Acceptance of guideline recommendations and perceived implementation of coronary heart disease prevention among primary care physicians in five European countries: the Reassessing European Attitudes about Cardiovascular Treatment (REACT) survey.
BACKGROUND: Although primary care is the major target of coronary heart disease (CHD) clinical recommendations, little is known of how community physicians view guidelines and their implementation. The REACT survey was designed to assess the views, and perceived implementation, of CHD and lipid treatment guidelines among primary care physicians. METHODS: Semi-structured validated telephone interviews were conducted, in the relevant native tongue, with 754 randomly selected primary care physicians (GPs and family doctors) in five European countries (France, Germany, Italy, Sweden and the UK). RESULTS: Most physicians (89%) agreed with the content of current guidelines and reported use of them (81%). However, only 18% of physicians believed that guidelines were being implemented to a major extent. Key barriers to greater implementation of guidelines were seen as lack of time (38% of all physicians), prescription costs (30%), and patient compliance (17%). Suggestions for ways to improve implementation centred on more education, both for physicians themselves (29%) and patients (25%); promoting, publicizing or increasing guideline availability (23%); simplifying the guidelines (17%); and making them clearer (12%). Physicians perceived diabetes to be the most important risk factor for CHD, followed by hypertension and raised LDL-C. Most physicians (92%) believe their patients do associate high cholesterol levels with CHD. After establishing that a patient is 'at risk' of CHD, physicians reported spending an average of 16.5 minutes discussing risk factors and lifestyle changes or treatment that is required. Factors preventing this included insufficient time (42%), having too many other patients to see (27%) and feeling that patients did not listen or understand anyway (21%). CONCLUSIONS: Primary care physicians need more information and support on the implementation of CHD and cholesterol guideline recommendations. This need is recognized by clinicians.
The Special Turku Coronary Risk Factor Intervention Project (STRIP) is a prospective infancy-onset randomized dietary intervention trial targeting dietary fat quality and cholesterol intake, and favoring consumption of vegetables, fruit, and whole-grains. Diet (food records) and circulating metabolites were studied at six time points between the ages of 9-19 years (n = 549-338). Dietary targets for this study were defined as (1) the ratio of saturated fat (SAFA) to monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (MUFA + PUFA)
Achievements of Siberian cardiologists in the epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment and prophylaxis of arterial hypertension and coronary heart disease are described with reference to specific conditions of Siberia and the Far East. Research priorities, such as problems of combined prophylaxis and the development of new methods for preventive check-ups of the population in Siberia are discussed.
This paper presents partial findings of a larger research project focusing on what it means to live with a chronic illness. Getting in harmony with oneself is a movement towards, and a form of, acceptance of the chronic suffering and disease. Some patients achieve this level of acceptance, while for others the obstacles of everyday life make this movement towards acceptance difficult. Achieving harmony with oneself is conditioned by the existence of hope and spirit of life/life courage and by the pressure of doubts on this hope. Doubts can shake this hope so that instead of moving towards acceptance, the patient drifts towards hopelessness and despair. The research design is qualitative and uses a phenomenological-hermeneutic approach. A total of 18 patients were interviewed, divided into three groups of six patients diagnosed with 'type I' diabetes, colitis ulcerosa and patients with coronary occlusion in the rehabilitation phase. The goal of the research was to derive patterns/themes common to the three diagnosed groups regarding the patients' view of health and disease in connection with chronic illness and to elucidate the significance of this view for how the patients coped with everyday life. The research method is inspired by Paul Ricoeur.
The acyl pattern of adipose tissue triglycerides and of plasma free fatty acids were determined after 7 yr of diet intervention on elevated plasma cholesterol in 42 men taking part in the smoking-lipid trial of the Oslo Study. Twenty-two of the men were advised to change dietary habits (mainly reduce saturated fat) whereas the remaining 20 were controls. The adipose tissue from men in the intervention group contained relatively more linoleic and linolenic acids and relatively less saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids compared to men in the control group. There were strong correlations between the relative content of several fatty acids in adipose tissue triglycerides and plasma free fatty acid. Furthermore, there was a close correlation between the intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids found in a dietary survey done 2 to 3 yr before this study and the relative content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in adipose tissue.
Several studies have shown that treatment of coronary heart disease (CHD) does not meet the goals set in recommendations. The aim of this study was to investigate the adequacy of CHD drug treatment and secondary prevention measures, particularly with respect to age and gender biases, in a Finnish university hospital setting.
The participant pool consisted of patients in FINCAVAS (Finnish Cardiovascular Study), which is a cohort study recruiting consecutive patients performing a clinical exercise test at Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland. 802 patients (581 men, 221 women) with a prior diagnosis of CHD recruited between October 2001 and December 2004 were included in the analysis.
Only roughly 12% of both men and women had an optimal risk factor profile. High blood pressure and hypercholesterolaemia were more common in women than in men, whereas smoking was more frequent among men. Men used ACE inhibitors (32.9% vs 20.4%, respectively), beta-adrenoceptor antagonists (80.8% vs 68.3%, respectively) and aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) [69.7% vs 58.8%, respectively] more frequently than women, but the frequency of use of these medications was also not at the recommended levels in men. Risk factor control is poorer in older than younger age groups.
CHD patients, particularly women, who performed an exercise stress test in a university hospital are suboptimally treated.
Calcium antagonists are widely used in the treatment of hypertension. However, few endpoint studies with calcium antagonists have been done to prove reduction in hypertensive complications. Results of the STONE, SYST-EUR and SYST-CHINA studies show that long-acting calcium antagonists are effective compared to placebo, especially in patients with isolated systolic hypertension and diabetes. Ongoing prospective and randomized trials like STOP II, INSIGHT, NORDIL, ALLHAT and ASCOT will clarify whether calcium antagonists are more effective than well-proven diuretics and betablockers. ASCOT will test the hypothesis that amlodipine is more efficacious than atenolol in preventing cardiac complications in 18,000 hypertensive patients with high coronary risk including diabetes (among them, 2,000 in Norway). The study is also randomizing the patients in a factorial design to either atorvastatin or placebo, testing the so-called lipid hypothesis.
To describe clinical characteristics and antihyperglycemic treatment patterns in patients with varying duration of diabetes.
We performed a cross-sectional survey of 61890 type 2 diabetic (DM2) patients from the Swedish National Diabetes Register (NDR) in 2004. We also analysed the effect of types of treatment and risk factors on glycaemic control in a longitudinal cohort study from 1996 to 2004. HbA(1c), risk factors and treatments were determined locally in primary care as well as hospital outpatient clinics.
Insulin was frequently used in DM2 patients with long duration of diabetes, although the mean HbA(1c) increased and only a few in this group reached HbA(1c) 1%) from 1996 to 2004 were more often treated with insulin than with oral hypoglycaemic agents (OHA). During this period, the HbA(1c) levels leading to additional treatment decreased. A low BMI, decreasing BMI and not smoking were predictors of good long-term metabolic control. Hypertension and hyperlipidaemia were frequent in both newly diagnosed DM2 patients and in patients with a long duration of diabetes.
Insulin treatment was frequently used, particularly in patients with a long duration of DM2. The glycaemic control, which usually deteriorates over time, did not reach the recommended goal, despite the fact that complementary treatment was added at lower HbA(1c) levels in 2003 than in 1996. High frequencies of hypertension, hyperlipidaemia and high 10-year risks of coronary heart disease necessitate intensified risk factor control in the future.