of C-CAH is between 1:10,000 and 1:15,000 among the live neonates of North America and Europe while the NC-CAH occurs in approximately 0.2% of the general white population. The highest incidence of CAH (1:282 and 1:2141, respectively) has been evaluated in Yupik Eskimos in Alaska and in the populations of the island La Reunion (France), while the lower was detected in New Zealand newborns (0.3%). Nowadays, it has been established that except for the adrenal cortex in CAH cases, the adrenal medulla was also affected. In human 21-OH deficient adrenal gland it has been discovered that not only the chromaffin cells formed extensive neurites, expanding between adrenocortical cells, but also that the adrenal androgens promote outgrowth, whereas glucocorticoids preserve neuroendocrine cells. It seems that normal cortisol secretion by the adrenal cortex is necessary for adrenomedullary organogenesis. The synthesis of 21-OH is controlled by the active CYP21A2 gene located at a distance of 30 kb from a highly homologous pseudogene designated CYP21A1P.
Primary health care contacts are a suitable arena to reduce patients' risky drinking. We studied whether the clinical guidelines are followed and thus considered feasible by nurses and physicians. A naturalistic material in Helsinki primary health care was collected in 2006-2008. Most professionals participated giving information on 18000 primary health care patients, of whom 56% had fulfilled the AUDIT-test. Most risky drinkers (AUDIT > or = 8) were given advice, 80% even booklets or other material, as recommended in the guidelines. Thus, brief intervention recommendations, including the use of the AUDIT, seem to be feasible in primary care settings.